(Newspapers of New York)

Canandaigua, Ontario County

Ontario Repository

Repository Editor, James D. Bemis

Apr 15, 1823  |  May 20, 1823  |  Jul 01, 1823
Sep 08, 1824  |  Feb 09, 1825  |  Apr 20, 1825
Jun 15, 1825  |  Jun 22, 1825  |  Jul 20, 1825
Sep 28, 1825  |  Oct 05, 1825  |  Oct 19, 1825
Oct 11, 1826  |  Nov 15, 1826  |  Nov 29, 1826
Dec 20, 1826  |  Jan 03, 1827  |  Jul 11, 1827

Old Newspaper Articles Index  |  Wayne Sentinel



No. 2 Vol. XXI.]                          TUESDAY, APRIL 15, 1823.                           [Whole No. 1042.

                            {From the Detroit Gazette}
A Singular Discovery -- Last week a manuscript volume, of between 3 and 4 hundred pages, was discovered by Col. Edwards of this town, under one of his buildings. The book is in a tolerable state of preservation, and is one of the finest specimens of penmanship that we have ever seen. It has travelled the round of the literary circle of this place for the last four or five days, and still remains a mystery! The characters in which it was written are unknown; they are neither Hebrew, Greek, nor Saxon, and the only parts of it hitherto intelligible, are a few Latin quotations.

Note: The above Ontario Repository article regarding a strange old manuscript discovered in Detroit was derived from an original new report published in the Detroit Gazette, on Mar. 7, 1823. The Ontario Repository was easily available to the Joseph Smith, Sr. family of Manchester, Ontario, New York and it is likely that members of the family heard about this unusual manuscript discovery. It is also entirely possible that Stephen Mack, the brother of Lucy Mack Smith, informed Joseph Sr. and his family of this discovery by private letter. Stephen Mack was then living in the Detrioit area and was no doubt acquainted with Abraham Edwards, the finder of the old document.



No. 7 Vol. XXI.]                          TUESDAY, MAY 20, 1823.                           [Whole No. 1047.

Curious Manuscript. -- The public has been much amused of late, with an account of the discovery of a curious manuscript at Detroit, which not a little puzzled the learned. It was determined that it was not Chinese, Arabic, Syriac, French, Spanish, or English, &c., but what it was no one could tell. Four pages of the book being sent to major general Macomb, at Washington, he submitted it to the examination of the professors at Georgetown college, where it has been discovered to be Irish, and, with a few exceptions, "truly classical." Some "strange abbreviations" make it difficult to unravel it, but a part has been translated, and it is evidently a treatise on some of the doctrines of the Catholic church. -- Niles.

Note: The above Ontario Repository article was reprinted from a late April 1823 issue of the Baltimore-based Niles National Register. The Niles report paraphrases an article published in the Detroit Gazette, on Mar. 14, 1823. The same Niles "Curious Manuscript" article was also reprinted by the Pittsburgh Mercury on May 20, 1823. This was during the period that Rev. Sidney Rigdon lived in that city and served in the office of Pastor for the First Baptist Church there.



No. ? Vol. XXI.]                          Tuesday, July 1, 1823.                           [Whole No. ?

Masonic. -- At the June communication of the Grand Lodge of the State of New York, held in the city of New York, on Wednesday June [18?], 1823, the following named gentlemen were duly elected and installed grand officers of the said Grand Lodge: --

Joseph Enos, Esq. of Eaton, Madison county, Grand Master.
John Brush, Esq. of Poughkeepsie, Dutchess county, Deputy Grand Master.
Nathaniel Allen, Esq. of Richmond, Ontario county, Senior Grand Warden.
Thomas Barker, Esq. of New York, Junior Grand Warden.
Charles G. Haines, Esq. of New York, Grand Secretary.
Welcome Esleek, Esq. of Albany, Grand Treasurer.

Masonic. -- The R. W. Grand Lodge of the State of New York, held their annual communication on Wednesday evening last, when the following persons were unanimously elected Grand Officers for the ensuing year:

John Wells, Esq. M. W. G. M.
Martin Hoffman, Esq. D. G. M.
Richard Hatfield, Esq. Sen. G. W.
M[atson]. Smith, Esq. Jr. G. W.
Rev. H. J. Feltus, G. C.
Rev. Mr. Johnson, of Newtown, A. G. C.
Elias Hicks, Esq. G. Secretary
Cornelius Bogart, Esq. G. Treasurer

The installation took place this morning at St. John's Hall. -- N. Y. Statesman.

(We are not in the mysteries of Masonry, but observing in the papers two lists of officers, stated to have been elected at the late meeting in New York, we enquired of some of the brethren for an explanation, with a view of publishing it correctly. We understand that on the regular ballotting the wishes of the country members prevailed in the election of the first list; and that the minority held a meeting in the evening, and formed and published the second.) -- Ont. Repository.

Note 1: According to John I. Brooke's The Refiner's Fire, this little-known episode of Masonic history -- the New York Masonic Schism of 1823 -- developed in parallel with DeWitt Clinton's extension of the Erie Canal westward during the early 1820s. New York's western Masonic wing was then on the rise; new "blue lodges" were all the time being chartered, expanding their membership, and looking forward to great things in the west when the Erie Canal was completed. At the same time, the established Masonic leaders in New York City and its satellite lodges were reluctant to delegate very much of their fraternal power to the upstart western Masons. Brooke says: "The western lodges complained that they had no voice in the Grand Lodge affairs conducted in New York City, and they met in Canandiagua in 1821 to plan a restructuring of the governance of the Grand Lodge... [in 1823 Joseph Enos's] election as Grand Master precipitated the secession of the City lodges. Members of Enos's Canandiagua lodge, led by Nicholas G. Cheesborough, who was himself elected in the "Country" Grand Lodge in 1825, were directly implicated in the assassination of William Morgan... in 1826."

Note 2: Commenting on the stepping-down of New York Grand Master Daniel Tompkins, in June of 1822, Masonic historian Ossian Lang, in his 1922 book, History of Freemasonry in the State of New York, says: "For some unaccountable reason the brethren elected Past Grand Visitor Joseph Enos to succeed him." (p. 99). The "unaccountable reason" probably had something to do with the fact that Enos was not from the New York City area and that more and more westerners were then voting at the annual Grand Lodge meetings. The western delegates were even stronger a year later. Lang says: "On the day before the annual session of 1823 their delegates met in caucus and decided not to support any man for a Grand Lodge office who was connected with a city Lodge." By that, Lang means to say that the westerners decided to vote in their own slate of officers, despite the inevitable split that action would cause between them and the delegates from (and allied with) the New York City lodges.

Note 3: For a while the upstate "Country Lodge" had some hopes of moving the New York Grand Lodge to Albany, but, in the disastrous aftermath of the William Morgan Affair, these plans never materialized. The anti-Masonic fervor in the western part of the state practically put the "Country Lodge" out of business by the spring of 1827. Joseph Enos began to lose the country members' support during 1824. He was re-elected that year with a thin majority (see the June 16, 1824 issue of the Wayne Sentinel), accused of improprieties, and deposed the following summer. In June of 1825 the "Country Lodge" came under the leadership of Grand Master Stephen Van Rensselaer, a respected and powerful man who was open to reconciliation with the "City Lodge." Rensselaer was re-elected in 1826, just before the William Morgan affair hit the newspapers. The leaders of the somewhat less legitimate (but more firmly established) "City Lodge" gradually gained influence, at the expense of the western masons, who were distracted and decimated by the sudden upsurge of anti-Masonry in their part of the state. On June 7, 1827 a pact was made between the two factions to reunite what remained of New York's craft lodges under Stephen Van Rensselaer.



No. ? Vol. ?]                          Wednesday, September 8, 1824.                           [Whole No. ?

The Famous M. M. NOAH, having been expelled the editorship of the "National Advocate," has issued a pamphlet giving a history of his grievances, and exposing the hypoctirical and treacherous conduct of those with whom he has heretofore acted, and who have been his party friends and advisers.

The political history of Noah, for the last seven years, exhibits a disgusting instance of the prostitution of talents to mean and unworthy purposes. Ever since 1817, he has devoted time and talent to the propagation of calumnies against a man whom we doubt not he believed in his conscience, and has been heard to pronounce, an able and enlightened statesman, who administered the government of this state in a manner calculated to promote her honor, dignity and welfare. This Mr. N. has done to gratify the ambitious views of those by whom he was hired for the purpose, and who have now, it seems, cast him off, for fear, as they say, he should go over with his Advocate, to some other party -- or in other words, sell himself to somebody else.

Had Mr. Noah employed his extraordinary talents as a political writer, in an honorable, independent and conscientious course, he would have avoided the embarrassments which now surround him, and he would have enjoyed the respect, confidence and esteem of his fellow citizens, instead of being suspected, despised and displaced. Let his fate impress upon us the maxim that "honesty is the best policy," whether in morals or politics -- and especially let it admonish all editors, old or young, that the moment they surrender their consciences and independence to the keeping and dictation of any man or set of men, and consent to write and publish what they do not themselves believe, they are assuredly treasuring up for themselves sorrows and disgrace.

Mr. Noah announces in his pamphlet, that he shall take the editorship of a new paper, to be called "The National Advocate." The old "Advocate," it seems, is to be under the direction of Judge Van Ness.

Note 1: The man Major Noah had opposed "ever since 1817," was, of course, Gov. DeWitt Clinton. The Advocate was published by the New York Democratic "Bucktail" or "Tammany" faction that supported Martin Van Buren and generally stood in opposition to Clinton, while a rival paper, the Columbian, served as the Clintonian mouthpiece. Political squabbles within the Tammany group led to Judge Van Ness taking over the editorial office at the Advocate and Noah resigning, in August of 1824. Noah began his own paper, the New York National Advocate, which soon after was re-named The New York Enquirer. Canadaigua editor James D. Bemis was a Clinton man and had little regard for Major Noah at this point in history; as time passed Noah became less antagonistic to the Clintonians and Bemis' Ontario Repository took a better view of him.

Note 2: Although all of the connections are still far from clear, it appears likely that Major Noah's redirection of his political allegiances and efforts during 1824 affected significantly his 1825 bid to establish a Jewish "city of refuge" on Grand Island. Probably a careful look into his political, social and fraternal associations during this period would provide much useful information relative to motivation, planning, and financing that went into the failed "gathering of Israel" on American soil.



No. 45 Vol. XXII.]                          Wednesday, February 9, 1825.                           [Whole No. ?

                          Windsor, Vt. Jan. 17.
Money Digging. -- We are sorry to observe, even in this enlightened age, so prevalent a disposition to credit the accounts of the marvellous. Even the frightful stories of money being hid under the surface of the earth, and enchanted by the Devil or Robert Kidd, are received by many of our respectable fellow citizens as truths. We had hoped that such a shameful undertaking would never have been acted over again in our country, till the following event occurred, not long ago in out vicinity.

A respectable gentleman in Tunbridge, was informed, by means of a dream, that a chest of money was buried on a small island in Ayer's brook, in Randolph. No sooner was he in possession of this valuable information, than he started off to enrich himself with the treasure. After having been directed by the mineral rod, where to search for the money, he excavated the earth about 15 feet square to the depth of 7 or 8; and all the while it was necessary to keep six pumps running to keep out the water. Presently he and his laborers came Pat upon a chest of gold,
  And heard it chink with pleasure,
Then all prepared, just taking hold,
  To raise the shining treasure.
One of the company drove an old file through the rotten lid of the chest, and perceiving it to be nearly empty, exclaimed with an oath, "There's not ten dollars apiece." No sooner were the words out of his mouth, than the chest moved off through the mud, and has not been seen or heard of since.

Such is the story as related by himself. Whether he actually saw the chest, or whether it was the vision of a disturbed brain, we shall leave the public to determine.

Note: This article was first published in the Jan. 17, 1825 issue of the Windsor Journal. After appearing in the Ontario Repository, the same article was also reprinted in the Palmyra Wayne Sentinel on Feb. 16th. The township of Randolph, in Orange Co., Vermont, is adjacent to the Royalton/Sharon area where the parents of Joseph Smith, Jr. lived before moving to Palmyra, New York. In 1802 Joseph Smith, Sr. and his wife operated a retail business in Randolph, during which time they lost a considerable amount of money in ginsing root speculation. When the Smiths of Palmyra read of the "respectable gentleman" in Randolph, Vermont's sudden enrichment, they must have recalled with dejection their own, equally sudden impoverishment in that same place two decades before.



No. ? Vol. ?]                          WEDNESDAY, APRIL 20, 1825.                           [Whole No. ?


[From the U. States Literary Gazette.]


Mountains of Israel! rear on high
Your summits crowned with verdure new,
And spread your branches to the sky,
Refulgent with celestial dew,
O'er Jordan's stream of gentle flow;
And Judah's peaceful vallies smile,
And far reflect the lovely glow
Where ocean's waves incessant toil.

See where the scattered tribes return;
There slavery is burst at length,
And purer flames to Jesus burn,
And Zion girds on her new strength;
New cities bloom
along the plain,
New temples to Jehovah rise,
The kindling voice of praise again
Pours its sweet anthems to the skies.

The fruitful fields again are blest,
And yellow harvests smile around:
Sweet scenes of heavenly joy and rest,
Where peace and innocence are found!
The bloody sacrifice no more
Shall smoke upon the alters high, --
But ardent hearts, from hill to shore
Send grateful incense to the sky!

The jubilee of man is near,
Where earth, as heaven, shall own His reign;
He comes, to wipe the mourner's tear,
And cleanse the heart from sin and pain.
Praise him, ye tribes of Israel! praise
The King that ransomed you from wo;
Nations! the hymn of triumph raise,
And bid the song of rapture flow!

Note: This poem typifies the Christian Zionism then current among many American Evangelicals. See Elias Boudinot's 1815 book The Second Advent and Ethan Smith's 1823 book View of the Hebrews. The poem was written after the American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews failed to establish its intended refuge for Christianized Jews in western New York in 1823, but before that society's even more dismal attempts to plant such a colony in the eastern part of the state, beginning in 1827.



No. ? Vol. ?]                          WEDNESDAY, JUNE 15, 1825.                           [Whole No. ?

Maj. Noah, editor of the New York National Advocate, has lately made a trip to the Niagara Falls. We cut the following from the paper of the 17th inst.

A Peep at the West. -- I have been to the West, courteous reader -- been on a visit to that very Lion of the West, whose growlings have so altered us good Bucktails, on the eve of an election; but the royal animal is quite placid, reasonable, and domicilated, and improves vastly upon acquaintance; in short, to get out of the menagerie, that slip of country west of Utica, called the Lake Country, is unquestionably, the richest section in America, if not the most flourishing and enterprising in the world; and no citizen of New York can form a proper estimate of its value and importance, without seeing it in person, knowing its former condition, ascertaining its present consequence, and calculating its future growth; the people too, are hardy, enterprising, and republican -- disposed to think right and act right, on matters and things generally.

Notes: (forthcoming)



No. ? Vol. ?]                          WEDNESDAY, JUNE 22, 1825.                           [Whole No. ?

Grand Island. -- The names of the following gentlemen are given as the purchasers of this, and the smaller islands, in the Niagara river, which were sold at auction at Albany, on the 3d inst. viz. -- M. M. Noah, New York, Cornelius Masren, Penn-Yan, Yates county, Herman H. Bogert, Geneva, John G. Camp, Buffalo, Peter Smith, Schenectady, John Knowles, Sullivan, Madison county, Alvin Stewart, Levi Beardsley, James O. Morse, Cherry Valley, S. R. Warren, Troy, C. R. Webster, Dudley & Gregory, and James Carmichael, Albany.

It is said Mr. Noah's object is to accommodate his brethren, the Jews, many of whom are wishing to emigrate to this country, and to locate in a body, in sufficient numbers to form a colony or city, by themselves. Grand Island has been selected for this purpose, and it is stated in the Albany Gazette, that the corner stone of a city will be laid on this island, with suitable masonic and religious ceremonies, in the course of the present summer, probably about the time when the canal is completed and in operation.

"A Peep at the West" -- the facetious editor of the New-York Advocate, M. M. Noah, has furnished his readers with several numbers under the above head, as the result of his observations on a late tour to the Niagara Falls, and back. Apart from the highly interesting information which these narratives afford, as evidence of the rapid growth and flourishing condition of the western part of our state, they abound with stories and pleasing anecdotes, which are related in that humorous style, for which the writer is so peculiar. The following extracts are made: --

GRAND ISLAND, in the Niagara river, is a beautiful body of thickly timbered land, about 12 miles in length, and from 3 to 6 in width. From the New-York and Canada shores, it presents a fine appearance. -- White oak, hickory, ash, maple, and other valuable trees, are in clusters throughout the Island. At the north end, and almost in view of the Falls of Niagara, is a small bay, called Burnt-Ship Bay, which takes its name from the hulks of several vessels sunk on that spot during the old French War; and tradition says, they were sunk with all their military chests and munitions of war, the enemy coming so sudden upon them, as to leave no time to escape. The island was formerly the property of the Seneca Indians, which, with Strawberry, Snake, Squaw and Bird Islands, were sold to the state for $1,000, and an annuity of $500. At one period it contained several hundred squatters, who settled on it from Canada and New-York, erected shanties, declared themselves independent, and formed a government of their own -- levied taxes, and passed laws. O'Higgins was the first Governor; and he was succeeded by the celebrated Gen. Clarke. Their rifles, cows, and fishing apparatus were exempted from seizure for debt. Squire Wilkinson, of Buffalo, committed O'Higgins to jail, for not carrying his laws into effect. The state, alarmed at the formidable increase of this body, and perceiving an utter disregard for the constitutional power, as well as a disposition to destroy the valuable timber of the island, authorized Gov. Clinton to order a sufficient military force, and drive them off. This duty was performed in 1820, and their cottages were burnt, since which time but few have returned to the island.

Looking forward to the few years' when Erie, Ontario, and the Niagara river will be whitened with the canvass of vessels, no spot can be more eligible for a city, and commercial depot, than Grand Island: It faces the mouth of the Grand Canal, and a bridge, it a small expense, can connect the island with the main shore -- the Niagara river, pure as chrystal, flows in a gentle current round the island, and abounds with the most delicate fish.

Lockport is a post village, built on the mountain ridge, the seat of justice of Niagara county; the village seems to have sprung up from a ledge of rocks, been blasted into existence, as it were, for there is any quantity of blue building stone. Lockport may be cited as one of the singular instances of the origin and growth of the numerous villages with which our state abounds. In 1821, there were two houses in the village, in 1823, Lockport had 1200 inhabitants, 250 to 300 buildings, 12 stores, 24 mechanics; shops, a newspaper, 8 taverns, 5 lawyers, 8 doctors, 4 schools, 2 churches, &c. and has now about 1500 inhabitants. This fact is worthy of attention, because, when we project new settlements, and alarm ourselves at the slow increase of population, we have only to turn to such villages, and cheer ourselves with the certain prospect of rapid success. The beauty of the whole line of the canal is at Lockport, and consists of the 5 double combined locks, each of 12 feet descent, which let us down 60 feet to the Genesee level. These locks are of the most substantial character, and have a delicacy and neatness of finish, highly creditable to the honest mechanic, who probably has never been out of that region of the country; and it is only doing him justice to say, whoever he may be, that the world cannot produce superior locks.

The sound of the bugle warned us that the canal boat for Rochester was about to depart, and we soon found ourselves in a small but pleasant party, on board the Myron Holley. All the commissioners have handsome passage boats bearing their name, a slight tribute of respect for their services, and to none is the state more indebted than to Mr. Holley, who, though unfortunate, contributed essentially by his intelligence and persevering industry, to the successful completion of the great project.

Passing under the bridge near Montezuma, a peasant was seated on the railing, having a fish in his hand. We hailed him -- what's that? A salmon, sir, I just speared him in the lake." He jumped into the boat -- the captain higgled for some time to abate a penny; but finally transferred to the black cook, who served it up for dinner, with parsley and fresh butter. It was delicate and finely flavored. Quantities of salmon, salmon trout, pickerel, white fish, bass, &c. are caught in the numerous lakes and rivers in the Genesee country.

At Brockport, another little village on the borders of the canal, two buxom country lasses got on board the boat, and I soon found myself in conversation with them, without the formality of an introduction. "And so you are going only five miles with us, and what for?" "Oh we are going to work out for a few weeks." Work out -- I then recollected that we had just formed a society in New-York, for ameliorating the condition of the servant girls, and it struck me that an importation, fresh from the country, would be an auspicious commencement. "Were you ever at New-York?" "No -- but I hear it is a shockingly beautiful place, big agin as Rochester." "Would you like to pay a visit to New-York?" "Yes, I should hugely, if mother would let me, and I could get a place." "As for a place, nothing is easier -- what can you do?" "O a heap of things -- I can milk cows. feed pigs, hatchel flax, shell corn, spin, churn butter, bake bread, make cheese, and such things." "I very much doubt whether your qualifications are exactly those of a fashionable chambermaid. Can you make beds, arrange a toilet tastefully, run to the circulating library, get a tart from Mrs. Jones, dress yourself in your mistress' hat and feathers, and walk Broadway in the evening?" "Why yes, I guess I could -- I could learn howsomdever -- then, I can wash and iron, and scrub house -- cook a plain dish, and do a little at any thing." 'Twould have been a pity to have spolit an honest industrious girl, by introducing her to the fashionable indolence of the city, so I gave up the project of making rustic engagements.

The spires of Rochester broke upon our view, as we turned the angel of the canal. No other state can boast of so many neat and simple village churches as New-York -- it is almost the first building in a new settlement, always of wood, painted white, with green Venetian windows and blinds in the belfry -- nothing tawdry or in bad taste; the architecture is chaste, and the whole appearance at once impressive and interesting. Rochester excites general interest, and with good reason; it is a city which has grown so rapidly into existence, that the stumps of trees are still to be seen in streets and gardens. When the late war was declared, there were but two houses in Rochester, and now it may claim rank with any town or village in the state. Village statistics are, at best, but dull reading; but it may be well briefly to state, that Rochester has nearly 4000 inhabitants, and that the export of flour alone, during the last year, was not much less than 150,000 barrels.

The aqueduct, at Rochester, is a work highly honorable to the state. The canal boats glide through it, while the passengers view with admiration the ponderous arches, built below on solid rock, and the Genesee rapids rushing furiously through them. A little more capital, and this already flourishing place, will improve rapidly; and while our New-Yorkers are embarking largely in hazardous speculations, some small investments in Rochester, would in a short time, produce profitable results.

However easy and convenient the passage boats on the canal may be, there is a great sameness and little variety; it becomes, therefore, somewhat tedious. -- The traveller by sea, is continually excited by a variety of events; the reefing and unreefing, the storm, the rolling of the billows, the gallant breeze, the head wind, the sudden squall, the ship in sight, the land in view, all tends to promote a continuity of interest; but on the canal we glide along lazy and unruffled; there is no break to the scene; we pass by cottages, woods, lakes and villages, in endless succession, aroused only from our reverie, by the crack of the driver's whip, or the bugle of the pilot. Conversation, unless with a party of your own, is generally insipid. Ladies seem to prefer their own apartment, and we have seldom the pleasure of their company till the bell rings for dinner; and then a majority of them are accompanied with those charming table companions, squalling and troublesome children, and the dear souls snatch off every thing within reach. The easy motion of the canal boat being preferred for children, these little travellers are therefore most numerous. We arrived at Lyons before noon -- it was Sunday -- the sun shone brightly and warm, and well dressed ladies and gentlemen were walking to their different places of worship, in pious meditation.

Here we made some short stay -- groups of persons collected about the boat to gaze upon the passengers, and to learn their names, condition, destination and business. One tall weazen-faced man, with a pepper and salt coatee, and large drab hat, left his company, and coming up to where I stood on deck, accosted me thus, "Mister, mout you be the man that rit against our kanol in the newspaper at New-York?" To this civil question I answered, with a profound bow, "I am the man, 'homo sum' -- Terrance -- a-hem!" "Well, ar'nt you ashamed of yourself?' "Why as to the matter of that, I have changed my opinion a little, which is only saying that you are wiser to-day than you were yesterday." "Are you as great a bucktail as iver?" "About the same, sir, consistency, you know, is praise worthy." "Well, I ar'nt uncharitable, and when a man says 'I'm sorry,' why, I forgives him. I've wanted to see you hugely on our kanol, and had some thoughts of ducking you in it, only for a little sport sir. Mean no offence in the least sir. I wishes you a good day."

Easy and familiar, and most hospitably inclined forsooth. Duck me in the canal? The time will come, when it shall appear that no one did more to unite opinions in support of the canal approbations, than I did, when satisfied of the ability of this state to complete it. This was the only boor I met with; all seemed anxious to give me information respecting the cost and advantages of the canal.

Notes: (forthcoming)



No. ? Vol. ?]                          WEDNESDAY, JULY 20, 1825.                           [Whole No. ?

Extract from Mr. Noah's "Peep at the West."

"A rough road of twenty miles, through a well cultivated country, brought us to Canandaigua, (an Indian name, doubtless with some meaning.) This called the handsomest village in the west, and is situated near a small but beautiful lake of the same name. -- This village has some of the most opulent inhabitants of the state, and some men of talent and influence. -- Old Ontario county, of which Canandaigua is the capital, contained 217, 227 inhabitants,* and once covered ten counties; was the right paw of the lion of the west, and gave such swinging Clintonian majorities, that when we bucktails held the shears, we cut it up into several counties, leaving the old lion with about 60, 000 inhabitants. There are some elegant houses in this place, much taste, cultivation and style for a village; but the most important and valuable building in the town is a spacious hotel, said to belong to one of our Pearl-street booksellers, and remarkable for an excellent table -- trout, pigeons, game of all sorts, good wine, &c. Having little time for observation, we left Canandaigua at noon, and after a pleasant ride, reached Rochester early in the evening. 

This terminated a short but interesting tour to the west, in which I had a full and satisfactory opportunity of ascertaining the actual importance and value of the lake country; and if we are authorized to form conjectures of the future by considerations of the past, we cannot be in error while attaching a great and rapid increase of wealth and population to that section of country. 

The canal has thrown this state a century ahead. Efforts are successfully making to complete lateral canals from almost every lake and river of the state to the grand canal. These feeders will throw a vast quantity of produce into the grand reservoir, which will find its way to the New York market. Active as commerce will be in the neighborhood of this city -- in the basin of Albany -- at Utica, and at Rochester, the great spring and living source will be the lakes and their tributary streams."

{*Mr. Noah undoubtedly has reference to the census of 1820, when the seven counties of Ontario, Steuben, Genesee, Niagara, Chautauqua, Cattaraugus and Allegany, (which were all included in Ontario county in 1790, and at that time contained only 1081 inhabitants,) contained a population of 221, 327.}

Notes: (forthcoming)



No. 26 Vol. XXIII.]                         Wednesday, September 28, 1825.                          [Whole No. 1170.

{From the Buffalo Patriot, Extra, Sept. 15, 1825.}

Revival of Jewish Government -- appointment of a Judge of Israel -- foundation of a city of Refuge. -- It was known at the sale of that beautiful and valuable tract called Grand Island, a few miles below this port, in the Niagara River, that it was purchased in part by the friends of Major Noah, of New-York, avowedly to offer it as an asylum for his brethren of the Jewish persuasion, who in the other parts of the world are much oppressed; and it was likewise known that it was intended to erect upon the Island a City called Ararat. We are gratified to perceive, by the documents in this day's Extra, that coupled with that colonization is a declaration of Independence, and the revival of the Jewish government under the protection of the United States, after the dispersion of that ancient and wealthy people for nearly 2000 years -- and the appointment of Mr. Noah as first Judge. It was intended, pursuant to public notice, to celebrate the event on the Island, and a flag staff was erected for the Grand Standard of Israel, and other arrangements made; but it was discovered that a sufficient number of boats could not be procured in time to convey all those to the Island who were desirous of witnessing the ceremony, and the celebration took place this day in the village, which was both interesting and impressive. At dawn of day, a salute was fired in front of the Court House, and from the terrace facing the Lake. At 10 o'clock, the masonic and military companies assembled in front of the Lodge, and at 11 the line of procession was formed as follows: 

Order of Celebration. -- Music, military, citizens, civil officers, state officers in uniforms, U. S. officers. president and trustees of the corporation, tyler, stewards, entered apprentices, fellow crafts, master masons, senior and junior deacons, secretary and treasurer, senior and junior wardens, masters of lodges, past masters, rev. clergy, stewards with corn, wine and oil.

Principal Architect Globe  ||  with square, level  ||  Globe and plumb,

Bible, square and compass, borne by a master mason, the Judge of Israel in black, wearing the judicial robes of crimson silk, trimmed with ermine and a richly embossed golden medal suspended from the neck; a master mason, royal arch mason, knight templars.

On arriving at the church door, the troops opened to the right and left, and the procession entered the aisles, the band playing the grand march from Judas Maccabeus. The full toned organ commenced its swelling notes, performing the Jubilate. On the communion table lay the Corner Stone, with the following inscription, in Hebrew.

"Hear O Israel, the Lord is our God. -- The Lord is ONE." Ararat, the Hebrew refuge, founded by Mordecai Manuel Noah, in the month of Tisri. 5585, corresponding with September, 1825 and in the 50th year of American Independence.

On the stone lay the silver cups with wine, corn and oil.

The ceremonies commenced by the morning service, read emphatically by the Rev. Mr. Searl of the Episcopal Church. "Before Jehovah's awful Throne," was sung by the choir to the tune of Old hundred. Morning prayer. -- First lesson from Jeremiah, 31st. -- Second lesson, Zeph. iii, 3th verse, Psalms for the occasion, 97, 98, 99, 100, 127th psalm in verse. Ante Communion Service -- Psalm in Hebrew -- Benediction.

Mr. Noah then rose and pronounced a discourse or rather delivered a speech, announcing the reorganization of the Jewish government, and going through a detail of many points of intense interest, to which a crowded auditory listened with profound attention. On the conclusion of the ceremonies, the procession returned to the Lodge, and the masonic brethren and the military repaired to the Eagle Tavern and partook of refreshments. The church was filled with ladies, and the whole ceremony was impressive and unique. A grand salute of 24 guns was fired by the artillery, and the band played a number of patriotic airs.

We learn that a vast concourse assembled at Tunawanda, expecting the ceremonies would be at Grand Isle. Many of them came up in carriages to hear the speech. The following is the proclamation.



WHEREAS it has pleased Almighty God, to manifest to his chosen people, the approach of that period, when in the fulfillment of the promises made to the race of Jacob, and as a reward for their pious constancy and triumphant fidelity, they are to be gathered from the four corners of the Globe, and to resume their rank and character among the governments of the Earth. And whereas, the peace which now prevails among civilized nations; -- the progress of learning throughout the world, and the general spirit of liberality and toleration which exists, together with other changes, favourable to light and to liberty, mark in an especial manner, the approach of that time, when "peace on earth and good will to man," are to prevail with a benign and extended influence, and the ancient people of God, the first to proclaim his unity and omnipotence, are to be restored to their inheritance and enjoy the rights of a sovereign independent people. Therefore I, Mordecai Manuel Noah, Citizen of the United States of America, late Consul of said States for the city and kingdom of Tunis, High Sheriff of New-York, Counsellor at Law, and by the grace of God, Governor and Judge of Israel, have issued this my proclamation, announcing to the Jews throughout the world that an asylum is prepared and hereby offered to them, where they can enjoy that peace, comfort and happiness, which have been denied them, through the intolerance and misgovernment of former ages. An asylum in a free and powerful country, where ample protection is secured to their persons, their property and religious rights; an asylum in a country, remarkable fir its vast resources, the richness of its soil, and the salubrity of its climate; where industry is encouraged, education promoted, and good faith rewarded. "A land of milk and honey," where Israel may repose in peace under his "vine and fig tree," and where our people may so familiarize themselves, with the science of government, and the lights of learning and civilization, as may qualify them for that great and final restoration to their ancient heritage, which the times so powerfully indicate.

The asylum referred to, is in the state of New York, the greatest state in the American confederacy. New York contains 43,214 square miles, divided into fifty-five counties and having six hundred and eighty-seven Post towns and cities, containing one million five hundred thousand inhabitants, together with six million acres of cultivated land, improvements in agriculture and manufactures, in trade and commerce, which include a valuation of Three Hundred Millions of dollars of Taxable property. One hundred and fifty thousand militia, armed and equipped, a constitution founded upon an equality of rights; having no test oaths, and recognizing no religious distinctions, and seven thousand free schools and colleges affording the blessings of education to Four Hundred Thousand children. Such is the great and increasing State to which the emigration of the Jews is directed.

The desired spot in the state of New York to which I hereby invite my beloved people throughout the world, in common with those of every religious denomination, is called Grand Island, and on which I shall lay the foundation of a City of Refuge to be called Ararat.

Grand Island in the Niagara River, is bounded by Ontario on the North, and Erie on the South, and within a few miles of each of those great commercial Lakes. The Island is nearly twelve miles in length and varying from three to seven miles in breadth, and contains upwards of seventeen thousand acres of remarkably rich and fertile land. Lake Erie is about two hundred and seventy miles in length and borders on the States of New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio; and westwardly by the possessions of our friends and neighbors, the British subjects of Upper Canada. This splendid Lake unites itself by means of navigatable rivers with Lakes St. Clair, Huron, Michigan and Superior, embracing a lake shore of nearly three thousand miles; and by short canals those vast sheets of water, will be connected with the Illinois and Mississippi rivers, thereby establishing a great and valuable trade to New Orleans and the Gulf of Mexico. Lake Ontario on the North, is one hundred and ninety miles in length, and empties into the St. Lawrence, which passing through the Province of Lower Canada carries the commerce of Quebec and Montreal to the Atlantic Ocean.

Thus fortified to the right and left by the extensive commercial resources of the Great Lakes, and their tributary streams -- within four miles of the sublime Falls of Niagara, affording the greatest water power in the world for manufacturing purposes, -- directly opposite the mouth of the Grand Canal of Three Hundred and sixty miles inland navigation, to the Hudson River, and City of New York, having the fur trade of Upper Canada to the west, and also of the great territories towards the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Ocean; likewise the trade of the western states of America; Grand Island may be considered as surrounded by every commercial, manufacturing and agricultural advantage, and from its location is pre-eminently calculated to become in time the greatest trading and commercial depot in the new and better world. To men of worth and industry it has every substantial attraction, the capitalist will be enabled to employ his resources with undoubted profit, and the merchant cannot fail to reap the reward of enterprise in a great and growing republic, but to the industrious mechanic, manufacturer and agriculturist, it holds forth great and improving advantages.

Deprived as our people have been for centuries of a right in the soil, they will learn with peculiar satisfaction, that here they can till the land, reap the harvest, and raise the flocks which are unquestionable their own; and in the full and unmolested enjoyment of their religious rights, and of every civil immunity, together with peace and plenty, they can lift up their voice in gratitude to Him who sustained our fathers in the wilderness and brought us in triumph out of the land of Egypt; who assigned to us the safe keeping of his oracles, who proclaimed us his people, and who has ever walked before us like a "cloud by day and a pillar of fire by night."

In his name do I revive, renew and re-establish the Government of the Jewish Nation, under the auspices and protection of the constitution and laws of the United States of America, confirming and perpetuating all our rights and privileges, our name, our rank, and our power among the nations of the earth as they existed and were recognized under the government of the JUDGES, -- And I hereby enjoin it upon all our pious and venerable Rabbis, our Presidents and Elders of Synagogues, Chiefs of Colleges, and Brethren in authority throughout the world to circulate and make known this my proclamation, and give it full publicity, credence, and effect.

It is my will that a census of the Jews throughout the world be taken, and returns of persons, together with their age and occupation, be registered in the archives of the Synagogues where they are accustomed to worship, designating such in particular, who have been and are distinguished in the useful arts, in science, or in knowledge.

Those of our people who from age, local attachment, or from any other cause prefer remaining in the several parts of the world which they now respectfully inhabit, and who are treated with a liberality by the public authorities, are permitted to do so, and are specially recommended to be faithful to the governments which protect them. It is however expected, that they will aid and encourage the emigration of the young and enterprising, and endeavor to send to this country such, who will add to our national strength and character, by their industry, honor and patriotism.

Those Jews who are in the military employment of the different sovereigns of Europe are enjoined to keep in their ranks until further orders, and conduct themselves with bravery and fidelity.

I command that a strict neutrality, be observed in the pending wars between the Greeks and the Turks, enjoined by considerations of safety towards a numerous population of Jews now under the oppressive dominion of the Ottoman Porte.

The annual gifts which for many centuries have been afforded to our pious brethren in our Holy City of Jerusalem, to which may God speedily restore us, are to continue with unabated liberality; our seminaries of learning and institutions of charity in every part of the world, are to be increased, in order that wisdom and virtue, may permanently prevail among the chosen people.

I abolish forever Polygamy among the Jews, which without religious warrant still exists in Asia and Africa. I prohibit marriages, or giving Keduchim without both parties are of a suitable age, and can read and write the language of the country which they respectfully inhabit, and which I trust will ensure to their offspring, the blessings of education and probably the lights of science.

Prayers shall forever be said in the Hebrew Language, but it is recommended that occasional discourses on the principles of the Jewish faith, and the doctrines of morality generally, be delivered in the language of the country, together with such reforms which without departing from the ancient faith, may add greater solemnity to our worship.

The Caraite and Samaritan Jews, together with the black Jews of India and Africa, and likewise those of Cochin China, and the sect on the coast of Malabar, are entitled to an equality of rights and religious privileges, as are all who may partake of the great covenant, and obey and respect the Mosaical Laws.

The Indians of the American continent in their admitted Asiatic origin, in their worship of one God, in their dialect and language, in their sacrifices, marriages, divorces, burials, fastings, purifications, punishments, cities of refuge, division of tribes, in their High Priests, and in their wars and in their victories, being in all probability the descendants of the lost tribes of Israel, which were carried captive by the King of Assyria, measures will be adopted to make them sensible of their origin, to cultivate their minds, soften their condition and finally re-unite them with their brethren the chosen people.

A capitation tax of three shekels in silver per annum, or one Spanish dollar, is hereby levied upon each Jew throughout the world, to be collected by the Treasurers of the different congregations, for the purpose of defraying the various expenses or re-organizing the government, of aiding emigrants in the purchase of agricultural implements, providing for their immediate wants, and comforts, and assisting their families in making their first settlements, together with such free-will offerings as may be generously made in the furtherance of the laudaible objects connected with the restoration of the people, and the glory of the Jewish nation. A Judge of Israel shall be chosen once in every four years by the Consistory at Paris, at which time Proxies from every congregation shall be received.

I do hereby name as Commissioners the most learned and pious Abraham de Cologna, Knight of the Iron Cross of Lombardy, Grand Rabbi of the Jews, and President of the Consistory at Paris, and likewise the Grand Rabbi Andrade of Bordeaux, and also our learned and estimable Grand Rabbis of the German and Portugal Jews, in London, Rabbis Herschell, and Mendola, together with the Honorable Aaron Nunez Cardoza, of Gibraltar, Abraham Busnac, of Leghorn, Benjamin Bradis, of Bordeaux, Dr. E. Gans, and Professor Zunts, of Berlin, and Dr. Leo Woolf of Hamburgh, to aid and assist in carrying into effect the provisions of this my proclamation, with powers to appoint the necessary agents in the several parts of the world and to establish emigration societies in order that the Jews may be concentrated and capacitated to act as a distinct body, having at the head of each Kingdom or Republic such presiding officers as I shall upon their recommendation appoint. Instructions to these commissioners shall be forthwith transmitted. And a more enlarged and general view of plan, motives and objects will be detailed in the address to the nation. The Consistory at Paris is hereby authorized and empowered to name three discreet persons of competent abilities to visit the United States, and make such report to the nation, as the actual condition of this country shall warrant.

I do appoint Roshodes Adar, Feb. 7, 1826, to be observed with suitable demonstrations, as a day of Thanksgiving to the Lord God of Israel, for the manifold blessings and signed protection which he has deigned to extend to his people, and in order that on that great occasion our prayers may be offered for the continuance of his divine mercy, and the fulfilment of all the promises and pledges made to the race of Jacob.

I recommend peace and union among us, charity and good will to all, toleration and liberality to our brethren of every religious denomination, enjoined by the mild and just precepts of our holy religion. Honor and good faith in the fulfilment of all our contracts, together with temperance, economy and industry in our habits.

I humbly intreat to be remembered in your prayers, and lastly and most earnestly, I do enjoin you to "Keep the charge of the Lord thy God, to walk in his ways, to keep his statutes and his commandments and his judgments and his testimonies as it is written in the Law of Moses, that thou mayest prosper in all thou doest, and whithersoever thou turnest thyself."

Given at Buffalo, in the State of New-York, this second day of Tisri, in the year of the world, 5586, corresponding with the 15th day of September, 1825, and the fiftieth year of American Independence.

By the Judge,
A. B. Siexas, Sec'y Pro Tem.

Note 1: Major Mordecai M. Noah's Sept. 15, 1825 "Proclamation to the Jews" was first published that same day as an "Extra" of the Buffalo Patriot. The Buffalo paper also featured the proclamation in its Sept. 20th issue, and from those two sources it was widely reprinted in New York and national newspapers. See the Oct. 1, 1825 issue of Niles' National Register for one editor's reaction. The Buffalo Patriot's text was recently reprinted on pages 105-111 of Schuldiner & Kleinfeld's 1999 book, The Selected Writings of Mordecai Noah. Since no Sept. 1825 issues of the Patriot have been located, the text has been reconstructed above from various reprints.

Note 2: It is significant that Noah begins his proclamation with this remark: "the approach of that period, when in the fulfillment of the promises made to the race of Jacob... they are to be gathered from the four corners of the Globe." His announcement was made at the very time that the American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews was initiating its efforts to establish a colony in New York state for the benefit of Jews who had converted to Christianity. The first president of that society was Elias Boudinot, a prominent voice for the "restoration of Israel" among American Evangelicals. See his 1815 book The Second Advent for more on the need to gather and convert the Jews prior to the commencement of the expected Christian millennium. Noah's remarks concerning the American Indians being the lost ten tribes of Israel also reflects the opinions of Elias Boudinot -- see his 1816 book A Star in the West as well as the Rev. Ethan Smith's 1823 book View of the Hebrews.

Note 3: (forthcoming)



No. 27 Vol. XXIII.]                         Wednesday, October 5, 1825.                          [Whole No. 1171.

The following is the entire speech of M. M. Noah, delivered at the laying
of the Corner Stone of the city of Ararat, to be located on Grand Island. It
will probably be read with interest by all persons feeling a desire to become
acquainted with the ancient and modern history of the Jewish nation.

S P E E C H.

Brothers, Countrymen and Friends,

Having made known by proclamation the re-establishment of the Hebrew government, having laid the foundation of a city of refuge, an asylum for the oppressed in this free and happy republic, I avail myself of that portion of my beloved brethren here assembled, together with this concourse of my fellow citizens, to unfold the principles, explain the views, and detail the objects contemplated in the great work of regeneration and independence to which it has pleased the Almighty to direct my attention. Truth and justice demand that I should candidly state the motives which have induced me to aim at higher objects than mere colonization. The world has a right to know what inducements have led to this declaration of Independence, and what measures are contemplated to carry the design into successful execution. The peace of mankind -- the security of persons and property -- the changes incidental to the revival of the Jewish government -- the progress and effect of emigration, and all those vicissitudes arising from change of climate -- new laws and new society, admonish me to be explicit in my declarations and candid in my statements. I shall not deceive the expectations of the world.

Two thousand years have nearly elapsed since the dissolution of the Jewish government, and no period has presented itself more auspiciously than the present for its reorganization. Peace exists among civilized powers, the march of learning and science has been rapid and successful, and mankind are at this day better qualified to estimate the blessings of toleration and liberal views, and better disposed and capacitated to encourage and enforce them, than at any former time. Religion generally, though divided and sub-divided into various sects, assumes a milder aspect, and feelings of universal love and charity have superceded the darkness and bigotry of former ages. The nations of the old and new world including the children of Africa, have had their rights acknowledged, and their governments recognised. The oldest of nations, powerful in numbers and great in resources, remains isolated, without a home, a country or a government.

The Jews have been destined by Providence to remain a distinct people. Though scattered over the face of the globe they still retain their homogeneousness of character -- the peculiarity of their tenet, the identity of their faith. In their prosperity and adversity they have uniformly been the chosen people -- proud of their God, proud of their distinction, and even proud of their sufferings. Bending before the tribunals of power, yielding to persecution and torture, tranquil in misfortune, and resigned to fate, they patiently endured, not meanly surrendered, they bravely defended their rights and the rights of their country, and have never despaired of divine protection or given up hopes of human justice.

Looking forward to a period of regeneration and to the fulfillment of the prophecies, the Jews have preserved within themselves the elements of government in having carefully preserved the oracles of God assigned to their safe keeping, and the time has arrived when their rights as a nation can be recognized, when, in the enjoyment of independence, the lights of learning and civilization, and the obligation of industry and mortality, they can cultivate a friendly and affectionate understanding with the whole family of mankind and have no longer enemies on earth.

In calling the Jews together under the American Constitution and laws, and governed by our happy and salutary institutions, it is proper for me to state that this asylum is temporary and provisionary. The Jews never should and never will relinquish the just hope of regaining possession of their ancient heritage, and events in the neighborhood of Palestine indicate an extraordinary change of affairs.

The Greeks are almost independent of the Ottoman Porte. The Turkish sceptre becomes weaker daily. Russia will march upon Constantinople. The Egyptians are cultivating the useful arts, and are encouraging commerce and agriculture. The Turks, driven beyond the Bosphorus may leave the land of Canaan free for the occupancy of its rightful owners, and the wealth and enterprize of the Jews may make it desirable for them to reclaim their former possession by and with the consent of the christian powers, who more enlightened, and consequently more tolerant, may be duly impressed with a sense of justice due to an injured and oppressed people.

Called together to the Holy Land by the slow but unerring finger of Providence, the Jews, coming from every quarter of the Globe, would bring with them the language, habits and prejudices of each country. Assimilating only in religious doctrines, and divided on temporal affairs, they would present innumerable difficulties in organizing under any form of government, and the diversity of opinions and views would create factions as dangerous and difficult to allay as those fatal ones which existed in the time of the first and second Temples. It is in this country that the government of the Jews must be organized. Here under the influence of perfect freedom, they may study Laws -- cultivate their minds, acquire liberal principles as to men and measures, and qualify themselves to direct the energies of a just and honorable government in the land of the Patriarchs.

Conforming therefore to the constitution and Laws of the United States, there is no difficulty in organizing and concentrating the Jewish nation. Originally we were a race of shepherds; each man governed his own family, and to the enjoyment of domestic happiness they added the blessings of pure religion. Israel accumulating in strength was led to Egypt, delivered from bondage and conducted to the promised land, by the illustrious legislator of the Jews and the great benefactor of mankind. Moral, political and ecclesiastical code of laws which the Almighty through Moses, presented to the children of Israel, forms, even at this day the basis of every civil and religious institution. The victorious Joshua settled the Israelites in the land of Canaan, and divided it according to tribes. -- After a short interregnum on his death, the government of the Judges commenced, which existed 500 years until it was merged in the kingdom which commenced with Saul and terminated after a brilliant epoch in the captivity. The government of the High Priests succeeded and continued 428 years, followed by the Maccabean Kings of Judah, and the nation became finally dispersed under Herod the Idumean.

In selecting from the primitive, the judicial, the regal and sacerdotal governments a form best adapted to the times, and also to the condition of the Jewish people, I have deemed it expedient to re-organize the nation under the direction of the judges.

The authority of the Judges extended to all religious, military and civil concerns -- they were absolute and independent like the Kings of Israel and Judah, with out the ensigns of Sovereignty. The Judges were immediately from the people, mingling in their deliberations, directing their energies, commanding their armies, and executing their Laws. The office, which was not hereditary, conforms in some respect to that of Chief Magistrate, and is in accordance with the genius and disposition of the people of this country.

It is difficult at this period to decide with certainty on the manner and forms adopted in choosing the Judges of Israel. Most of the distinguished men who had filled that station were "raised up" by divine influence. Their skill in war, and wisdom in peace, their valour and experience, their capacity to govern, and incidental and necessary qualifications calculated to excite public confidence, were passports to office.

Dispersed as the nation now is, and no possibility of concentrating the general voice, there can be no just power to grant -- no right to withold -- the office must be assumed by divine permission, and the power exercised by general consent and approbation. He who assumes this power, who takes the lead in the great work of regeneration and judges righteously, will always be sustained by public opinion. By this test I wish to be judged.

Born in a free country, and educated with liberal principles, familiar with all the duties of government, having enjoyed the confidence of my fellow-citizens in various public trusts -- ardently attached to the principles of our holy faith, and having devoted years of labor and study to ameliorate the condition of the Jews, with an unsullied conscience and a firm reliance on Almighty God, I offer myself as an humble instrument of his divine will and solicit the confidence and protection of our beloved brethren throughout the world. If there be any person possessing greater facilities and a more ardent zeal in attempting to restore the Jews to their rights as a sovereign and independent people, to such will I cheerfully surrender the trust.

I cannot be insensible to the many difficulties which may present themselves in the successful progress of the great work of regeneration. The attempt may be pronounced visionary and impracticable -- the reluctance of some to countenance the effort -- the timidity of others, and the apprehensions of all may be arrayed against an enterprize extraordinary and interesting, but always feasible. -- I indulge in no chimerical views, I know this country, its soil, climate and resources, and confidently embark in the undertaking. Firm of purpose, when the object is public good, I allow no difficulties to check my progress. Urged to its consideration by strong and irresistible impulse, the project has always presented itself to me in the most cheering light, in the most alluring colors; and if the attempt shall result in ameliorating the condition of the Jews, and shall create a generous and liberal feeling towards them and open to them the avenues of science, learning, fame, honor and happiness, who shall say that I have failed? I ask the trial -- and will abide the result.

The Hebrew nation, with its sublime Theocracy, its moral laws, its warlike character and powerful government, originated in a family of shepherds. From an ancestry not more illustrious, arose the heroes and sages of Greece, and to the neglected children of the forest was Rome, once mistress of the world, indebted for existence. From origins the most humble, and from projects the most doubtful, the world has been indebted for signal benefits and blessings. A few pilgrims, driven to our continent by European persecution, have laid the foundations of a splendid empire. We have less difficulties to encounter, because we are surrounded by civilization; and a few Jews in this happy land admonished by the past, and stimulated by anticipations of the future, may increase rapidly and prosperously, and under good government and wholesome laws, may fall back in time towards the Pacific Ocean, and possess a country the most fertile as it is capacious and valuable. We have long been captives in a land of strangers; we have long submitted patiently to oppression; we have long anxiously expected a temporal deliverance; but throughout the most terrible periods of calamity, we have done nothing for ourselves. The Almighty, who has covered us with the shield of his personal love, has given us moral agents, by which with his divine aid, we are to affect our own deliverance. We have senses, judgements, powers of self-government, energy, capacity and wealth. If, with all these great requisites we still "hang our harps upon the willow," we still cover ourselves with sackcloth and ashes and do not make one effort for independence, how can we reasonably continue to supplicate God for our restoration, who made man in his own image and proclaimed him free? -- Why should the parent of nations, the oldest of people, the founders of religion, wander among the governments of the earth, intreating succor and protection, when we are capable of protecting ourselves?

The time has emphatically arrived to do something calculated to benefit our own condition, and excite the admiration of the world, and we must commence the work in a country free from ignoble prejudices and legal disqualifications -- a country, in which liberty can be ensured to the Jews without the loss of one drop of blood.

The present condition of our people throughout the world is not without interest and instruction. The rightful possessors of Palestine are slaves in their own territory, and the pious attachment of the resident Jews of the Holy Land, gives them the highest claims on our charity and protection. There are several hundred families in Jerusalem, Hebron, and Tiberius, three of the most ancient congregations in the world, and the number in the Holy Land may be computed at 100,000. Those on the borders of the Mediteranean, are engaged in trade and manufactures; those in the interior, and particularly in Jerusalem, are poor and dreadfully oppressed. They are the great sentinels and guardians of the law and religion, and amidst the severest privations and the most intense sufferings, they have for centuries kept their eye upon the ruined site of the temple and said, "the time will come -- the day will be accomplished." The Samaritan Jews, which formerly were numerous and scattered over Egypt, Damascus, Ascalon and Caesarea, are now reduced to a few hundred poor inoffensive persons, principally residents of Jaffa and Naplouse. As there is no essential difference between their doctrines and the rest of our brethren, the distinction between them should cease. The Caraite Jews, who are numerous, are principally residents of the Crimea and the Ukraine, and are a respectable body of men. They reject the Talmud and rabbinical doctrines, adhering closely to the precepts of our divine law. On the borders of Cochin China, we have a large colony of black and white Jews. Their numbers are computed at 10,000. -- The white Jews reside on the sea coast and the blacks in the interior. The blacks, who call themselves Beni Israel, must have existed at the time of the first temple. The researches in the interior of Africa may, at some future period, give us immense colonies of Jews, which emigrated at an early period from Egypt. They are on the coast of Malabar and Coromandel, and in the interior of India, a considerable number of wealthy and enterprising Israelites. Measures will be adopted to ascertain their force and condition. Upwards of a million and a half Jews reside in the dominions of the Ottoman Porte, including the Barbary States. In Constantinople and Salonichi, there cannot be less than one hundred thousand. They suffer much from the oppression of the Turks -- are severely taxed, and treated with undisguised severity; but their skill in trade and their general quickness and intelligence as bankers, brokers and merchants, give them the entire control of commerce and the command of important confidential stations in the empire. The same character and condition may be likewise attributed to those numerous Jews residing in Egypt and in Persia; they have many wealthy men in Alexandria, Cairo, Ispahan, and the numerous cities beyond the Euphrates.

From countries yet uncivilized, we turn to those, which still withholding the rights of man from the descendants of the Patriarchs, are nevertheless more mild and tolerant in their measures, more liberal and generous to an afflicted people.

The settlement of the Jews in England was coeval with Julius Caesar; the inroads of the Saxons and Danes have obliterated much of the chronicles and traditions relative to their early existence in that country. William the Conqueror brought with him a large colony from Normandy, and for a stipulated sum of money conferred upon them certain commercial privileges, and assigned them places to inhabit. It was in the feudal ages that the Jews of Britain were the most enlightened, tolerant, and polished. Opulent in circumstances and enterprising in the development of resources, they gave an early impetus and direction to that trade and commerce, which has since successfully extended itself to every quarter of the globe. -- During the reign of William Rufus and Henry II, the Jews were favored and protected, though always considered vassals of the crown, to be tolerated or pillaged according to the caprice of government. The cruelty practised towards them during the misguided periods of the crusade, caused many of the most respectable to abandon the country. Several families however, returned under an invitation from King John, to be again pillaged, proscribed and murdered; and for five hundred years their condition underwent no material change. Occasionally protected, but too frequently oppressed, deprived of the natural rights of subjects and citizens, it was not surprising if the Jews of England, during those periods, acquired wealth without consideration, and power without respect. -- During the reign of King George II a bill was introduced in Parliament for the naturalization of the Jews, It was supported by the ministry, though opposed with warmth by the people, and produced great excitement in the public mind. It nevertheless became a law; but such was the strenuous opposition manifested on the occasion, that it was considered prudent to repeal it at the ensuing session. The same legal disqualifications still exist in Great Britain; but it is gratifying to know, that the government affords to Jews certain rights, immunities and protection, and our people in that country in addition to wealth and influence, are rapidly advancing in the career of learning and civilization, of charity and liberal feelings.

The miseries inflicted upon our nation in England, during the Crusade, extended their unhappy consequences to France. The Jews were among the earliest settlers of Gaul, and by their superior talent and advantages, endeavored to encourage and extend civilization among a rude and barbarous people. Their sufferings, banishments and massacres during the reigns of Philip Augustus, Lewis the ninth, Philip the Fair, Philip the Tall, Charles the sixth and several successive kings, fill the sanguinary pages of history, and present a list of enormities that makes humanity shudder. In 1566, they were all banished the kingdom, and in the succeeding year, only four families were permitted to return. In the 17th & 18th centuries, they were gradually permitted to re-occupy their former places of residence, though still exposed to the scorn of the ignorant and the insults of the barbarians, and such feelings were encouraged and perpetuated by an edict of the government compelling them to wear a distinctive dress.

During the French Revolution the Jews claimed from the constituent Assembly, the rights of citizens; many enlightened statesmen espoused their cause, and the decree of 1790 gave them a legal existence. Among the philanthropists of the age who raised his voice successfully in their behalf, was my venerable and pious friends, the Bishop Gregoire, to whom the Jews owe an incalculable debt of gratitude. The civil revolution in the condition of our brethren in France, gave rise to the moral one, which resulted from the proceedings of the Sanhedrin, convened at Paris, by the decree of 1806, and which presented to the world a galaxy of talent and learning which would do honor to any age or country. The Jews in France are citizens, and the charter granted by the good king, Louis the 18th, confirmed all their rights. They are manufacturers, agriculturalists, merchants and bankers, and many of them possess distinguished talents.

The history of our people in Spain is of peculiar interest. Spain was a country dear to the Jews, and after their dispersion, the seat of learning and the birth place of our greatest scholars.

The Jews first appeared in Spain, during the reign of Emperor Adrian, and in his time were numerous and wealthy, but like our brethren in Britain and France, their lives and property were held by a frail tenure, and the Goths exercised a lucrative oppression over this proscribed and unhappy people.

After the expulsion of the Jews from Syria and Egypt, they joined the Saracens and aided them in the conquest of Spain. Favored by the Caliphs and united by a reciprocal hospitality towards the christians, the Jews found asylum and protection from the Saracen Monarchs, and the most brilliant epoch in our history from the destruction of the temple, may be traced to this period. In the early ages the Jews were enlightened and learned in the Law, they were the foes of paganism, the enemies of idolators; but it was under the Caliphs of Bagdad, and the Saracens of Spain that they cultivated the sciences, and established Seminaries of learning, and schools of literature and philosophy.

The revolutions in that country commencing in the eleventh century, eventuated unfortunately for the Jews, and the war declared by Ferdinand against the Saracens, was the commencement of their troubles and calamities. -- During the eleventh and twelfth centuries many learned Rabbis appeared, which did honor to the age and country. They were not only deeply versed in cabalistical, allegorical and mystical interpretations of the laws, but distinguished mathematicians, astronomers, masters of the dead and living languages, and natural philosophers. In Toledo and Andalusia they had colleges in the most flourishing condition, and the piety and illustrious talents of Abraham Ben Esdra, Maimonides, Kimchi, Jarchi Haleri, Abravenel, and others, attested the brilliancy of that epoch in Jewish history. The fury of the Crusades was perhaps more severely felt by the Jews in Spain than in any other part of the world, and more of our people abandoned that country than were brought out of the land of Egypt by Moses. Under the enlightened and liberal Moorish Kings, the Jews lived prosperously in Spain, but the destruction of the Moors caused their ruin, and to this day they have been banished from the country. Upwards of a million of Jews speak the Spanish language, and will never cease to regret the barbarous edicts which prohibit their residence in that beautiful but neglected part of the globe.

Spain is a miraculous and providential instance of the impolity and impiety of religious persecutions. She is weaker in resources, in character, in the means of sustaining independence and national rights, in arts and in arms, than when under the dominion of the Caliphs.

Portugal in ancient and modern times was not more liberal, tolerant, and humane towards the Jews than Spain; they banished, tortured, and burnt them, and Portugal from this proscriptive and cruel system is not more happily conditioned than her neighbor.

The Jews have resided in Rome since they were brought captive to that Capital, by Titus Vespasianous, yet, while subjected to the persecution of the christian monarchs throughout Europe, it is pleasing to recollect and grateful to acknowledge the kindness and protection afforded them by several of the Roman Pontiffs, particularly Gregory the Great, Alexander 2d, Gregory the 9th, Clement the 5th, Clement 6th, Boniface 9th, Nicholas 2d. Alexander 6th, Paul 3d, &c. Men who practised the precepts which they preached. In modern times the Jews have been tranquil residents of that ancient City, yet at this day they are compelled to wear a distinctive badge, to reside in a separate part of the town, and at periods to attend mass under a certain penalty. In most of the cities in Italy, the Jews enjoy protection and privileges; they are a cultivated people, far advanced in science and polite literature, and I have long esteemed them as a learned and distinguished branch of the nation.

Many of the emigrants from Spain and Portugal, took refuge in Holland, which together with those from Germany, formed a considerable congregation, and in the 17th century they were wealthy and flourishing. The Jews in Amsterdam established colleges and academies, over which some of the greatest men of our nation have presided. It is supposed that there are nearly 100,000 Jews in Holland, mostly residents of Amsterdam. -- In comparison with the cruelties inflicted upon our nation by other powers on the continent, the Jews in Holland may have been considered happy and protected, yet they were neither free by law, nor by public opinion, and in many instances they were shut out from honorable and lucrative employment.

Notwithstanding these prohibitory decrees and unfortunate internal divisions existing among the nation, Holland has produced many eminent physicians, counsellors and literary men, particularly since the adoption of the constitution by the States in 1796, and the Jews are now held in estimation by the government.

In the Austrian and Russian dominions, in Prussia, Sweden, Denmark and the Hanseatic towns, and throughout Germany, there must be nearly two millions and a half of Jews. Nearly a million of which were in Poland previous to the partition in 1772. In all those countries their condition has been ameliorated, yet they do not in all enjoy political rights, though their personal deportment acquires consideration and respect, if merited. Of late some strong edicts have been passed relative to the Polish & Russian Jews, & it is to be lamented that they still labor under strong personal and religious prejudices.

It will thus be perceived that with all the toleration of the times, with all the favorable condition of the Jews, they suffer much, and are deprived of many valuable rights.

Our religion imbraces all that is pure and upright, and all that is just and generous. In temperance, in industry, in patience and in all the duties of husband, father, friend and citizen, the Jews may claim an equal rank with those of any other religious denomination. If there are some who occasionally wander from the paths of rectitude, let it be remembered that they are men, and subject to human frailties. If in the narrow and crooked channels of traffic, in which persecution has driven some of them, they have at times disregarded the high injunctions of purity and good faith, let us call to mind that their virtues have never been accredited, while their faults have been magnified. Shut out from more noble pursuits, they have been left without that incentive to good actions, that encouragement to upright conduct, that reward of merit which has been afforded to others.

Why should Christians persecute Jews? Sprung from a common stock, and connected by human ties which should be binding; if those ties are empty and evanescent, where is the warrant for this intolerance? not in the religion which they profess; that teaches mildness, charity and good will to all. I judge religion from its effects, and when I look round and see the seminaries of learning and institutions of charity; when I see temperance united to industry; virtue and wisdom, benevolence and good faith, existing among Christians; if this be the result of their religion, God forbid that it should be destroyed. Let it flourish, I will sustain that faith in its purity; but let us be equally charitable to all. The Jews and Christians are only known by their hostility towards each other. This hostility neither religion recognizes. We should no more censure the Christians at this day for the cruelties practised towards the Jews in the early ages, than the Jews should now be made answerable for the facious policy of our ancestors 500 years ago. Times have undergone an important change; we all begin to feel that we are formed of the same materials, subject to the same frailties, destined to the same death, and hoping for the same immortality. Here, then, in this free and happy country, distinctions in religion, are unknown; here we enjoy liberty without licentiousness, and land without oppression.

Among the many advantages which an asylum in this country promises, the pursuits of agriculture are the most prominent, and of all pursuits the most noble.

The Jews were an agricultural people before they were a nation, the fruitful vallies of Canaan, the plains of Nineva, Greece, Persia, Egypt, and in modern times, Lithuania, the Ukraine, and Moldavia, exhibited their devotion and attachment to this pursuit. In no country on earth can they enjoy in this respect, equal advantages to those which we hold forth. Land of a fertile quality, well wooded and watered, may be purchased on the most reasonable terms; taxes are equalized and moderate; and by a recent act of the Legislature of this state, aliens can hold any quantity, upon declaring their intention of becoming citizens. -- This great privilege, which in other countries is denied to the Jews, is here afforded, together with every personal security. The lands they cultivate are their own; no sovereign or feudal lord, or magistrate can wrest their property from them, no tithes, no exactions, no persecutions await them; they will be called upon to contribute that moderate support to the government, which is cheerfully yielded by every good citizen. They will be themselves lords of the soil, and sovereigns in their own right, eligible to office and honor, and acquiring that consideration and respect which unavoidably await correct deportment, talents and reputation.

The state of New-York is far advanced in improvements of every kind. There are upwards of six millions of acres of cultivated land, producing grain in abundance, and every variety of fruit, and rich grazing meadows. A farm of one hundred acres well cultivated, will, with industry, afford an ample livelihood and corresponding happiness to a family, I again repeat, agriculture is the natural and noble pursuit of man. Between the handles of the plough, in felling the oak of the forest, in the harvest and in the season of fruits, the farmer is still the same free and happy citizen, and has all the resources of life within himself. His cattle are raised in his pastures, his grain produce him bread, his sheep afford him wood, his trees sugar, his fields flax, he is his own brewer and distiller, his forest affords him fuel, he has all the comforts and frequently luxuries which wealth can give. He sees the sun rise in glory and set in majesty. He who wishes to be truly religious and surrounded with admonitions of piety, should be an agriculturalist. To the man of capitol, the advantages held forth in this state, are numerous and acknowledged. To the land proprietor there is plenty and happiness; to the merchant and trader the most profitable facilities, and unceasing encouragement as the manufacturer and mechanic.

The laws and customs in Europe, present many obstacles to the Jews becoming mechanics. -- To be perfectly independent, they should learn some branches of the mechanic art. In this country, our mechanics are numerous, opulent and influential. Masons, carpenters, blacksmiths, tailors, hatters, shoemakers, curriers, and the more light branches of labor are always amply encouraged, and with the acquirement of a trade in this country, no industrious man can possibly want.

The rising importance and value of our manufactories, should attract the attention of Jewish capitalists. The Congress of the United States, has, by a judicious revision of the Tariff, so regulated the duties on foreign fabrics, as to give permanent encouragement to our own. The market value of articles annually manufactured in this state alone, is computed at several hundred millions of dollars, and the investments are principally in grist- mills, saw-mills, oil-mills, fulling-mills, iron foundries, trip hammers, distilleries, tanneries, asheries, breweries, &c.

Grand Island is surrounded by water power, and is admitted to be an eligible spot for the erection of manufactories.

The organization of a system of Finance for the promotion of emigration, affording aid to settlers, erecting and supporting institutions of charity, establishing seminaries of learning, and for all the purposes of an efficient and economical government, is not without some difficulty. Our means are ample, but they are defused, spread over the globe, and not readily concentrated.

A suitable person will be appointed to direct the finance department, and likewise such other officers as are usually named in all well organized governments. The Jewish capital throughout the world, may be estimated at a vast amount. Since the termination of the wars on the Continent, a great portion of the capital has returned to the coffers of its proprietors. A few millions of dollars judiciously invested and thrown into the western district of this state, would realize a reasonable profit, and be of immense benefit to this thriving and populous section of our country.

During the European wars, many Jews joined the different armies, and I learn have distinguished themselves in sundry campaigns; several have been honored with important commissions, and given proof of valour and fidelity. Such, who prefer a military life, and who at the present period have arms in their hands, may continue in their ranks; their arms must never be turned against the country they serve; but we have lost our ancient military character, and the discipline, courage and constancy, of those who have in modern times seen service, may be necessary to constitute the materials from which future armies may be organized.

Wars are necessary in defence of national rights, when unjustly assailed. So God has thought, and fought with us. So man now thinks. We may not have again such generals as Joshua, David and Maccabees; but in blending our people with the great American family, I wish to see them able and willing to sustain its honor with their lives and fortunes. Time which matures and brings forth many surprising events, may give to us a territory beyond the lakes, great in extent and resources; we may occupy a position of importance on the Pacific, and wherever providence may lead the nations, I wish to have its rights manifestly sustained.

I have enjoined a strict neutrality between the Greeks and Ottoman Porte. While it would afford me great happiness to aid any oppressed nation in a contest for liberty, we must not jeopardize the safety of millions living under the Mussulman Government, and who would be instantly sacrificed by their relentless rulers, upon the least succour being afforded to the revolutionists. While prudence, and a due regard to the safety of innocent people enjoin us not to mingle in this contest, it is due to the cause of freedom, not to throw obstacles in the way of its advancement.

The discovery of the lost tribes of Israel, has never ceased to be a subject of deep interest to the Jews. The divine protection which has been bestowed upon the chosen people, from the infancy of nature to the present period, has, without doubt, been equally extended to the missing tribes, and, if as I have reason to believe, our lost brethren were the ancestors of the Indians of the American Continent, the inscrutable decrees of the Almighty have been fulfilled in spreading unity and omnipotence in every quarter of the globe. Upwards of three thousand years have elapsed, since the nine and a half tribes were carried captive by Palamanazer, King of Assyria. It is supposed they were spread over the various countries of the East, and by their international marriages, have lost their identity of character. It is, however, probable that from the previous sufferings of the tribes in the Egyptian bondage, that they bent their course in a northwest [sic] direction, which brought them within a few leagues of the American Continent. and which they finally reached.

Those who are most conversant with the public and private economy of the Indians, are strongly of opinion that they are the lineal descendants of the Israelites, and my own researches go far to confirm me in the same belief.

The Indians worship one Supreme Being as the fountain of life, and the author of all creation. -- Like the Israelites of old, they are divided into tribes having their Chief, and distinctive Symbol to each. Some of their tribes it is said are named after the Cherubinical figures that were carried on the four principal standards of Israel. They consider themselves as the distinct people of God, and have all the religious pride which our ancestors are known to have possessed. Their words are sonorous and bold, and their language and dialect are evidently of the Hebrew origin. They compute time after the manner of the Israelites, by dividing the year into four seasons, and their subdivisions are the lunar months, our new moons commencing according to the ecclesiastical year of Moses, the first moon after the vernal equinox. They have their prophets, high priests, and their sanctum sanctorum, in which all their consecrated vessels are deposited, and which are only to be approached by their archimagas or high priest. They have towns and cities of refuge -- they have sacrifices and fastings -- they abstain from unclean things, in short, in their marriages, divorces, punishment of adultery -- burial of the dead, mourning, they bear a striking analogy to our people. How came they on this continent, and if indigenous, when did they acquire the principles of the Jews? The Indians are not savages, they are wild and savage in their habits, but possess great vigor of interest and native talent, they are brave and eloquent people, with Asiatic complexion, Jewish features. Should we be right in our conjectures, what new scenes are opened to the nation -- the first of people on the old world, and the rightful inheritors of the new? Spread from the confines of the northwest coast to Cape Horn, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific.

If the tribes could be brought together, could be made sensible of their origin, could be civilized, and restored to their long lost brethren, what joy to our people, what glory to our God; how certain our dispersion, how miraculous our preservation, how providential our deliverance.

It shall be my duty to pursue the subject by every means in my power.

I recommend the establishment of emigration societies throughout all Europe, in order that proper aid may be afforded to those who are disposed to visit this country, and also to ascertain the character and occupation of each emigrant, and supplying them with passports and information. Passage in all cases should be taken for New-York. It should be distinctly understood by emigrants of limited means, that it will be necessary to have at least, sufficient to support their families for six months, as in that time they may be enabled to realize the fruits of enterprize and industry, and a sufficient sum may at that period be paid into the general Coffers, to aid them in their purchase of land. No mistaken impression should exist, that the Jews must not labor in the country; we are all compelled to work. but with the same portion of industry exercised in other parts of the world, we realize a greater portion of happiness, tranquillity, and personal rights. We shall not be prepared to receive emigrants on Grand Island, until the ensuing summer, and this notice is given to prevent an indiscriminate and hasty emigration which may defeat many good objects.

Our law prohibited the Kings of Israel from "multiplying to themselves silver and gold." This prohibition was intended to preserve the people from ruinous and oppressive taxation, and therefore limited the Sovereign to the moderate exigencies of his Court: but it appears from our prophet Samuel, and indeed from the ancient laws of Babylon, also in force among the Greeks and Romans, that the jus regeum was computed at one tenth. The tithes afforded to the High priest were of similar value in cattle, first fruits, the harvest even to "Mint, Cummin and Anise." A considerable portion was also secured to the Levites. It is, however, obvious that these exactions were exorbitant, and while they gave splendour to the governments, they tended to impoverish the people.

Taxes should be equalized and always levied in correspondence with the wants of the nation. In organizing the Jewish Government, the poorest should be enabled to participate in the great and glorious act; and with this view I have imposed a capitation tax of three Shekels of silver, which is equal to one Spanish dollar, to be paid annually, a sum within the means of the poorest, and if paid and collected will be amply sufficient to defray the expenses of the government in its incipient organization. This small tax, however, does not prevent free will offerings in our Synagogues, which the liberal and wealthy may make in the furtherance of the great objects in view.

It is very desirable that education should be more generally diffused among the Jews, it is the staff of their existence -- the star of their future happiness. -- There is no part of our religion which should be altered, nothing should be taken from the law, for if the power of innovation existed, there would be no end to the pruning knife. Our religious demands from us many temporal sacrifices, which should be cheerfully yielded, as a slight acknowledgment for the protecting favors of the Almighty.

Although no law permits polygamy among the Jews, there is no religious statute which prohibits it, and from this omission, an indulgence is claimed in the eastern countries incompatible with morality. Having personally witnessed the observance of this custom among the Jews in Africa, I have deemed it important as one among the first acts of the government, to protest against the practice, and abolish it forever. The duties of Husband and Father can never be safely or honourably fulfilled, when those duties are subjected to the caprices which sensuality produce. Neither can a wife thus circumstanced ever receive that consideration, affection and respect, to which virtuous and good wives, are always entitled. Another and a serious evil is to be apprehended from the prevalence of this custom, in the promiscuous, and probably incestuous marriages, which accidental circumstances may produce among children of one father, and several living mothers. In civilized communities, the laws which are paramount, admit of no such privileges. Our religious divorces are too loosely exercised, and demand the strong arm of authority; marriage is a sacred tie, and such alliances should not be lightly dissolved.

I have made it imperative on parties contracting matrimony, to read, write and comprehend the language of the country, which they respectively inhabit. Early marriages among our people are enjoined by the strongest principles of religion, and many of those important alliances are formed even in infancy, and before the responsibility of the obligations can be duly estimated. It is thus, that ignorance may become hereditary, and a just policy calls for the adoption of measures, which may secure to children at least that portion of intelligence and education, which the times demand, and a future generation will by such means be progressively improved and enlightened.

There are many subjects of great interest, which I reserve for future communications.

Thus commences auspiciously, I hope, the attempt to revive the Government of the oldest of nations, and lead them, if not to the promised, still to the happy land.

The effort may be successful, but otherwise never can be injurious. It directs public attention to the claims of an oppressed people -- it will admonish Sovereigns to be just and generous to them -- it may produce a better state of toleration and religious feelings -- it may place our people in the road to honor and fame -- it opens to them the avenues of industry and competence, in short it makes men and citizens of them, gives them a name, a rank, an interest and a voice among the nations of the earth -- thus, in fact, fulfilling the promises made to the descendants of the Patriarchs -- that the Lord God, may say to an admiring and astonished world, "Behold my people Israel -- here is the nation, that I have sworn to protect -- I was their Shepherd -- their Sun -- their Shade -- their Light and their right hand. In the days of prosperity, they forgot me not, and in the hour of tribulation I have not forgotten them." "In a little wrath I hid my face from thee, but with everlasting kindness will I have mercy on thee, saith the Lord thy Redeemer."

To Him who shelters and protects the whole family of mankind, the great omnipotent God, do I commit the destinies of Israel, & pray that he may have you all in his sage and holy keeping.

Notes: (forthcoming)



No. 29 Vol. XXIII.]                         Wednesday, October 19, 1825.                          [Whole No. 1173.

Extract of a letter from a correspondent of the New-York Spectator, dated "Lower Canada, Sept. 1825."

After visiting the Falls, I made an excursion to the head of lake Ontario, passing Burlington Heights, and proceeded to York, via Dundas, Nelson, St. Anns, Trafalgar and Etaboco. The capital of the Upper Province, like the towns on our side is imposing, but not in the same proportion. From the number of stores in York; an opinion might be formed that a large business is done. The Parliament house, which was destroyed by fire, some months since, has not been rebuilt; it is expected that provisions will be made at the next session of Parliament, for its erection, provided there be no prospect of the union of the provinces. About thirty-six miles from York there is a singular sect of people called, "Davidites," or the "Children of Peace." -- Their founder and present leader, is David Wilson. He was formerly a member of the society of Friends, as were many of his followers. They emigrated from the state of Pennsylvania about 25 years ago, and they have now a society of from 180 to 200. They reside in families close to each other, forming a community something like the Shakers. Although called the Children of Peace, David has fifty of them completely armed, and I understand that a part of their worship consists of military display. They have recently commenced the building of a temple, which, like that of Solomon is to be seven years in building. The frame is 60 feet square, and was prepared at a distance and brought, and put together without "the sound of an hammer or an axe being heard." It is to be ornamented within and without, and although it will be costly, yet the treasury of David will not admit of the splendor which was displayed by Solomon. The building is to be three stories high, with a steeple. From the base to the top of the first story is 70 feet, and when that was completed twenty four females ascended and sung an evening anthem just as the sun was sinking in the west. They have a small place of worship, in which there is a good organ. They go in procession to their place of worship, the females taking the lead, being preceded by banners, and two of their number playing on the lute. They have two nunneries for females; one for those of the age of 8 and under 18, and the other for those above 18. These singular people occupy a rich tract of country, above five miles in length by two in breadth. -- They use the plain language, but I have not been able to ascertain what are their peculiar doctrines; they do not object to take the ordinary oath in courts of justice. On the sabbath that spent at York, they were to hold a "Love Feast," and many went out to be present. It is not like the Love Feast of the Moravians and Methodists, where bread and water are only made use of, but they partake of the best which the country affords....

Note: According to newspaper editors James St. James and Orsamus Turner, 1824-25 was approximately the time period during which the "journeyman printer," Oliver Cowdery, worked as a "pedestrian peddler," carrying various printed materials into Ontario, Canada and adjacent regions. At the time the Book of Mormon was being printed, according to David Whitmer, Oliver Cowdery and Hiram Page made a special trip to York (Later Toronto) for the purpose of raising money for the book's publication. Cowdery may have been selected for this lengthy hike because he was familiar with the roads and inexpensive accommodations between western New York and the Canadian city. Whether Oliver Cowdery or other early Mormons interacted with David Wilson's temple-building sect in Ontario remains unknown.



No. 28 Vol. XXIV.]                         Wednesday, October 11, 1826.                          [Whole No. 1224.

Strange Proceedings. -- There has been much excitement in and about Batavia, fir several weeks, and it has been somewhat felt in this community, produced by the violent measures adopted by some of the fraternity of Masons, to arrest two individuals, who were engaged, it would appear, in publishing a book, in which the secrets of Free Masonry were to be disclosed. The Batavia newspapers had for some time teemed with articles, personal and acrimonious; and soon after the violence alluded to, was committed, the editor of the Republican Advocate, one of the obnoxious individuals, in handbills and in his paper, gave such an account of the transactions as might be expected under such circumstances, but which the public should be slow to believe. The affair, however, was considered by a respectable portion of the people, as a violation of good order and the laws of the land, which protect every person "of what state or condition soever," and who only "can be brought to answer by due course of law." -- A county meeting was consequently notified, and on the 25th ult, it was held, at the court house in that place. From the proceedings of this meeting, which are in the form of resolutions and an address, with nine despositions, and which fill ten columns of the Advocate, we are able to gather the facts relating to the affair, and proceed to a brief statement of them, leaving the reader to make his own comments. It is, that

On the morning of Monday the 11th Sept. a number of persons, whose names are given (and who are respectable citizens of this town,) having an officer with a precept, arrested at Batavia one William Morgan, and brought him to this place -- that on being acquitted of the alleged felony, he was imprisoned for a small debt. On the following evening, several persons called at the jail, one of whom desired to see Morgan, and on being admitted pretended that he had come to pay the debt and take Morgan home with him, to which M. assented -- the keeper of the prison being absent at the time, his wife was induced to receive the amount for which M. was confined, and discharge him, being assured it would all be right -- that on being liberated, Morgan was forcibly put into a carriage, the driver of which was ordered, by some of the five or six men within, to go to Rochester, which he did -- that they reached Rochester about day light, and proceeded to Hanford's Landing, where he left his passengers and returned home.

While these things were enacting, it is stated, that Mrs. Morgan, at Batavia, not seeing her husband come home to breakfast, (on Monday morning,) as usual, enquired after him, and was told that an officer from Canandaigua had taken him -- that after remaining until Tuesday, without learning where he had been carried, she sent for the sheriff of the county, and on enquiring of him was told that it was understood he was taken under a charge of having stolen a shirt and cravat, and that he (the sheriff) presumed it was merely a pretext to get him away -- that Mrs. M. then asked if he thought her husband "could be got back, if she gave up to the masons the papers which she had in possession," (we quote from Mrs. M.'s deposition) -- that the sheriff said he thought it probable, but he could not assure it -- that afterwards, it was agreed that Mrs. Morgan should go to Canandaigua, to see her husband, accompanied by two persons, provided she would let them see the papers; and, with one of these persons, she arrived in Canandaigua the next day, bringing a young child -- that here she gained no certain information of her husband -- that said person having got possession of the papers, departed for Rochester, and Mrs. M. the same day took the stage for Batavia.

While these measures were in execution against the projected book and its author, it appears that another was directed against the printer, David C. Miller, at Batavia. It stated, that on Tuesday (the 12th) a man who asserted himself to be a constable, "accompanied by more than 50 men, most of whom were furnished with large clubs," appeared in that village; that two of them forcibly seized upon Mr. Miller, and took him by violence to Stafford, "guarded as a criminal," showing no process for the arrest -- at Stafford he was kept in a room some time, and was then taken in a wagon "between two men armed with clubs," as far as LeRoy, where he was detained on several pretexts, but no one appearing to prosecute, he was discharged. It is further stated, that on the night before Morgan was taken, an attempt was made to burn two... [remainder illegible]

Notes: (forthcoming)



No. 33 Vol. XXIV.]                         Wednesday, November 15, 1826.                          [Whole No. 1229.

"Illustrations of Masonry." -- A pamphlet of this title, containing about 90 pages, has been published at Batavia, by William Morgan, (David C. Miller, printer) and hawked about the country by pedlars at one dollar each. It is said to be only the first part of "Masonry unvailed." The second part is advertised as being in the press. and shortly to appear. -- The editor of the Rochester Telegraph, after noticing the outrage committed upon Morgan, remarks:

We must at the same time caution the public against believing any assertions that may be made by David C. Miller, which are unsupported by the most unequivocal testimony. Our reason for so doing is this -- Miller is a mason, and in the book published by him, and in which he says discloses all the secrets of masonry, we find the following Oath, which he also says must be taken by every person before they are entrusted with any of the secrets of the society:

"I A. B. of my own free will and accord, in presence of Almighty God and this worshipful lodge of free and accepted masons, dedicated to God, and held forth to the holy order of St. John, do hereby and hereon most solemnly and sincerely promise and swear that I will always hail, ever conceal and never reveal any part or parts, art or arts, point or points of the secret arts and mysteries of ancient Freemasonry which I have received, am about to receive, or may hereafter be instructed in, to any person or persons in the known world, except it be to a true and lawful brother Mason, or within the body of a just and lawfully constituted lodge of such; and not unto him, nor unto them whom I shall hear so to be, but unto him and them only whom I shall find so to be after strict trial and due examination, or lawful information. Furthermore, do I promise and swear that I will not write, PRINT, stamp, stain, hew, cut, carve, indent, paint, or engrave it on any thing movable or immovable, under the whole canopy of Heaven, whereby or whereon the least letter, figure, character, mark, stain, shadow, or resemblance of the same may become legible or intelligible to myself or any other person in the known world, whereby the secrets of masonry may be unlawfully obtained through my unworthiness. To all of which I do most solemnly and sincerely promise and swear, without the least equivocation, mental reservation, or self evasion of mind in me whatever; binding myself under no less penalty than to have my throat cut across, my tongue torn out by the roots, and my body buried in the rough sands of the sea at low water-mark, where the tide ebbs and flows twice in twenty-hours; so help me God, and keep me steadfast in the due performance of the same."

If there be such an obligation as the above, Miller has voluntarily taken it, and comes before the public either as a perjured man or an impostor, either of which characters are sufficient to destroy his credibility.

The following remarks relative to Morgan'sbook, are copied from the National Observer, edited by Solomon Southwick, Esq.

We shall only add, to what is said by the editor of the Repository, that as to the book, which Morgan has written, we do not believe it is worth a cent. We think that all who purchase it, will "pay too dear for the whistle." -- Such attempts have been made before now, and have always terminated in the disgrace of their authors, without injuring the cause of masonry. But, as we have said before, and now repeat it, Morgan's folly, depravity or wickedness, form no justification for the violation of the civil law, which has taken place in his person, as well as in that of Miller, the printer. If we have a government of laws, let us adhere to it; for anarchy is the ruin of all.

We repeat it again that we do not believe Morgan's book to be worth a cent; but if there be any who wish to know something of the history of masonry that is worth knowing, let them purchase a book, which was translated from the German about a year since, and published by Messrs. Hosford, of this city. That work is worth reading; for whilst it shews what abuses masonry has been subject to in England, France, Italy, and elsewhere, it likewise discloses, as far as they can be disclosed, the good sources of the Institution, and sublime principles of virtue which have ever governed it in its pristine purity... [remainder illegible.]

Notes: (forthcoming)



No. 35 Vol. XXIV.]                         Wednesday, November 29, 1826.                          [Whole No. 1231.

Masonry. -- It is said that tin-pedlers, nutmeg-merchants, &c. have all abandoned their carts, and are now travelling the country driving a brisk trade with "Capt. William Morgan's" book. The modus operandi is this: -- Notice is given that a such a place and hour, the "Secrets of Masonry will be revealed -- Admittance one shilling." The room fills, the Book is read, and the magician proceeds onward with "money in both pockets." -- Roch. Tel.

Notes: (forthcoming)



No. 38 Vol. XXIV.]                         Wednesday, December 20, 1826.                          [Whole No. 1234.

The Morgan affair. -- At a late term of the Court of General Sessions of the Peace, for Monroe county, Judge Chapin in his charge to the Grand Jury, adverted to the case of Morgan, and charged the Jury that if they individually knew any thing of the persons concerned in the outrage, to present them to the Court to answer the violated laws of the country. In obedience to this charge, the Jury made a presentment, of which the following is an extract.

"The Grand Jury of the county of Monroe, in discharging that part of theduty imposed upon them by the court, in inquire whether William Morgan, who was unlawfully taken from the village of Batavia, had been brought within the limits of this county, have given their time and attention to a very diligent investigation of the subject; the result of which is a unanimous conviction that the said Morgan was carried through this village on the morning of the 18th of September last, before daylight, in a coach which returned to this village after going a short distance beyond Hanford's tavern, on the Ridge Road. Circumstances, unsupported however by direct testimony, authorise an opinion that Morgan was there taken into another coach, and carried beyond the limits of this county. From the great caution which seems to have been observed in keeping both Morgan and the place of his destination from the view and knowledge of all but such persons as may have been confidently entrusted with the design, and who would decline giving evidence upon the ground that it might tend to criminate themselves, the grand jury have found it impossinle to establish, by competent testimony, the unlawful agency of any citizen of this county, in that transaction."

Capt. Morgan. -- In an article, about Captain Morgan, the editor of the Boston Galaxy, says:

"At the recent session (in Sept, last,) of the U. S. General Grand Chapter, in the city of New York, a package of papers was presented for the consideration of that body, purporting to be an exposition of the mysteries of Free Masonry. A part of these papers were manuscripts, and a part printed sheets, probably the identical papers taken from Morgan's wife. They were referred to a committee, who examined them and reported their contents to the Chapter. It was considered inexpedient to take any order upon the subject and the papers were returned to the person who presented them."

At a large and respectable meeting of the citizens of the town of Bloomfield, held on the 11th say of December, 1826, at the east Church, for the purpose of taking into consideration the propriety of adoping measures to ascertain the fate of Capt. William Morgan; Doctor Ralph Wilcox was chosen Chairman, and Orson Benjamin, Secretary. The object of the meeting having been stated, on motion, voted, that a committee of three persons be appointed to prepare resolutions expressive of the sense of the meeting. -- Whereupon, Flavius J. Bronson, Jonathan Buel and Orson Benjamin, were appointed said committee. The committee having retired for a short time, reported the following resolutions, which were unanimously adopted, viz:

Resolved, That under any form of government an infraction of the laws ought to excite public attention; but more especially under a government like ours, in the hands of the people, where the good sense and virtue of the community are the only safeguards of the constitution, and the best supporters of the laws.

Resolved, That while we deprecate any unnecessary excitement of the public mind against individuals accused of crime, and before their country for trial; we conceive that the late unparalleled outrages upon private property and personal liberty, by an organized mob in a neighboring county, and the continuation of the same outrages by the sequestration and concealment of an individual, without authority and against the law, in our own county, and the consumation of these flagrant proceedures in another, demands public animadversion.

Resolved, That we have observed with surprise the studied silence or perverting ridicule of public journalists, in relation to these extraordinary transactions; and from these facts,, connected with others presented to this meeting, we cannot resist the conclusion that those bold violations of persons and oroperty, perpetrated in cold blood, originated in an extensive system, sanctioned and supported by a numerous body of men, actuated by an impulse incomprehensible to the community at large, and subversive of private right and constitutional liberty and law.

Resolved, That we view with distrust, as dangerous to the well being of the commonwealth, any combination of men however respectable otherwise, whose doings are secret, and who are bound together by invisible and unknown facts.

Resolved, That we respect and revere the constitution and laws of the state of New York, and particularly that part of the form which guarantees to the accused, the right of trial by jury; and that this meeting will use their exertions, together with others of their fellow-citizens, that all participators in the foregoing offences shall have full, fair and impartial trials.

Resolved, That this meeting pledge themselves, individually and collectively, to each other, and the community at large, that we will use our best endeavors to uphold the majesty of the laws, by affording our protection to private property and private right, wherever and however they may be assailed and by presenting to justice great as well as small offenders.

Resolved, That we condole with Mrs. Lucinda Morgan, in her afflictions, whose husband has been torn from his family and home for no crime known to our laws; and that we will exert ourselves to discover his fate, that if living, he may be restored to his friends, and if dead his murderers may be brought to justice; and for that purpose: --

Resolved, That a committee of vigilance and correspondence, of seven persons, be appointed, who are hereby empowered to appoint such agents to act in the premises in such manner as the said committee shall advise.

Resolved, That a subscription for the above purpose be obened by the said committee, and that the funds raised thereby, be applied as the said committee shall deem expedient.

And whereas, it appears to this meeting, that one or more subjects of the King of Great Britain were present for the very purpose of instigating, aiding and abetting our own citizens in the aforesaid infraction of the laws; Therefore,

Resolved, That it be recommended to the committee of vigilance, to open a correspondence with the executive of this state, requesting him to take such measures as may be by him deemed expedient, requiring the authorities of Canada to deliver up all aforesaid offenders, to the end that they may be brought to trial, and if found guilty, punished agreeably to our laws.

Voted, That the following persons compose the said committee of correspondence and vigilance, viz: Flavius J. Bronson, Orson Benjamin, Josiah Porter, Ba[nt] Bradley, Jonathan Buel, Ralph Wilcox and Heman Chapin.

Voted, That the proceedings of this meeting be signed by the Chairman and Secretary, and published in the papers of this county.

                          RALPH WILCOX, Ch'n.

Notes: (forthcoming)



No. 40 Vol. XXIV.]                         Wednesday, January 3, 1827.                          [Whole No. 1236.

The case of Morgan. -- The Circuit Court and Court of Oyer and Terminer, for Ontario county, is now holding here, Judge Throop presiding: (We were mistaken last week in naming Judge Walworth.) -- It is expected that the trials will commence this morning, of such of the persons as have been apprehended, who were indicted for the outrages commited against William Morgan. This affair, which has excited such lively sensibility throughout this and other counties, is now to have a judicial investigation. and we hope it will result in a manner to show the efficiency of law in all purposes of justice. We would not condemn all popular proceedings, relative to the violated rights of a citizen, but we restrain them so far as not to violate the rights of the accused, viz: the right to an impartial trial by jury. The ex parte evidence which has placed them on a jury of their country for trial, has to undergo an ordeal which will test its correctness; and we may hope that transactions so much enveloped in mystery, will be brought to light. -- To gratify the interest felt on this subject, we shall give in the next Repository a report of these trials, with as much particularity as practicable.

Monroe Meeting. -- A large and respectable meeting of the citizens of Monrie county, was held at Christopher's Hotel i Rochester, Dec. 14, to take into consideration the late outrage committed upon Capt. Morgan. The meeting was attended by free masons as well as others, and resolutions were passed, condemning in strong terms the outrage, as an open and flagrant violation of the laws; and pledging each his individual co-operation, in suitable measures to discover the fate of Morgan, and in ferreting out the prepetrators of the act, that they may be brought to punishment. A resolution was also passed, "disclaiming any sentiments of hostility to the fraternity of Masons as a body, and that we regard any insinuations that we are actuated by histility to this institution, as orginating either in ignorance or malevolence." A numerous and respectable committee was appointed, to solicit subscriptions, and to take such measures for the discovery of Morgan, as shall be deemed necessary,

The Rochester Telegraph, of Dec. 18, says -- "Several persons have been for some days engaged with spears and rakes, in fishing for the body of Morgan, along the Genesee River, below Hanford's landing! We have this from unquestionable authority. We are told also that a large proportion of our citizens firmly believe that Morgan was murdered within two miles of this village. Now we can assure the public that this opinion is entirely erroneous. Morgan has been distinctly traced west beyond the limits of this county."

The Rochester Daily Advertiser states, on the authority of a letter from Lewiston, that Morgan has been traced as far as Fort Niagara, where he was confined one night.

Notes: (forthcoming)



No. 15 Vol. XXV.]                         Wednesday, July 11, 1827.                          [Whole No. 1263.

Indian Literature. -- We have perused a pamphlet, recently published at Lewiston, in this county, entitled "David Cusick's Sketches of the Ancient History of the Six Nations: comprising, first, a tale of the foundations of the Great Island, now North-America. The Two Infants born, and the Creation of the Unoverse. 2d -- A real account of the settlement of North America, and their dissentions. -- 3d. Origin of the Kingdom of the Five Nations, which was called a Long House; the Wars, Fierce Animals, &c." This pamphlet is written by David Cusick, an Indian of the [T]uscaroa tribe. Our readers will be enabled to gather from the title page, a tolerable idea of the character of the work. It is composed almost wholly, of the traditions of the Indians -- their origin, progress, divisions, dissentions &c., and considering it the production of one placed beyond the walks of savage life only by a limited education, it is meritorious. An amazing phraseology peculiar to the Indian, which those acquainted with them have observed, displays itself throughout the pamphlet. In the preface, the author, in giving the motives that have led him to the undertaking, says: "after some hesitation I determined to commence the work; but found the history mixed with fables; and besides, examining myself, finding so small educated, that it was impossible to compose the work without much difficulty." -- Lockport Observatory.

Notes: (forthcoming)

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