(Newspapers of Ohio)

Misc. Ohio Newspapers
1840-1849 Articles

(from The American Pioneer, June 1843)

1800-28  |  1829-31  |  1832-34  |  1835-39  |  1840-49
1850-59  |  1860-79  |  1880-99  |  1900-09  |  1910-99

ORep May 21 '40   ORep May 28 '40   HudO Jun 18 '40   WMsg August '40   ONews Nov 20 '40   HRef Dec 08 '40
ORep Jan 28 '41   ClvH Jan 29 '41   HRef Mar 20 '41   OStat Mar 24 '41   OAtlas Mar 30 '41   HRef Jun 29 '41
ORep Jul 08 '41   ClvH Jul 19 '41   Exp Aug 25 '41   HudO Aug 26 '41   ITr Nov 19 '41   ClvH Nov 27 '41
OAtlas Dec 01 '41   ORep Dec 09 '41   ITr Dec 15 '41   ORep Dec 16 '41   HRef Dec 21 '41
ORep Jan 27 '42   ClvH Apr 25 '42   HRef May 10 '42   Exp May 25 '42   HRef Jun 07 '42   ORep Jun 09 '42
HRef Jun 14 '42   Exp Jun 22 '42   ITr Jun 22 '42   DCEn Jul 16 '42   HRef Jul 19 '42   ORep Jul 21 '42
ORep Jul 28 '42   DCEn Jul 29 '42   Exp Aug 03 '42   ORep Aug 11 '42   ORep Aug 18 '42   HRef Aug 30 '42
ORep Sep 01 '42   ORep Sep 08 '42   ORep Oct 20 '42   CPD Nov ? '42   Exp Nov 16 '42   LorR Nov 23 '42
OAtlas Dec 07 '42   ORep Dec 08 '42   HRef Dec 27 '42   ORep Jan 19 '43   HRef Feb 14 '43   ORep Feb 23 '43
Exp Mar 29 '43   ORep Apr 06 '43   HRef Apr 18 '43   ORep May 18 '43   HRef Jun 27 '43   ORep Jul 06 '43
CIntl Jul 11 '43   LorR Jul 12 '43   Exp Jul 12 '43   CIntl Jul 18 '43   ORep Jul 27 '43   LorR Sep 13 '43
HRef Sep 26 '43   Exp Sep 27 '43   LorR Sep 27 '43   ORep Sep 28 '43   LorR Oct 11 '43   ORep Oct 19 '43
ClvH Nov 29 '43   LorR Dec 27 '43
HRef Jan 23 '44   HRef Mar 19 '44   HRef Jun 18 '44   CGaz Jun 22 '44   Exp Jul 03 '44   HRef Jul 09 '44
Exp Jul 10 '44   ClvH Jul 11 '44   SCl Jul 13 '44   Exp Jul 17 '44   SCl Jul 20 '44   Exp Jul 24 '44
ORep Jul 25 '44   GJf Jul 26 '44   SCl Aug 24 '44   LorR Sep 11 '44   HudO Sep 11 '44   Miami Sep 17 '44
ClvH Sep 21 '44   BucE Sep 25 '44   ClvH Sep 27 '44   HudO Oct 02 '44   ORep Oct 03 '44   ClvH Oct 15 '44
HRef Dec 24 '44   HRef Feb 18 '45   ClvH Feb 19 '45   BucS Apr 22 '45   CPD May 05 '45   ClvH May 09 '45
ConRp May 15 '45   ConRp May 22 '45   SCl Jun 14 '45   SCl Jun 21 '45   ConRp Jun 26 '45   BucS Jul 22 '45
DDem Jul 31 '45   ClvH Sep 13 '45   OStat Sep 17 '45   SCl Oct 10 '45   SCl Oct 17 '45   CPD Oct 18 '45
ConRp Oct 23 '45   ClvH Oct 29 '45   ConRp Nov 13 '45   HRef Nov 18 '45   HRef Nov 25 '45   GJf Nov 27 '45
OStat Dec 03 '45   ClvH Dec 24 '45
CCom Feb 24 '46   GJef Apr 23 '46   ClvH May 05 '46   CPD May 13 '46   ZaneC May 17 '46   SCl Jun 02 '46
CPD Jun 25 '46   CCom Nov ?? '46   CCom Feb ?? '47   OStat Jun 02 '47   ClvH Sep 25 '47   CRep Oct 21 '47
CRep Nov 25 '47   EnL Dec '47   EnL Jan '48   EnL May '48   ClvH May 08 '48   SCl Oct 16 '49
CPD Feb 10 '49   HRef Apr 17 '49   ORep May 30 '49   NPar Jul 27 '49   NPar Jul 31 '49   CCom Aug ?? '49
CCom Sep ?? '49   CCom Oct 16 '49   HRef Oct 30 '49   ORep Dec 05 '49

Articles Index   |   Painesville Tel.  |   Painesville Rep.  |   Chardon Spectator


Vol. 26.                             Canton, Ohio, May 21, 1840.                             No. 3.


The Mormons have deputised twelve of their number (answering, we suppose, to the twelve Apostles,) to go to the Holy Land and preach the Gospel to the Jews. John Page and Orson Hyde are two of the number. The headquarters of the Mormons are now at Commerce, Illinois, on the Mississippi river. Their number is increasing.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 26.                             Canton, Ohio, May 28, 1840.                             No. 4.


The Peoria Register, published in the vicinity of the great Mormon settlement in Illinois, states that Joseph Smith has issued an edict directing his followers to vote against Mr. Van Buren. They will do so, EN MASSE, and in Illinois and Missouri they can poll from two to three thousand votes. The Mormons have heretofore voted for the Administration almost to a man, but the cavalier reception given to Smith when he called at the White House to ask protection for his followers against the inhuman persecutions of a portion of the people of Missouri, converted him from a friend to an enemy.     Clev. Her.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. XIV.                           Hudson, Ohio, Thursday, June 18, 1840.                           No. 2.


The Mormon system has a strange mixture of truth and errr, strength and weakness.

1. One of their most powerful engines for making proselytes, is their interpretation of prophecies. Their views are not much unlike Miller's -- the world is coming to a speedy end, and the Mormons are the saints who are to reign with Christ, (Rev. xx., &c.)

2. Another -- All will be saved who have not had an opportunity to embrace Mormonism here on earth.

3. If men are good Mormons, it matters not what they do. I have in mind a most notorious drunkard received into their communion last summer.

4. They embrace substantially the views of the modern perfectionists in regard to being led by the Spirit -- they cannot do wrong. Hence it is said they are led by the Spirit to do the foulest deeds.

5. No hell except for apostate Mormons; such have forgiveness neither in this life nor in that which is to come.

Of these men, there is one pretty large class, who are honest-hearted, credulous, deceived, duped.

A second class attach themselves to the sect from interested motives -- either lazy, shiftless, worthless men, or avaricious men, who hope to make money.

A third class comprises the leaders -- wicked, designing men; men of more or less talent, and ambitious, but who can never rise to much distinction among Christians, or who have lost their standing, and who wish to regain it without repentance.

Do you inquire if their number is increasing? I have reason to believe it is -- not so much, however, in the immediate vicinity of their community, where they live in a body, as by their preachers scattered around the country. Their zeal in making proselytes is worthy of a better cause. The mass of them who believe their system are ready to make any sacrifice of time, of means, of bodily effort. In one thing, they must be praised; I have never known a people who read the Bible so much, and who could so readily quote any part of Scripture. In this respect, they shame all other denominations. But they have the elements of death in their system, and nothing but the fresh revelations of Joe Smith, Sydney Rigdon, and others, to suit the passing emergency, keeps them together. For example -- when the people began to murmur because they were almost entirely houseless, naked, and without bread, while their leaders fared sumptuously every day, Smith had the following "revelation:"  "Inasmuch as Joseph Smith, and Sydney Rigdon, &c., have been faithful, I, the Lord, do command that Joseph Smith, Sydney Rigdon, &c., live as it seemeth good unto them." -- Home Missionary.

Notes: (forthcomong)


Vol. VIII.                          Cincinnati, Ohio, August, 1840.                          No. 4.


We republished in the Messenger, a year since, a letter purporting to be from Mrs. Spaulding, tending to show the Mormon Bible (as it is called) to be a forgery. We now, in justice to the Mormons, republish the following papers tending to show that letter to have been a forgery:

To the Editors of the New Era:

SIR: -- In your paper of the 25th inst. there is an article copied from the Boston Recorder, headed "Mormon Bible," and signed "Matilda Davidson," which, justice to our society and to the public requires me to answer, and I trust that a sense of justice will induce you sir, to give your readers both sides of the question.

I am one of the society who believe the "Book of Mormon," and as such I am assailed in the statement professing to come from Matilda Davidson.

The piece in your paper states that "Sidney Rigdon was connected in the printing office of Mr. Patterson," (in Pittsburgh) and that "this is a fact well known in that region, and as Rigdon himself has frequently stated." Here he had ample opportunity to become acquainted with Mr. Spaulding's manuscript (Romance) and to copy it if he chose." This statement is utterly and entirely false. Mr. Rigdon was never connected with the said printing establishment, either directly, or indirectly, and we defy the world to bring proof of any such connection. Now the person or persons who fabricated that falsehood, would do well to repent, and become persons of truth and veracity before they express such acute sensibility concerning the religious pretensions of others. The statement that Mr. Rigdon is one of the founders of the said religious sect is also incorrect.

The sect was founded in the state of New York while Mr. Rigdon resided in Ohio, several hundred miles distant. Mr. Rigdon embraced the doctrine through my instrumentality. I first presented the Book of Mormon to him. I stood upon the bank of the stream while he was baptized, and assisted to officiate in his ordination, and I myself was unacquainted with the system until some months after its organization, which was on the sixth of April, 1830, and I embraced it in September following.

The piece further states that "a woman preacher appointed a meeting at New Salem, Ohio, and in the meeting read and repeated copious extracts from the Book of Mormon." Now it is a fact well known, that we have not had a female preacher in our connection, for we do not believe in a female priesthood. It further says that the excitement in New Salem became so great that the inhabitants had a meeting and deputed Doctor Philaster Hulburt, one of their members, to repair to Spaulding's widow, and obtain from her the original manuscript of the Romance, &c. But the statement does not say whether he obtained the manuscript, but still leaves the impression that he did, and that it was compared with the Book of Mormon. Now whoever will read the work got up by said Hulburt entitled "Mormonism Unveiled," will find that he there states that the said manuscript of Spaulding's romance was lost and could no where be found. But the widow is here made to say that it is carefully preserved. Here seems to be some knavery or crooked work; and no wonder, for this said Hulburt is one of the most notorious rascals in the western country. He was first cut off from our society for an attempt at seduction and crime, and secondly he was laid under bonds in Geauga county, Ohio, for threatening to murder Joseph Smith, Jr., after which he laid a deep design of the Spaulding romance imposition, in which he has been backed by evil and designing men in different parts of the country, and sometimes by those who do not wish to do wrong, but who are ignorant on the subject. Now what but falsehood could be expected from such a person? Now if there is such a manuscript in existence, let it come forward at once, and not be kept in the dark. Again, if the public will be patient, they will doubtless find that the piece signed "Matilda Davidson" (Spaulding's widow) is a base fabrication by Priest Storrs of Holliston, Mass., in order to save his craft, after losing the deacon of his church, and several of its most pious and intelligent members, who left his society to embrace what they considered to be truth. At any rate, a judge of literary productions, who can swallow that piece of writing as the production of a woman in private life, can be made to believe that the Book of Mormon is a romance. For the one is as much like a romance as the other is like a woman's composition.

The production, signed Matilda Davidson, is evidently the work of a man accustomed to public address, and the Book of Mormon I know to be true, and the Spaulding story, as far as the origin of the Book of Mormon is connected with it, I know to be false.

I now leave the subject with a candid public, with a sincere desire, that those who have been deluded with such vain and foolish lies, may be undeceived.

Editors, who have given publicity to the Spaulding story, will do an act of justice by giving publicity to the foregoing.     P. P. PRATT.
N. Y. Nov. 27, 1839.

Copy of a letter written by Mr. John Haven of Holliston, Middlesex co. Massachusetts, to his daughter Elizabeth Haven of Quincy, Adams co., Illinois.

Your brother Jesse passed through Monson, where he saw Mrs. Davidson and her daughter, Mrs. McKinistry, and also Dr. Ely, and spent several hours with them, during which time he asked them the following questions, viz:

Did you, Mrs. Davidson, write a letter to John Storrs, giving an account of the origin of the Book of Mormon? Ans: I did not. Did you sign your name to it? Ans: I did not, neither did I ever see the letter until I saw it in the Boston Recorder: the letter was never brought to me to sign. Ques. What agency had you in having this letter sent to Mr. Storrs? Ans: D. R. Austin came to my house and asked me some questions, took some minutes on paper, and from these minutes wrote that letter. Ques. Is what is written in the letter true? Ans: In the main it is. Ques. Have you read the book of Mormon? Ans. I have read some in it; Ques. Does Mr. Spaulding's manuscript, and the Book of Mormon agree? Ans: I think some few of the names are alike. Ques. Does the manuscript describe an idolatrous or a religious people? Ans: An Idolatrous people. Ques. Where is the manuscript? Ans: Dr. P. Hurlburt came here and took it, said he would get it printed, and let me have onehalf the profits. Ques. Has Dr. P. Hurlburt got the manuscript printed? Ans: I received a letter stating it did not read as they expected, and they should not print it. Ques. How large is Mr. Spaulding's manuscript? Ans: About one third as large as the Book of Mormon. Ques. To Mrs. McKinestry -- how old were you when your father wrote the manuscript? Ans: About five years of age. Ques. Did you ever read the manuscript? Ans: When I was about twelve years old, I used to read it for diversion. Ques. Did the manuscript describe an Idolatrous or a religious people. Ans. An Idolatrous people. Ques. Do the manuscript and the Book of Mormon agree? Ans: I think some of the names agree. Ques. Are you certain that some of the names agree? Ans: I am not. Ques. Have you ever read any in the Book of Mormon? Ans: I have not. Ques. Was your name attached to that letter which was sent to Mr. John Storrs by your order? Ans: No, I never meant that my name should be there.

You see by the above questions and answers, that Mr. Austin, in his great zeal, to destroy the "Latter Day Saints," has asked Mrs. Davidson a few questions, then wrote a letter to Mr. Storrs, in his own language. I do not say that the above questions and answers, were given in the form that I have written them, but these questions were asked, and these answers given. Mrs. Davidson is about seventy years of age, and somewhat broke. This may certify that I am personally acquainted with Mr. Haven, his son and daughter, and I am satisfied they are person of truth. I have also read Mr. Haven's letter to his daughter, which has induced me to copy it for publication, and I further say, the above is a correct copy of Mr. Havens letter.
                                                A. BADLAM.

Note 1: The "republishing" done by the Editor of the Messenger undoubtedly came from the columns of the Mormons' own paper, the Nauvoo Times and Seasons of Jan. 1840. In that publication the LDS journalists provided several lines of copy, which were not copied into the Messenger, including this introduction: In this No. will be seen an article which we copy from the New York "Era," signed P. P. Pratt; it's in contradiction to the foolish simple priest fabricated tale that has been going the rounds, charging Sidney Rigdon with the crime of making the Book of Mormon, out of the romantic writings of one Solomon Spaulding &c. We can mingle our testimony with that of Elder Pratt's, we concur in his statement; we can assure the public that from our own personal knowledge, Elder Pratt has given a plain statement of facts. --- We also subjoin the copy of a letter written by one Mr. Haven from Mass. to his daughter in Quincy, Ill. which shows to a demonstration, that Mrs. Davidson did not write the letter, and that it was written, signed and circulated without her knowledge. Consequently it was got up by priests, upon her credit; the reason for getting it up, we think is obvious, for fair arguments, & every other means had failed to put down the truth, and this was the last resort; this having failed, we think both priests and people will hereafter sit in silence upon this subject...

Note 2: The Cincinnati Western Messenger is the only newspaper, other than Mormon periodicals, that is known to have published the communication from Elder Alexander Badlam, to the Illinois Quincy Whig, and first published in the latter paper on Nov. 16, 1839. It should be noted that Elder Badlam was a high ranking LDS official in Illinois and later a member of the Mormons' secret "Council of Fifty." He undoubtedly chose to publish Jesse Haven's 1839 report in that particular western Illinois newspaper, in order to calm the potential fears of the Mormons then congregating there, regarding published reports stating that Solomon Spalding's widow had written the damning "letter" printed in the Apr. 19, 1839 issue of the Boston Recorder, (accusing LDS leaders of having fabricated the Book of Mormon). Of course the widow did not write the exact text of the "letter;" she never claimed to have reviewed and signed the final draft of the statement, only to approving the notes from which it was developed. As the Boston Recorder's correspondent explained, on June 28, 1841: "It is very true Mrs. Davidson did not write a letter to me... But this she did do... she did sign her name to the original copy as prepared from her statement by Mr. Austin. This he told me last week."

Note 3: It should also be noted here that Jesse Haven, who interviewed Spalding's widow, was a Mormon Elder -- a missionary to England -- who was then operating under the general authority of Apostle Parley P. Pratt, the highest Mormon official in New York and New England. Pratt evidently sent Haven, "under cover," to interview the widow at her home in Monson, Massachusetts. Also, Elder Haven, as a Mormon missionary, functioned under the ultimate direction of Brigham Young, President of the LDS Quorum of Twelve. Haven was a first cousin of Brigham Young and would have obeyed orders given by Young and Pratt without question. The widow's grandson offered this information in 1877: "Rev. Mr. Spaulding's widow... live[ed] with her daughter at Monson many years ago, bringing the manuscript of his romance with her. She died some twenty-five years ago, but before her death a plausible young man from Boston came to Monson to see [her]... he claimed to represent some Christian people who wanted to expose Mormonism... the family have always considered that the bland young gentleman was an agent of Brigham Young's to destroy the convicting evidence that Joe Smith's Mormon Bible was of earthly origin." This 1877 information was published in a reporter's paraphrase and was intermingled with the account of how D. P. Hurlbut had visited with the same widow, also at Monson, six years earlier. However, after the details of the 1839 visit of Elder Haven are extracted from the account of the 1833 visit, and matched with LDS sources, it may be clearly seen that Haven obtained his information under false pretenses (not divulging his Mormon affiliations and connections). Elder Haven and/or Elder Badham, edited the facts obtained during Haven's long interview in such a way so as to provide just a few lines of "evidence," documenting the fact that Spalding's widow did not write the 1839 "letter." This single fact the Mormons advertised far and wide. However, the details of the circumstances and actions by which they obtain that information, they did not widely advertise until the widow was practically on her death-bed. There is no indication that the alibi that Elder Alexander Badham helped provide in 1839 was circulated in the east until its appearance in a 1841 LDS pamphlet, which the aged and "somewhat broke" widow (who died c. 1844) probably never had an opportunity to read nor respond to.



Vol. IV.                 Hillsborough, Ohio, Friday, November 20, 1840.                 No. 31.

The  Mormons.

We have received a copy of the newspaper printed by this sect, containing the minutes of their semi-annual Conference, held at Nauvoo, Illinois, on the 3d of October. The large number of five thousand was present, including elders and preachers. Nearly one hundred new converts were baptized. The Mormons appear to be in much better condition than at any previous time. They are industrious, frugal and prosperous. Their brethren from England were beginning to arrive among them. -- Cin. Gaz.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XI.                               Norwalk, Ohio, December 8, 1840.                               No. 46.

From the Alexandria Gazette.

A Glance at the Mormons.

Since the Mormons were expelled from the State of Missouri, they have purchased the town of Commerce, a situation of surpassing beauty, at the head of the lower rapids, on the Illinois shore of the upper Mississippi river. The name of the place they recently changed to Nauvoo, the Hebrew term for Fair or Beautiful. Around this place, as their centre, they are daily gathering from almost every quarter: and several hundred new houses, created within the last few months; attest to the passing traveller the energy, industry, and self-denial with which the community is imbued. They have also obtained possession of extensive lands on the opposite side of the river, in that charming portion of Iowa Territory, known as the 'Half Breed Reservation;' and there, upon the rolling and fertile prairies, they are rapidly selecting their homes and opening their farms. As the traveller now passes through those natural parks and fields of flowers, which the hand of the Creator seems to have originally planted there for the inspection of his own eye, he beholds their cabins dotted down in the most enchanting perspective, either on the borders of the timber, or beside the springs and streams of living water, which are interspersed on every hand.

Nor are they unmindful of their interests abroad, while they are thus accomplishing so much at home. No sect, with equal means, has probably ever suffered and achieved more in so short a time. Their elders have not only been commissioned and sent forth to every part of our own country, but they have left their families and friends behind them, and gone to Europe, and even to the Holy Land, to reveal the wonders of the "new and everlasting covenant;" and to preach "the dispensation of the fulness of times." They doubt not but that they shall be endued, when necessary, with power from on high to proclaim to all the nations of the earth in their own tongues, the wonderful works of God.

The signal success which every where attends their exertions, proves how well their religious system is adapted to give expression to the various forms of enthusiasm that pervade the religious sentiment of the day. Retaining many truths which are held in common by different denominations of Christians and covering their own absurdities with imposing forms and lofty pretensions, their system opens a winning asylum for all the disaffected or dissatisfied of other persuasions, and much that is congenial to almost every shade of erratic or radical religious character. As an illustration of this, it is stated, in the last number of their own journal, called "Times and seasons," that, on a single occasion in England, one of their elders lately baptized, among others, no less than thirteen preachers of one denomination of Christians.

The name of Mormon they disclaim, and affirm that it was given to them by their enemies. They call themselves "The Church of Jesus Christ, of Latter Day Saints," and number, among their chief ecclesiastical dignitaries, a prophet, patriarch, and a train of high priest[s], bishops, and elders. They are understood to disallow the truth and validity of other churches, and to believe that their own ecclesiastical constitution entitles them to expect the enjoyment of all other gifts and blessings of the church in ancient times. They teach that all who are baptized by immersion and under proper authority, are legally entitled to the remission of their sins, and the gift of the Holy Ghost. Among other religious exercises, they meet together to testify, to prophecy, to speak with tongues to interpret, and to relate their visions and revelations, and, in short, to exercise all the gifts of God, as set in order among the ancient churches. They believe that the restoration of Israel to Palestine, the rebuilding of Jerusalem, and the second advent of the Messiah are near at hand, -- and the dreadful calamities which have recently befallen some of the cities of our land, are set down upon their records as prophetic signs of the second coming of the Son of Man in the clouds of Heaven to open their millennial era.

As to the 'Book of Mormon,' while they place implicit confidence in its truth, they deny that it is a new Bible, to exclude the old, but a historical and religious record, written in ancient times, by a branch of the house of Israel that peopled America, from whom the Indians descended. -- The metallic plates, on which these records was engraved, lay deposited for many centuries in the earth, until at length, they were discovered and translated by Joseph Smith Jr. and found, not only to corroborate and confirm the truth of holy writ, but also to open the events of ancient America, as far back at least as the flood. -- They believe that this book pours the light of noonday upon the history of a nation, whose mounds and cities, and fortifications, still repose, in grand but melancholy ruins, upon the bosom of the western prairies; and the reason that it is not more generally received is the same that operated to prevent the reception of the Gospel, in the early ages of Christianity.

It was a beautiful morning towards the close of April last, when the writer of the foregoing sketch, accompanied by, a friend, crossed the Mississippi River, from Montrose, to pay a visit to the prophet. As we approached his house, we saw him ride up and alight from his beautiful horse; and handing the bridle to one of his followers in attendance, he waited in front of his gate to receive us. A number of principal men of the place soon collected around, apparently anxious to hear the words which fell from his lips. His bearing towards them was like one who has authority; and the deference which they paid him convinced us that his dominion was deeply seated in the empire of their consciences. To our minds, profound knowledge of human nature had evidently taught him that, of all principles, the most omnipotent is the religious principle, and to govern men of certain classes, it is only necessary to control their religious sentiments.

After he had shown us the fine grounds around his dwelling; he conducted us, at our request, to an upper room, where he drew aside the curtains of a case, and showed us several Egyptian Mummies, which we were told that the church had purchased, at his suggestion, some time before, for a large sum of money.

The embalmed body that stands near the center of the case, said he, is one of the Pharaohs, who sat on the throne of Egypt, and the female figure by it was probably one of the daughters.

It may have been the Princess Thermutis, I replied, "the same that rescued Moses from the waters of the Nile.

It is not improbable, answered the prophet, but my time has not yet allowed fully to examine and decide that point. Do you understand the Hebrew language, said he, raising his hand to the top of the case, and taking down a small Hebrew grammar of Rabbi Seixas?

That language has not altogether escaped my attention, was the reply.

He then walked to a secretary, on the opposite side of the room, and drew out several frames, covered with glass, under which were numerous fragments of Egyptian papyrus, on which, as usual, a great variety of hieroglyphical characters had been imprinted.

These ancient records, said he, throw great light on the subject of Christianity. They have been unrolled and preserved with great labor and care. My time has been hitherto too much taken up to translate the whole of them, but I will show you how I interpret certain parts. There, said he, pointing to a particular character, that is the signature of the patriarch Abraham.

It is indeed a most interesting autograph, I replied, and doubtless the only one extant. What an ornament it would be to have these ancient manuscripts handsomely set, in appropriate frames, and hung up around the walls of the temple which you are about to erect at this place.

Yes, replied the Prophet, and the translation hung up with them.

Thinking this a proper time to propose a few inquiries relative to some of his peculiar tenets, I observed that it was commonly reported of him, that he believed in the personal reign of the Messiah upon earth, during the millenial era.

I believe in no such thing, was his reply. At the opening of that period, I believe that Christ will descend; but will immediately return again to Heaven. Some of our elders, he continued, before I have found time to instruct them better, have unadvisedly propagated some such opinions; but I tell my people that it is absurd to suppose that Christ "will jump out of the frying pan into the fire." He is in a good place now, and it is not to be supposed that he will exchange it for a bad one.

Note: The above reprint terminates well before the end of the original article. See a reprint in the Oct. 17, 1840 issue of the Quincy Whig for the complete text.


Vol. 26.                                Canton, Ohio, January 28, 1841.                                No. 39.


THE MORMONS. -- A Mormon newspaper entitled "Times and Seasons," has been started at Nauvoo, Illinois. The first number, according to the Newark Advertiser, gives a history of the 'Rise of the Church,' (the true church, of course,) by which it appears that the Mormons recognize the entire Scriptures, including an "infinite atonement" by the Redeemer. Another article on the "Gospel" interprets the passage giving the Apostles the power of miracles, speaking in unknown tongues, &c., literally, and as applicable at this day. -- The Mormons have a regular Priesthood, "elders," "priests," &c., and "Aaronic" order, &c. It appears that they have numerous societies in various parts, the following being identically mentioned; Philadelphia, 255 members; Brooklyn, Long Island, 19; Monmouth county, New Jersey, 35; Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, 84; New York, 110; Hempstead, Long Island, 50; Chester county, Pennsylvania, 135; New Jersey, 116; Oneida, New York, 80.

At a recent meeting in Preston, England, 1800 members were present. Believing that the time for the "gathering" has arrived they have selected several points in the West for the home of the Latter Day Saints. The settlement at Nauvoo is said to be flourishing, and they have put down another "stake" at Ramous, in the same State. The Book of Mormon is one of the inspired supplements to the Scriptures, which, as they aver, were promised.

Notes: (forthcoming)


The  Cleveland  Daily  Herald.
Vol. VI.                               Cleveland, Ohio, Friday, January 29, 1841.                               No. 121.


TIMES AND SEASONS. -- Such is the title of a paper published semi-monthly by the Mormons at their new city of Nauvoo, Ill. To the honor of the people of the State of Illinois be it said, this singular sect are permitted to plant their "stakes" in peace within her borders, and to enjoy that security of life, liberty and property vouchsafed by law to others. The sect is rapidly increasing in Illinois and elsewhere. We copy a singular notice from the last "Times and Seasons." It reads:

"Elders Orson Hyde and John E. Page are informed, that the Lord is not well pleased with them in consequence of delaying their mission, (Elder John E. Page in particular,) and they are required by the First Presidency to hasten their journey towards their destination."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XI.                               Norwalk, Ohio, March 20, 1841.                               No. 46.


A Profitable Business. -- The Paymaster General of the Missouri Militia has made [a] report, in which it appears, that what he calls the Mormon War, [cost] the State of Missouri one hundred and fifty thousand dollars. -- Cin. Rep.

Notes: (forthcoming)


The Ohio Statesman.
Vol. II.                           Columbus, Ohio, Wednesday, March 24, 1841.                           No. 324.



Or a faithful account of that singular imposition and delusion, with sketches of the character of its propagators.

To Which are added inquires into the probability that the historical part of


was Written by One Soloman Spaulding, and by him intended to be published as a romance. By. E. D. Howe, Painesville.

Price 50 cents. Just received and for sale by

Note: After Lewis L. Rice purchased the Painesville Telegraph and all of the items in its printing office, he discovered a number of unbound pages prepared for E.D. Howe's 1834 Mormonism Unvailed. These he bound up with new title-pages and offered the results for sale in 1840-41.


Ohio  Atlas  and  Elyria  Advertiser.

Vol. IX.                               Elyria, Ohio, Tuesday, March 30, 1841.                               No. 45.


THE MORMON CITY. -- The fugitive Mormons from Missouri, with their brethren in Illinois, have established a city in the latter State. They have named their new place of settlement Nauvoo, and already report a population of three thousand. -- N. Y. Star.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XI.                               Norwalk, Ohio, June 29, 1841.                               No. 46.


NAUVOO -- JOE SMITH. -- A correspondent of the Cincinnati Chronicle, who recently paid the Mormons a visit, says that

'Nauvoo, the Mormon town, is laid out on a large scale, being two or three miles square, and though the houses are scattered, the whole presents a very fine appearance facing the west, with a gentle ascent back from the river. It contains over 3000 inhabitants, and is increasing. All who live there are of the true faith, and submit entirely to Smith's authority. Many of the farmers in the vicinity, who are not strictly his followers, believe in his divine authority, and some churches of other denominations have been closed. The have a college, publish a paper, and have organized several companies of troops under the name of the Nauvoo Legion, which is authorized by the State Government. They have just commenced building a 'Temple,' which the Missouri people say is nothing but a fort in disguise. We found Joe Smith on horseback, in a shining military suit, reviewing his troops. He is about 35 years of age, with a pale countenance, and is one of those men whose character cannot be read in the face. He seemed shrewd and quick, was polite, and conversed agreeably.'

A letter published in the Journal of Commerce, from the vicinity of Nauvoo, states that much excitement exists on both sides of the Mississippi against the Mormons, which is increasing fast, and that Joe Smith has been arrested by the authorities of Illinois, on a requisition from the Governor of Missouri. Joe is represented as having got into difficulty with the people of Iowa, as he claims a tract of 120,000 acres of land directly opposite the Mormon town on the opposite side of the river, by a direct revelation from God. About 2000 of his followers have taken possession, and set all human titles at defiance.

Martin Harris, one of the witnesses to the Golden Bible, and who has been teaching Mormonism for some time past, was found murdered not long since.

The Book of Mormon has been printed in England, and the new sect is rapidly increasing in numbers in the old world. -- Cleve. Her.

Note: The report of Martin's Harris' death turned out to be untrue.


Vol. 27.                             Canton, Ohio, July 8, 1841.                             No. 10.


The St. Louis Republican states that the Governor of Illinois has become, bona fide, a Mormon. The conversion was effected by a beautiful girl. Who can blame him?

Notes: (forthcoming)


The  Cleveland  Daily  Herald.
Vol. VI.                               Cleveland, Ohio, Monday, July 19, 1841.                               No. 121.


THE MORMONS. -- Joe Smith's disciples celebrated the 4th at Nauvoo with great pomp. It was a kind of military celebration, accompanied with an oration and feasting. Mr. Rigdon delivered the oration, and a table one thousand feet long was provided for the faithful. Joe Smith it seems wore "flaming regimentals" as commander in chief of the "Nauvoo Legion. The editor of the Burlington Hawkeye was present, and thus describes the appearance of the Mormons, &c.

As you approach Nauvoo from the river, and reach the bank, which is not very high, you begin to ascend a gentle slope of prairie, interspersed with a few scattering oaks. The ascent is gradual for nearly a mile as to cause no more inconvenience than in walking over a plain. The face of the whole town site for a mile up and down the river does not vary much from this description. About three-quarters of a mile from the landing we saw a large convocation of people, apparently engaged in listening to someone addressing them. Most of the Mormons could be distinguished by their militiary dress. We do not know how they appeared on parade, but as we saw them, they presented the appearance of having searched the world and all the armories to boot, to obtain their military dresses and equipment. They seemed in truth a motley crew; some with one pistol, some with two; others with a pike or harpoon. We even saw some with a brace of pistols, a gun and a sword. The cavalry or cohorts remained on their horses, and surrounded the stand, so that it was difficult to get near enough to hear Rigdon's speech to any advantage. Shortly after arriving we were obliged to disperse with the crowd, when we wended our way towards the dinner table. On the way we took a look at the foundation of the temple, which, with the help of one-tenth of all their labor, which we are informed is required, is progressing tolerably fast. Before going to the dinner table we visited the 'ox shed.' Here we found the 'front half' of twelve oxen as large as life, carved from wood. Some of them were in such a state of forwardness as to look quite natural. When finished they are to be gilded and placed within the temple, as the base of a great baptismal laver, according to the Mosaic ritual, we suppose. We then visited the table, but were not allowed to come very close on account of the guard. It was situated on a second bench of the prairie before mentioned, and was stretched along the plain for upwards of a thousand feet. After waiting a short time, the cannon -- they had several on the ground -- announced the approach of the procession. -- 'Jo Smith,' his body guard having retired, was now seated in a barouche at the foot of the procession, with what we took to be his family. He was dressed in a splendid uniform from top to toe. After he alighted and took the head of the table, the procession moved on, consisting of men, women and children, to their respective places at the table. The crier informed the surrounding multitude, that there was sufficient room for 500 more, but few took advantage of the information. We waited to see the 'Prophet' carve a large fat turkey, and distribute it to the ladies around, after which our company left the ground. Thus ended our visit to the Mormons.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VII.                             Norwalk, Ohio, August 25, 1841.                             No. 2.


We have seen it stated in one of the Western papers, that Joe Smith, the Mormon, once paid a visit to Keokuck, the Indian Chief, and attempted to persuade him to embrace the Mormon creed. He told the Indian that Mormonism would prevent the bullets from injuring him, and that he had himself been shot three times, and not hurt. Keokuck then requested Joe to stand sixty paces off, at which distance he would shoot at him three times with his rifle, and if he remained unharmed, the Indian promised to embrace Mormonism. This was rather too much for Joe, and he accordingly backed out, and refused to take him on "those conditions." -- Hartford Times.

Note: In other versions of the "twice-told" tale, the proselytizer is simply a nameless Mormon elder, or even an unnamed Protestant missionary.



Vol. ?                           Hudson, Ohio, Thursday, August 26, 1841.                           No. ?

1 Cor. 15:29.

Mr. Editor: You are aware that the above passage of Scripture is accounted a difficult one, and has been explained in different ways. I send you in addition the explanation as given by the Mormons: "Else what shall they do which are baptized for the dead. If the dead rise not at all, why are they then naptized for the dead?"

The Mormon doctrine is, that all who are so unhappy as to leave the world without embracing the fulness of the gospel, or the Mormon faith, will have the gospel preached to them again, founded on 1 Pet. 2:19, &c. "By which also he went and preached to the spirits in prison." This preaching they think is effectual. Many of the spirits in prison do repent and believe, but being disembodied they cannot literally comply with the command of our Savior to be baptized. -- Hence if they have living friends in the body, the duty of these friends is to come and be baptized in their stead. Neither is this an idle speculation or dead faith among them. -- Many have actually been baptised for their deceased friends. Upward sof twenty at one time in Kirtland were baptised in the name of the Holy Trinity in the stead of their friends, calling them by name, who died unbaptised. They consider this an act of pious affection due to departed friends, to aid them in completely fulfilling the injunctions of the gospel.
Yours, &c.       T. COE.      

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                             Elyria, Ohio, November 19, 1841.                             No. 1.


THE INDIAN'S OPINION OF THE BOOK OF MORMON. -- An old Indian having attended a Mormon meeting, and heard one of its advocates extol Mormonism, was requested to give his opinion on its merit. He began by detailing the great good which had been done by the Bible, of which God was the author. And, said he, the devil, seing this, determined that he would have a Bible of his own, and accordingly he wrote the book of Mormon; but on examination he felt ashamed of his work, and so he hid it in Ontario county, N. Y. But Jo Smith dug it up, and published it as a revelation from God! -- Manchester (N. H.) Herald.

Note: Oddly enough, the Editor of the Nauvoo Times and Seasons saw fit to reprint this caustic little anecdote in that paper's issue for July 1, 1844 -- the same number that announced the assassination of Joseph Smith, Jr.


The  Cleveland  Daily  Herald.
Vol. VII.                               Cleveland, Ohio, Saturday, November 27, 1841.                               No. 58.


THE MORMONS. -- This singular people are growing in numbers and gifts. We understand that to their old mode of worship practiced by them at Kirtland, dancing and kissing are now added. They are building up Nauvoo, their Holy City, rapidly, and accessions to the society from various sections of the United States as well as from Europe, are constantly arriving to occupy the "Promised Land." A splendid Temple for wirship, and an extensive Hotel for the accomodation of "the brethren," are now in progress at Nauvoo. One tenth of the labor of the whole community is devoted to constructing these edifices.

The origin and progress of Mormonism in this country is one of the marvels of the age. That it originated in and has been sustained by gross imposition on the credulous, hardly admits of a doubt. The deceptions have in many instances been so glaring, that none but the infatuated could close their eyes against them. The story of the finding of the Golden Bible -- the abstraction of the plates on which the strange characters are said to have been written -- the gift of tongues -- the new revelations -- the new prophecies made from time to time to meet occurring events, or else their total failure of "coming to pass" -- the abortion of attempted miracles -- were sufficient in the early days of Mormonism to stamp the whole as humbug of the first water. Persecution, however, took the place of investigation, and as a matter of course the Mormons "grew and multiplied." The followers of Joseph Smith were as humble and ready for the sacrifice as the old Christian martyrs, and the story of their wrongs and sufferings for the faith, is similarly soul-harowing.

The extravagance of the belief and conduct of the first converts to Mormonism is hardly credible, though what we shall relate we personally witnessed. At a protracted Mormon meeting, the gift of tongues and prophecy was claimed and taught by the elders. Accordingly these gifts were practised by the converts. At one time something like half a dozen of both sexes were stretched upon the fround together, struck down by the spirit, as asserted by the Mormon teachers. Suddenly one of the entranced would commence a low, gutteral kind of Indian dialect, and the others would join in the conversation in "unknown tongues" truly -- neither English, Dutch, French, Indian, or hog-latin! After entertaining themselves and the wondering spectators long enough with "tongues," they would start to their feet, and apparently controlled by the spirit, wildly gesticulate -- pluck the air as if gathering grapes -- feast on nothing -- hunt on the "promised land" -- ready, aim, and fire at the game -- then return and relate their success in "unknown tongues!" And the preachers of Mormonism gravely told the people these were the "signs which should distinguish the saints!" A few weeks after it was revealed to Jo Smith that all these "signs" were of the Devil -- and presto! they were gone to their reputed father!

Their prophecies were "off the same piece." The destruction of the world in three years was repeatedly predicted. One of the elders closed a cheering exhortation to his followers to prepare for the "Holy Land," by positively assuring them that ere long the whole country between Ohio and Missouri would be changed into a sea of waters, on which they would be triumphantly borne to the "promised land of milk and honey!" After patiently waiting some years for the promised flood, the credulous flock started for "New Jerusalem" with ox teams! The prophet had gone before on foot!

The Mormons now issue a monthly paper from Nauvoo, called "The Times and Seasons." From a late number we add a few extracts, to give an idea of some of their modern crotchets:

"The brethren are hereby notified, that our well beloved brother, Hyrum Smith, Patriarch of the church, has erected a comfortable office, opposite his dwelling house, where himself together with his scribe and recorder (James Sloan,) will attend regularly every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, during the entire day, or upon any other day, if urgent circumstances require it, to perform the duties of his high and holy calling.

"A copy of the blessing can be received immediately after being pronounced, so that the brethren who live at a distance can have it to take with them."

"It appears that the Mormons at Kirtland, Ohio, are about establishing a press at that place, and also design establishing themselves there permanently. In reference to this matter, the "Times and Seasons," published the following communicatiuon from the "patriarch of the whole church."

"All the saints that dwell in that land are commanded to come away, for this is, 'Thus saith the Lord;' therefore pay out no moneys nor properties for houses, nor lands, in that country, for if you do, you will lose them; for the time shall come that you shall not possess them in peace; but shall be scourged with a sore scourge; yet your children may possess them; but not until many years shall pass away; and, as to the organization of that branch of the church, it is not according to the spirit and will of God: and as to the designs of the leading members of that branch relative to the printing press, and the ordaining of Elders, and sending out elders to beg for the poor, are not according to the will of God; and in these things they shall not prosper, for they have neglected the House of the Lord, the Baptismal Font, in this place, wherein their dead may be redeemed, and the key of knowledge that unfolds the dispensation of the fulness of times may be turned, and the mysteries of God be unfolded, upon which the salvation of the world, and the redemption of their dead depends, for 'Thus saith the Lord,' 'there shall not be a general assembly or a general conference assembled together until the House of the Lord shall be finished, and the Baptismal Font, and if we are not diligent the church shall be rejected, and their dead also,' 'saith the Lord,' therefore, dear Brother, any proceedings otherwise than to put forth their hands with their might to do this work, is not according to the will of God, and shall not prosper; therefore tarry, not in any place whatever, but come forth unto this place from all the world, until it is filled up and polished, and sanctified according to my word, saith the Lord, come ye forth from the ends of the earth, that I may hide you from mine indignation that shall scourge the wicked, and then I will send forth and build up Kirtland, and it shall be polished and refined according to my word, therefore, your doings and your organizations, and designs in printing, or any of your councils, are not of me, saith the Lord, even so, Amen.
                 HYRUM SMITH. Patriarch
                            for the whole church."

Notes: (forthcoming)


and Elyria Advertiser.

Vol. X.                               Elyria, Ohio, December 1, 1841.                               No. ?


MORMONISM. -- When one of the Mormons in the confidence of the leaders at Kirtland, a few years since, under conviction of the sinfulness of deceptions practised there, made a confession in open meeting, the head men, Joseph Smith, Rigdon and others involved in the practices divulged, took a sudden departure. With them went such as would still adhere to them, and these with divers [converts?] added to them from this and other lands have since been building their New Jerusalem or Nauvoo in Missouri [sic - Illinois?]. It is already a place of considerable importance. In the mean time it appears that the party remaining at Kirtland, (which we have supposed to be the more honest portion of the community) have been "strengthening their position." -- Still adhering to the "golden bible" humbug, though discarding its inventors as their leaders, they have proposed to establish a press for themselves. One would think that enough of Mormonism to satisfy reasonable minds is developed in the following proclamation elicited from the authorities at Nauvoo by the movement at Kirtland. It is published in the Mormon paper at Nauvoo -- the 'Times and Seasons,' and is indeed a specimen of the times, to be admired.

"All the saints that dwell in that land are commanded to come away, for this is, 'Thus saith the Lord;' therefore pay out no monies nor properties for houses, nor lands, in that country, for if you do, you will lose them; for the time shall come that you shall not possess them in peace; but shall be scourged with a sore scourge; yet your children may possess them; but not until many years shall pass away; and; as to the organization of that branch of the church, it is not according to the spirit and will of God; and as to the designs of the leading members of that branch relative to the printing press, and the ordaining of Elders, and sending out Elders to beg for the poor, are not according to the will of God; and in these things they shall not prosper, for they have neglected the House of the Lord, the Baptismal Font, in this place, wherein their dead may be redeemed, and the key of knowledge that unfolds the dispensation of the fulness of times may be turned, and the mysteries of God be unfolded, upon which their salvation and the salvation of the world, and the redemption of their dead depends, for 'Thus saith the Lord,' 'there shall not be a General Assembly or a general conference assembled together until the House of the Lord shall be finished, and the Baptismal Font, and if we are not diligent the church shall be rejected, and their dead also,' 'Saith the Lord.' Therefore, dear Brother, any proceedings otherwise than to put forth their hands with their might to do this work, is not according to the will of God, and shall not prosper; therefore tarry, not in any place whatever, but come forth unto this place from all the world, until it is filled up, and polished, and sanctified according to my word, saith the Lord, come ye forth from the ends of the earth, that I may hide you from mine indignation that shall scourge the wicked, and then I will send forth and build up Kirtland, and it shall be polished and refined according to my [word], therefore, your doings and your organizations, and designs in printing, or any of your councils, are not of me, saith the Lord, even so, Amen.
HYRUM SMITH, Patriarch for the whole church.      

Note: See also the Huron Reflector for Dec. 21, 1841.


Vol. 27.                             Canton, Ohio, Dec. 9, 1841.                             No. 32.


The Mormons. -- On the 19th ult. 250 Mormons arrived at St. Louis from England, on their way to Nauvoo. Smith and Rigdon are also issuing edicts ordering the Mormons at Kirtland, Ohio to [move] to Nauvoo. They however refuse to do so.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                             Elyria, Ohio, December 15, 1841.                             No. 4.


MORMONS. -- The St. Louis Republican mentions the arrival of 250 Mormons in that city, from England, by way of New Orleans. They are going to Nauvoo, the city of the Latter Day Saints.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 27.                             Canton, Ohio, Dec. 16, 1841.                             No. 33.


THE MORMONS. -- The Warsaw Signal states that troubles are thickening in that region in reference to the Mormons. The inhabitants charge the Mormons with pilfering, and talk of driving them out of the country. We fear there will be trouble before Joe Smith's humbug is exploded. The Mormons are well prepared to fight, and will not be easily dispossessed of the promised land. -- Pittsb. Gazette.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XII.                               Norwalk, Ohio, December 21, 1841.                               No. 48.

The Mormons.

This singular people are growing in number and gifts. We understand that to their old mode of worship practiced by them at Kirtland, dancing and kissing are now admitted. They are building up Nauvoo, their Holy City, rapidly; and accessions to the society from various sections of the United States as well as from Europe, are constantly arriving to occupy the 'Promised Land.' A splendid Temple for worship, and an extensive hotel for the accommodation of 'the brethren,' are now in progress at Nauvoo. One-tenth of the labor of the whole community is devoted to constructing this edifice.

The origin and progress of Mormonism in this country is one of the [marvels] of the age. That it originated in and has been sustained by gross imposition on the credulous, hardly admits of a doubt. The deceptions have in many instances been so glaring, that none but the infatuated could close their eyes against them. The story of the finding of the Golden Bible -- the abstraction of the plates on which the strange characters are said to have been written; the gift of tongues; the new prophecies made from time to time to meet occurring events, or else their total failure of 'coming to pass' -- the abortion of attempted miracles -- were sufficient in the early days of Mormonism to stamp the whole as a humbug of the first water. Persecution, however, took the place of investigation, and as a matter of course the Mormons 'grew and multiplied.' The followers of Joseph Smith were as humble and ready for the sacrifice as the old Christian martyrs, and the story of their wrongs and sufferings for the faith, is similarly soul-harrowing.

The extravagance of the belief and conduct of some of the first converts to Mormonism is hardly credible, though what we shall relate we personally witnessed. At a protracted Mormon meeting, the gift of tongues and prophecy was claimed and taught by the elders. Accordingly these gifts were practiced by the converts. At one time something like half a dozen of both sexes were stretched upon the ground together, struck down by the spirit, as asserted by the Mormon teachers. Suddenly one of the entranced would commence a low, guttural kind of Indian dialect, and the others would join in the conversation in 'unknown tongues,' truly -- neither English, Dutch, French, Indian, or hog-latin! After entertaining themselves and the wandering spectators long enough with 'tongues,' they would start to their feet, and apparently controlled by the spirit, wildly gesticulate; pluck the air as if gathering grapes; feast on nothing; hunt in the 'promised land;' ready, aim, and fire at the game; then return and relate the success in 'unknown tongues!' And the preachers of Mormonism gravely told the people these were the 'signs which should distinguish the saints!' A few weeks after, it was revealed to Jo Smith that all these signs were of the Devil, and presto! they were gone to their reputed father!

Their prophecies were 'off the same piece.' The destruction of the world in three years was repeatedly predicted. One of the elders closed a cheering exhortation to his followers to prepare for the 'Holy Land,' by positively assuring them that ere long the whole country between Ohio and Missouri would be changed into a sea of waters, on which they would be triumphantly borne to the 'promised land of milk and honey!' After patiently waiting some years for the promised flood, the credulous flock started for 'New Jerusalem' with ox teams! The prophet had gone before on foot!

The Mormons now issue a monthly paper at Nauvoo, called 'The Times and Seasons.' From a late number we add a few extracts, to give an idea to some of their of their modern crotchets. -- C. Her.

'The brethren are hereby notified, that our well beloved brother, Hyrum Smith, Patriarch of the church, has erected a comfortable office, opposite his dwelling house, where himself together with his scribe and recorder (James Sloan,) will regularly every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, during the entire day, or upon any other day, if urgent circumstances require it, to perform the duties of his high and holy calling.

A copy of the blessing can be received immediately after being pronounced, so that the brethren who live at a distance can have it to take with them'

It appears that the Mormons at Kirtland, Ohio, are about establishing a press at that place, and also design establishing themselves there permanently. In reference to this matter, the 'Times and Seasons' publishes the following communication from the 'patriarch of the whole church,'

'All the saints that dwell in the land are commanded to come away, for this is, 'Thus saith the Lord;' therefore pay out no money nor properties for houses nor land, in that country, for if you do, you will lose them; for the time shall come that you shall not possess them in peace, but shall be scourged with a sore scourge; yet your children may possess them, but not until many years shall pass away, and, as to the origination of that branch of the church, it is not according to the spirit and will of God; and as to the designs of the leading members of that branch relative to the printing press, and the ordaining of Elders, and sending out Elders to beg for the poor, are not according to the will of God; and in these things they shall not prosper, for they have neglected the House of the Lord, the Baptismal Font, in this place, wherein their dead may be redeemed, and the key of knowledge that unfolds the dispensation of the fullness of times may be turned, and the mysteries of God be unfolded, upon which their salvation and the salvation of the world, and the redemption of their dead depends, for "Thus saith the Lord," "there shall not be a General Assembly for a general conference assembled together until the House of the Lord shall be finished, and the Baptismal Font, and if we are not diligent the church shall be rejected, and their dead also," "Saith the Lord," therefore, dear Brother, any proceedings otherwise than to put forth their hands with their might to do this work, is not according to the will of God, and shall not prosper; therefore tarry, not in any place whatever, but come forth unto this place from all the world, until it is filled up, and polished, and sanctified according to my word, saith the Lord, come ye forth from the ends of the earth, that I may hide you from mine indignation that shall scourge the wicked, and then I will send forth and build up Kirtland, and it shall be polished and refined according to my work; therefore, your doings and your organizations, and designs in printing, or any of your councils, are not of me, saith the Lord even so, Amen.   HYRUM SMITH, Patriarch for the whole church.

Joe Smith's New Peeping Stone. -- We learn from the most indisputable authority that Joe has found a new peeping stone. The circumstances of its discovery are rather curious, and we give them as received. He was walking some evenings ago, with a young lady, (or woman, which ever you please,) when suddenly he darted aside and leaped into a cellar, where he presently cried out 'how came I here?' and 'how shall I get out?' The lady with this seized him and raised him as though he had been a child. Joe then stated the miraculous manner of his being drawn by the power of God into the cellar, and to the very spot where laid the stone, which he says has the remarkable property of enabling him to translate unknown languages, and to discover the place where treasures are hidden.

Look out for miracles soon, Joe no doubt intends to find lots of money before long that for months have been laying by him. -- Warsaw Signal.

Note: The writer of the introductory portion of the first article above was evidently a staff writer or an editor at the Cleveland Herald and Gazette. For a similar, earlier specimen of the same writer's reminiscences regarding the Kirtland Mormons, see the Cleveland article reprinted in the columns of the Huron Reflector on May 14, 1839.


Vol. 27.                             Canton, Ohio, Jan. 27, 1842.                             No. 39.

From the Springfield Republic.


We have before us a copy of the Annual Report of the Directors and Superintendent of the Ohio Lunatic Asylum. The report is replete with interesting facts... The Superintendent has selected several cases from the recoveries of the last year, and gives a particular account... The most interesting is the following:

"No. 3. This was an interesting case... She was a lady of an amiable disposition, and of retiring modesty; but insanity left no trace of her natural character. The tenderly affectionate mother and devoted wife, became suddenly the furious maniac. During a short absence of her husband a stranger stopped at their residence, and announced himself in the double capacity of Mormon preacher and physician. After administering in the latter capacity, he commenced a harangue of a denunciatory and alarming character, uttering many of the conditional curses detailed in the 28th chapter of Deuteronomy, and denouncing, particularly upon the mother, that contained in the 53d verse. [cannibalistic infanticide] ... The result of this startling message upon a natural timidity. made more sensitive by impaired health, was to produce the greatest distress... Her husband returned to find her in a most deplorable condition, with the mere instinct of affection, struggling against the delusion of insanity... [delusional quotations from patient follow, ending with an account of her eventually recovery]

Mormons. -- Joseph Smith, generalisimo of the Nauvoo Legion, has issued a proclamation, ordering the Mormons in that state to vote for the Loco Foco candidates for Governor and Lieutenant Governor of that state in August next. This is a new thing under the sun.

Note: No record of the mentioned "Mormon preacher and physician" has been preserved in any other source. Evidently this case of insanity was not attributed to the diabolical machinations of Dr. John C. Bennett, practicing gynecologist and Assistant President of the LDS Church at Nauvoo.


The  Cleveland  Daily  Herald.
Vol. VIII.                               Cleveland, Ohio, Monday, April 25, 1842.                               No. 179.


MORMONISM. -- Mormon missionaries are diligently laboring in many portions of the United States, and with no little success. The Utica Gazette states that there is quite a congregation of the followers of Joe Smith in that city, and that relating visions and talking in "unknown tongues" form part of their religious exercises. The gift of tongues is conferred on little children, and when their "talk" is done an old saint gets up and translates for the satisfaction of the brethren and sisters, whose faith is greatly increased and strengthened thereby. The officiating Elder is David Blakesly, a seceder from Methodism.

The Mormons are determined to convert the world, and for that purpose are sending teachers of the Golden Bible to the "ends of the Earth." The Nauvoo Times and Seasons of the 18th ult. has a letter from Elder Orson Hyde at Jaffa, describing some of the wonderful sights he has been favored with in the far East. Elder Hyde is well known in the Lake country as a seceding Campbellite preacher and a pupil of Rigdon, now second to Joe Smith in the Mormon church. Soon after Hyde became a Mormon Elder, he publicly prophesied that in less than three years the whole country between Lake Erie and the "Promised Land" in Missouri would be a sea of waters, and that the faithful would float on it! Elder Hyde writes:

"On my passage from Beyroot to this place place (Jaffa) night before last, at one o'clock, as I was meditating on the deck of the vessel as she was beating down against a sultry wind, a very bright glittering sword appeared in the heavens, about six feet in length, with a beautiful hilt, as plain and complete as any cut you ever saw. And what is still more remarkable, an arm with a perfect hand stretched itself out, and took hold on the hilt of the sword. The appearance really made my hair rise, and the flesh, as it were, crawl on my bones. The Arabs made a wonderful outcry at the sight. Oh, Allah! Allah! Allah! was their exclamation all over the vessel. I mention this because you know there is a commandment of God for me, which says, 'Unto you it shall be given to know the signs of the times, and the sign of the coming of the Son of Man.'"
          Yours in Christ,           ORSON HYDE.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                               Norwalk, Ohio, May 10, 1842.                               No. 16.


The Pittsburgh American says, that "Joe Smith cannot be denied the attribute of greatness." We have considered the said Jo Smith, High Priest of Mormonism, and self-styled Prophet, as the prince of Loafers. He is a man without education or genius. He has a little low cunning. His only greatness must consist in rascality. He used to live near "these diggins," and some of his "revelations" were very financierish.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VII.                             Norwalk, Ohio, May 25, 1842.                             No. 41.


A Sign in the Heavens. -- Elder Orson Hyde, a Mormon prophet, is in the Holy Land. A recent letter from him, published in the Millenial Star, England, and copied in the Times and Seasons, details a most wonderful appearance in the heavens! He says:

On my passage from Beyroot to this place (Jaffa) night before last, at one o'clock, as I was meditating on the deck of the vessel as she was beating down against a sultry wind, a very bright glittering sword appeared in the heavens, about six feet in length, with a beautiful hilt, as plain and complete as any cut you ever saw. And what is still more remarkable, an arm with a perfect hand stretched itself out, and took hold on the hilt of the sword. The appearance really made my hair rise, and the flesh, as it were, crawl on my bones. The Arabs made a wonderful outcry at the sight. Oh, Allah! Allah! Allah!* was their exclamation all over the vessel. I mention this because you know there is a commandment of God for me, which says, "Unto you it shall be given to know the signs of the times, and the sign of the coming of the Son of Man."

Note: Some students of Mormon history have speculated that Orson Hyde never traveled any closer to the Holy Land than the port of Alexanderia -- that his major purpose in going aceoss the Atlantic, was to locate and obtain a special kind of printing press, suitable for the production of counterfeit bank notes, once it had been shipped back to Nauvoo.


Vol. XIII.                               Norwalk, Ohio, June 7, 1842.                               No. 20.


BANKRUPTS IN ILLINOIS. -- Joseph Smith, the chief prophet of the Mormons, Sidney Rigdon, and Hiram Smith, the two last far-famed teachers among the sect, have all applied for the benefit of the bankrupt act.

Joe Smith's debts amount to about $100,000, and among the assets, it is said, there is no trace of the celebrated Golden Bible, nor of any other book whatever.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 28.                             Canton, Ohio, June 9, 1842.                             No. 6.

The World in a Nut Shell.

Col. Pendleton, of Ohio, has introduced into Congress a bill to establish military posts in Oregon Territory... Joe Smith, the Mormon Prophet, is not dead....

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                               Norwalk, Ohio, June 14, 1842.                               No. 21.


The Mormon Bible is said to have been written for amusement in 1812 by Rev. Solomon Spaulding, who then lived at New Salem, Ohio. Sidney Rigdon worked in the office, [and probably] copied the original manuscript.

Note: The year 1842 saw a temporary increase in news items mentioning Solomon Spalding as the originator of the Book of Mormon. Perhaps this was due to the fact that three or four significant books on the Mormons appeared that year. At any rate, by 1842 it had become the accepted "conventional wisdom," that Sidney Rigdon once worked as a printer in the office where Spalding's manuscript was submitted for publication. Rigdon's early connection with the Patterson publishing operations in Pittsburgh was something less substantial than full time employment. That small fact did not deter overzealous reporters and editors from coming up with news items such as the above report, however.


Vol. VII.                             Norwalk, Ohio, Wednesday, June 22, 1842.                             No. 45.


The Mormons. -- The good old city of Salem, (Mass.) that pattern place in the land of steady habits, has been invaded by the Mormons, and strange to say, upwards eighty converts have been made. Meetings are now held frequently and crowds flock to listen to the strange doctrines of the "latter day saints."   Weekly Economist.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                             Elyria, Ohio, Wednesday, June 22, 1842.                             No. 31.


SAINTS AND PROPHETS IN TROUBLE. -- The Evening Journal publishes a letter dated Springfiled, Illinois, which represents the Mormon settlement to be subject to the pains and penalties of hard times, notwithstanding all the extraordinary sanctity of its high priests and elders. The following is an extract from the letter:

"You requested me, when I saw you last, at St. Louis, to inform you by letter directed to Philadelphia, whether Joseph Smith, the Mormon prophet had applied for the benefit of the Bankrupt Act. I have now before me the applications of the prophet, Joseph Smith, of Sidney Rigdon, and of Hiram Smith, the two last far-famed teachers of these deluded people. The debts of Smith amount to about $100,000. I have hastily calculated it just now, and made it amount to $99,325.27. His assets consist in some notes obtained from individuals for various amounts, in some trifling household furniture, and lots in Nauvoo. I have looked dilligently among the furniture for the golden Bible, but cannot see it named, in fact he has no Bible or book of any description in his inventory. The inventories and schedules of Sidney Rigdon and Hiram Smith are similar to Joseph Smith's except that Hiram has inventoried some children's books, a Bible, and book of Mormon. Sidney Rigdon had inventoried 1 vol. of Gill's body of Divinity, 1 old family Bible, 2 books of Mormon, 1 Hebrew, 2 Greek, and 1 Latin Grammar. These are teachers -- he is the prophet."

Note: Later in 1842, John C. Bennett took Smith to task for bankruptcy fraud, but his allegations in the pages of the Sangamo Journal appear to have raised no questions among the state government auditors at Springfield. An examination of the county real estate records, at the court house in Carthage, Illinois, indicates that Smith transferred some of his most valuable lots in Nauvoo, into the names of his wife and minor children shortly before making out his bankruptcy declaration in 1842. No doubt the Democratic "movers and shakers" in Springfield had more important things to do than examine the finances of their Democrat-voting associates in Nauvoo. William Smith, then a member of the Illinois Legislature, may have lobbied among the Whig representatives to also "look the other way."


Daily  Cincinnati  Enquirer.

Vol. II.                 Cincinnati, Ohio, July 16, 1842.                 No. 83.


==> It seems that there is a tremendous flare-up brewing in the Mormon church. Rigdon, Robinson, and others, Joe Smith's right-hand men, have left him, and talk of setting up gor themselves. It appears too, that they are telling tales out of school, or out of the church, which amounts to the same thing, and pretty startling tales too. The last Warsaw Signal says:

One disclosure particularly will prove interesting -- and that is in relation to Boggs's murder. -- Bennett states that A. P. Rockwood started suddenly from Nauvoo, about two weeks before Boggs's assassination; that he (Bennett) asked Joe where Rockwood had gone; and that Joe replied, that 'he had gone to Missouri to fulfil prophecies!!' He says further, that Rockwood returned to Nauvoo on the very day that the news of Governor Boggs' assassination arrived. Since that, the Prophet has presented said Rockwood with a carriage and horse, or horses; and he has suddenly become very flush of money, and lives in style. These statements we give as we received them. It is said that Bennett has affidavits to prove every fact stated, and will shortly present them to the world. If this be true, there will but little doubt remain, that Joe Smith was the real instigator of Boggs's assassination.

Note: The original Warsaw Signal report gave the name of the would-be assassin as "Mr. Rockwell." As it turns out, O. P. Rockwell and A. P. Rockwood were two entirely different Mormon Elders, both living in Nauvoo at this time.


Vol. XIII.                               Norwalk, Ohio, July 19, 1842.                               No. 26.


Trouble among the Mormons. -- The Mormon leaders at Nauvoo have got into a snarl, and some precious revelations touching the prophet Jo. Smith, are promised. The quarrel is between Smith, Rigdon, and Gen. John C. Bennett. The latter has been Commander in Chief of the Nauvoo Legion, and has possessed in an eminent degree, the confidence of Jo Smith. A letter from Bennett published in the last Burlington Hawkeye, shows that the schism is incurable, and that disclosures are forthcoming. Bennett says: --

"The holy Joe fears the consequence of my disclosures, and has threatened to take my life, and has ordered some of his Danite band to effect the murder clandestinely -- but he shall be exposed. If he murders me, others will avenge my blood, and expose him; If I live, I will do it to the entire satisfaction of all. Just suspend your judgment a few days until you see my expose in the "Sangamo Journal" of next week, or the week following, over my own name."
                              Cleve Herald.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 28.                             Canton, Ohio, July 21, 1842.                             No. 12.


==> John C. Bennett, the commander in chief of the Mormon Legion, has quarrelled with Joe Smith, and now threatens to expose Smith's impositions. He says that Smith threatens to kill him.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 28.                             Canton, Ohio, July 28, 1842.                             No. 13.

The World in a Nut Shell.

John Cook Bennett, late general and commander in chief has quarrelled with Joe Smith, the Mormon Prophet and is now publishing charges against Smith of all kinds of villainy, particularly of adultery, in which he gives [cases] and names, & gives what he believes is the evidence to prove that Joe sent a Mormon to kill Boggs of Missouri. The details are horrible. Great commotion exists at Nauvoo & it is said several of Joe's right hand men have joined Bennett's party. Bennett promises further developments.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Daily  Cincinnati  Enquirer.

Vol. II.                 Cincinnati, Ohio, Saturday, July 29, 1842.                 No. 94.


MORMONS. -- Lucifer is enjoying himself among the Mormons. Gen. Bennett has been excommunicated, and is out in the newspapers with an exposition of the enormities practiced by "holy Joe" and his disciples, charging them with all manner of licentiousness. Joe turns upon his accuser, and alleges that he is every thing that is vile and wicked. The probability is, that a gang of moe arrant villains than these same Mormon leaders was never assembled together before.

Their infatuated followers cannot much longer be deluded, so that we may soon expect to hear of the dissolution of that strange and superstitious sect.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VIII.                             Norwalk, Ohio, August 3, 1842.                             No. 51.


This graceless scamp and imposter, we trust will soon get his deserts. A more monstrous imposition was never practised upon humanity, than Joe Smith's wretched Mormonism, which so deeply infects portions of the western country. One Bennett, a sort of leader or chief "bottle holder" to Joe, has seceded from the concern, and the exposition he makes of Mormonism and its vile practices, should cause a torrent of indignation to come about his head. Bennett says Smith stands indicted for murder, treason, burglary and arson, in Missouri, and he defies the laws and legal constituted authorities to deliver him over for trial. Bennett has published a long list of charges against the Mormon leader, from which we extract the following:

"Joseph Smith, the great Mormon seducer, one who has seduced not only hundreds of single and married females, but more than the great Solomon, attempted to seduce Miss Nancy Rigdon, the eldest single daughter of Sidney Rigdon, to submit to his hellish purposes, and become one of his clandestine wives under the new dispensation. Call upon Miss Rigdon, who repulsed him with commendable firmness, and I will abide her testimony -- call, likewise, upon Gen. George W. Robinson, and Col. F. M. Higbee, to state what they know upon this subject. Gen. Robinson and Col. Higbee, can tell some astounding facts in relation to this matter. Joe approached Miss Rigdon "in the name of the Lord, and by his authority and permission," as he said. Joe attacked Mr. Rigdon, Gen. Robinson, Col. Higbee and myself, In order to destroy the influence of all of us to prevent the exposition of this case. -- But it is all true, and the legal evidence shall be forthcoming. Call upon Miss Martha Brotherton, of Warsaw, and see what she will say as to the base attempt at seduction in her own case. She can tell a tale of woe that would make humanity shudder. Call upon Miss Mitchell, of this city, one of the most chaste and spotless females in the west, and see what she knows as to the PROPHET'S SECRET WIVES. Hundreds of cases can be instanced, and if the Danites do not murder me, you shall hear a tale of pollution and sorrow. Joe's licentiousness is unparalleled in the annals of time. I have the evidence, and it shall come; and no attacks on me to divert the public mind from himself, and his iniquity shall avail him. My purpose is fixed, and the world shall know who the great impostor is. -- Time will not permit my going into further detail in this letter; but an abused and insulted public shall know all about it."


Nauvoo. -- We understand that the very mischief is brewing in Nauvoo, since the threatening of Bennett to expose the villainy of Joe and his satellites. Several of Joe's right hand men, among them, one of the Pratts, G. W. Robinson and Sidney Rigdon, have left the church and joined Bennett's party.

One disclosure particularly will prove interesting -- and that is in relation to Boggs's murder. Bennett states that A. P. Rockwood started suddenly from Nauvoo, about two weeks before Bogg's assassination; that he (Bennett) asked Joe where Rockwood had gone; and that Joe replied, that "he had gone to Missouri to fulfil prophecies!!!" He says further, that Rockwood returned to Nauvoo on the very day that the news of Governor Boggs' assassination arrived. Since that, the Prophet has presented said Rockwood with a carriage and horse, or horses; and he has suddenly become very flush of money, and lives in style. These statements we give as we received them. It is said that Bennett has affidavits to prove every fact above stated, and will shortly present them to the world. If this be true, there will but little doubt remain, that Joe Smith was the real instigator of Boggs's assassination.

We have seen Gen. Bennett, who says the above statement is strictly true, with the exception of the name of the assassin; which is O. P. Rockwell, and that Rockwell arrived at Nauvoo the day previous to the arrival of the news of Gov. Bogg's assassination.

An attempt has been made to assassinate Bennett -- after he had threatened to make his exposure, and a day or two before he left Nauvoo a carriage drove up to his residence with its wheels muffled and the horses' hoofs wrapped to prevent noise -- with several Mormons dressed as women, but Bennett was prepared to receive them, and they went off without molesting him.   St. Louis Bull.

Note: The John C. Bennett report, alleging that Joseph Smith had sent O. P. Rockwell to kill Liliburn W. Boggs, in order to "fulfil prophecy," was first printed in the July 9, 1842 issue of the Warsaw Signal. On July 12, 1842 the St. Louis Missouri Republican printed a garbled, two paragraph version of the news, giving the erroneous name of "A. P. Rockwood" in re-telling the story from the Signal. The name matter was cleared up somewhat when the St. Louis Bulletin ran the Republican's two garbled paragraphs and appended its own comments (in the last two paragraphs of the above item). Evidently this clarification appeared in the July 13th issue of the Bulletin, but the item has not yet been located for confirmation. In its number of July 14 issue the Bulletin published John C. Bennett's allegations in much greater detail.


Vol. 28.                             Canton, Ohio, August 11, 1842.                             No. 15.


==> Gen. Bennett, late of Nauvoo, has gone [to the] East, to publish a history of Mormonism.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 28.                             Canton, Ohio, August 18, 1842.                             No. 16.


Illinois -- In this repudiating state the Locos, as usual, have carried the state. The exact majority is not ascertained. The Mormons united with the Locos. Our old friend John Bailhache, former editor of the Ohio State Journal, is elected to the Legislature from Madison county....

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                               Norwalk, Ohio, August 30, 1842.                               No. 32.


JOE SMITH & CO. -- The St. Louis Republican has intelligence from Nauvoo that Gov. Carlin of Illinois has resolved to comply with the requisition of the Governor of Missouri, to deliver up Jo Smith, and A. [sic] P. Rockwell, who it is charged was employed by Smith to assassinate Ex-Gov. Boggs. Smith and Rockwell were arrested, but the prisoners were released on a habeas corpus issued by some of the Mormon authorities at Nauvoo. Further attempts were made to get possession of the prophet and Rockwell, but they could not be [found]. Smith, it was supposed, would go to England. -- Clev. Her.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 28.                             Canton, Ohio, September 1, 1842.                             No. 18.


MORMONS. -- After getting the Mormon votes, gov. Carlin of Illinois, on the requisition of the Governor of Missouri, issued a writ for the apprehension of Joe Smith and O. P. Rockwell. to answer to the charge of attempting to assassinate ex-Governor Boggs. They were arrested; and under the pretence of examination at Nauvoo, under a base law granted to Nauvoo by the locos, they escaped and could not be found at our last dates.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 28.                             Canton, Ohio, September 8, 1842.                             No. 19.


==> Joe Smith and Rockwell have not been found at our latest dates from Nauvoo, the Mormon city.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 28.                             Canton, Ohio, October 20, 1842.                             No. 25.


... If every child, under a claim founded upon the supposed rights of conscience, were allowed to carry into effect every decision of its immature judgment, where is this to end? Shall it be allowed under this pretense, to violate the law of God? to repudiate the Christian religion to become a Jew or a Mahomedan? -- Or, retaining the Christian name, shall it be allowed to mingle with the battle-axe community, who make it a matter of conscience to disregard the holy institution of marriage? -- Or, upon this pretense, shall the beloved daughter of a Christian parent, in a moment of delusion, and in the tender years of her minority, be allowed to become one of the secret wives of the Mormon Prophet...

Note: The modern student of Mormonism may find it rather perplexing to notice such very early references to Joseph Smith's polygamy in the public press, on one hand, and then, on the other hand, to encounter large numbers of Reorganized LDS who claim that such "secret wives" were unknown among the Nauvoo Saints, until Brigham Young led them to Utah, and there supposedly concocted Mormon polygamy. Accusations of polygamy among the Mormons and/or their top leaders, were evidently common enough as early as 1835, so as to merit a mention in the Kirtland edition of the Doctrine and Covenants. By 1842, pious writers were lecturing readers in the popular prints, not to let their young daughters be seduced into the harem of Joe Smith in his kingdom on the Mississippi.


Vol. ?                     Cleveland, Ohio, November ?, 1842.                     No. ?

Mormonism  Revived.

The Mormon temple, at Kirtland has lately been dedicated anew. On Saturday, the 29th ult., three of Joe Smith's specially commissioned and faithful followers arrived at the temple from Nauvoo, and commenced preaching faith and repentance. The Sunday morning following, they commenced baptizing in a branch of the Chagrin river, and continued at intervals for three days -- baptizing in all two hundred and six persons, at two shillings a head! Old converts were rebaptized, and their sins washed away for the same price as the young ones, making no distinction between old sheep and the lambs of the flock.

Note: The exact date of the above report is unknown. The text is taken from a reprint in the Dec. 16, 1842 issue of the Peoria Register.


Vol. VIII.                             Norwalk, Ohio, November 16, 1842.                             No. 14.


Mormonism Revived. -- The Mormon Temple at Kirtland has lately been dedicated anew to God, and the wand of the Prophet has been waking the dry bones in that valley. On Saturday the 19th ult., three of Joe Smith's specially commissioned and faithful followers arrived at the Temple from Nauvoo, and commenced preaching faith and repentance. The Sunday morning following at 8 o'clock, they commenced baptizing in a branch of the Chagrin River, and continued at intervals for three days -- baptizing in all 206 persons, at two shillings a head! Old converts were re-baptized, and their sins washed away, making no distinction between old sheep, and the lambs of the flock.

A strange world, this!   Plain Dealer,

Notes: (forthcoming)


Lorain  Republican.
NS Vol. II.                             Elyria, Ohio, November 23, 1842.                             No. 1.


The Liverpool Albion states that the [emigration of] "Mormons, or Latter Day Saints," from that port, is daily increasing. Notwithstanding the rascalities of their apostle, Joe Smith, having been so often denounced and exposed, these well meaning but deluded enthusiasts continue to leave their native country by hundreds, in order to swell the number of his dupes on this side of the Atlantic. The class of persons thus emigrating are represented to be in appearance and worldly circumstances above the run of ordinary steerage passengers. The bulk of them are from the midland counties -- farmers and farmers' servants, with their wives and families. Upwards of 5000 have already emigrated, and an equal number will probably leave before spring. As no better freight is offering, the New Orleans vessels are taking these disciples of the knavish blacksmith, at a very low figure. The Sydney, for instance, only received £ 115 for 180 of the Mormons, while the Henry had agreed to carry 140 for £ 100 -- little more than fifteen shillings a head!

Notes: (forthcoming)


Ohio Atlas and Elyria Advertiser.

Vol. XI.                             Elyria, Ohio, Wednesday, December 7, 1842.                            No. 30.


A gentleman just arrived from Nauvoo, states that whole families at a time, were continually leaving that place. -- The delusion appeared to be on the decline. Our informant describes the houses as small and mean looking log, board and sod shanties. The Temple is to be large -- should it ever be built; but at present the foundation only is laid. Joe Smith keeps the only store of any consequence, and of course he monopolizes most of the trading profits. The whole matter is a system, as he conceives, of cruel and heartless deception, selecting victims not only in this country, but even more extensively in England. -- Phila. Chronicle.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 28.                             Canton, Ohio, December 8, 1842.                             No. 32.


MORMONS. -- The ship Henry arrived at New Orleans, on the 20th ult., with a number of Mormons on board from England. An officer and ten men belonging to the U. S. cutter Woodbury, were also on board to preserve order, as some of Joe Smith's followers were charged with munity by the Captain of the Henry. The Picayune in describing them says: --

Like those of their "order," they seem to have endured their share of those privations which have been the parent of riots, "strikes," and chartistism in England; like them they appear to be people of very limited intelligence, and like them easily made the dupes of designing men and the believers of doctrines however absurd, particularly such as give promise of an improvement of their temporal condition.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIII.                             Norwalk, Ohio, December 27, 1842.                             No. 49.


Nauvoo. -- A gentleman just arrived from Nauvoo, informs the Editor of the Philadelphia Inquirer, that whole families at a time, were continually leaving that place. The delusion appeared to be on the decline. Our informant describes the houses as small and mean looking log, board and sod shanties. The Temple is to be large, should it ever be built, but at present the foundation only is laid. Joe Smith keeps the only store of any consequence, and of course he monopolizes most of the trading profits. The whole matter is a system, as he conceives, of cruel and heartless deception selecting victims not only in this country, but even more extensively in England.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 28.                             Canton, Ohio, January 19, 1843.                             No. 38.


FROZEN TO DEATH. -- Mr. Alpheus Harmon and his nephew Orsey Harmon, were frozen to death on Thursday, the 17th ult., on the open prairie between Carthage and Nauvoo, Illinois, about seven miles from the latter place. They were travelling across the prairie toards Nauvoo, with an ox team and wagon, and it is supposed they became bewildered in the storm. Mr. Harmon was one of the three hundred preachers commissioned by Joe Smith to preach the Mormon faith.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIV.                               Norwalk, Ohio, Feb. 14, 1843.                               No. 4.

A Mormon Miracle Knocked in the Head.

One of Joe Smith's holy clan finding that the disclosure of Mormonism by Bennett, had had the the effect of shaking the faith of his followers, determined to set his brain to work to invent a scheme how to recover the lost confidence of his congregation, cost what it might. For this purpose he procured a dove and taught the bird to fly to him, and eat from his ears, in which he placed the grains that served for his daily food. Having, as he thought, sufficiently trained the bird, he gave out that on the next Sabbath after lecturing he would prove by a miracle that he was a Prophet of God. The day came -- the meeting house was crowded; one of Erin's unsophisticated sons had been procured under promise of eternal secrecy to hide himself in the garret, and to let the messenger of peace fly at the word of command. All was arranged -- with a countenance lit up with confidence of success, the Latter Day Saint began his exhortation; pronounced Bennett a scroundrel, a liar and impostor; and to prove his assertions, he with a loud voice, called on Heaven to send down its holy spirit in the form of a dove, as it appeared hovering over our Saviour when baptised in the river Jordan. A dead silence prevailed: -- each eye was fixed with a superstitious awe on the excited prophet, who with extended arms loudly called for the Holy Ghost. Again and again he called, but still no answer was made; at last, fearful that his Hibernian agent in the loft had not heard him, he fairly burst forth, as he frantically clapped his hands and stamped his foot. "Holy Ghost, appear!"

When lo! and behold! the Irishman's red phiz protruded through a crack of the ceiling and addressed the discomfited prophet in this wise:

"Arrah, be Jasus, how can the Holy Ghost be making his appearance? Hasn't the cat ate him?   -- Mills Point Herald.

Note 1: The story of the designing preacher and his trained "holy" dove (untimely eaten by a cat or rat) was an old piece of American folklore appropriated by anti-Mormon writers to typify what they saw as the hoax of Joseph Smith's Mormonism -- no matter whether or not Smith and his saintly associates ever actually engaged in such outrageous conduct. Just such an account appeared in the columns of the Cincinnati Enquirer early in 1843. The Enquirer's dubious report may have been the first time the trained dove story was coupled with an account of the religion of Joseph Smith. The basic premise of the scene was not alien to Mormonism, however. Smith himself described the bird figure in his 1842 publication of the "Book of Abraham" graphics as a the Holy Ghost descending in the form of a dove. And, in a portion of the Book of Mormon supposedly written six centuries before the birth of Christianity, the ancient writer Nephi says "the Holy Ghost descended upon him in the form of a dove."

Note 2: A person whose identity was "withheld for prudential reasons" in Arthur B. Deming's Naked Truths No. 2 applies the time-worn dove tale to the scene of Smith's pulpit speech at the dedication of the Kirtland Temple. Two other of Deming's "witnesses," Stephen H. Hart and Mrs. Barber provide similar accounts. The Syracuse Empire State Democrat ran a series of "Mormon Anecdotes," of the same genre, beginning in its issue for July 20, 1844.


Vol. 28.                             Canton, Ohio, February 23, 1843.                             No. 42.

In 1842 the statistics of the Methodist Church was as follows: They have 33 Conferences; traveling preachers 4233; local [preachers] 7621; communicants 1,003, 901... Mormonites 19,000; Shakers, Moravians and Swedenborgians from 5 to 6,000 each. -- ... Joseph Smith, the Mormon Prophet, has been arrested on a charge of being accessary to the attempt to kill ex-governor Boggs of Missouri, tried and acquitted -- ...

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. VIII.                             Norwalk, Ohio, March 29, 1843.                             No. 33.


A false Spirit at Nauvoo. -- In the last number of Joe Smith's Times and Seasons," we find an account of a "false spirit," named Oliver Olney, who was recently tried "by the High Council, and disfellowshipped, because he would not have his writings tested by the word of God; evidently proving that he loves darkness rather than light, because his deeds are evil." Since his expulsion from the Church, he has been engaged in a campaign against Mormonism, and has been one of Bennett's right hand men -- he was also one of the contributors to the columns of the "Sangamo Journal," making, or professing to make, a great expose of the corrupt principles of Mormonism. It appears that this Olney broke into and robbed Joe Smith's store of upwards of one thousand dollars worth of property; he was arrested and openly confessed the whole circumstance of the theft; he, however, excaped from the officers who were carrying him to the county jail. Olney is represented as a large, powerful, athletic man. He was for a long time a member of the Nauvoo church, and always maintained a consistent character. The Times and Seasons has the following remarks respecting him. "Having become loosed from the moorings of eternal truth, and been dashing about on the waves of superstition, fanaticism and uncertainty, he became a fit subject to be duped by the notorious Bennett, and it would seem has been too apt a scholar to his teaching until he has become engulphed in the whirlpool of destruction; and he now stands as a lasting monument of folly and disgrace to those who may be tempted to tread in his footsteps." The Times and Seasons says, all they want in Nauvoo is a prison for rogues or "false spirits."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 28.                             Canton, Ohio, April 6, 1843.                             No. 49.


THE MORMONS. -- In the Illinois Legislature on the 27th ult., the Senate repealed the law creating the Nauvoo military corps. They also repealed the charter of the Mormon city of Nauvoo.

Note: The above report was a false one -- the Nauvoo charters remained in effect until several months after the death of Joseph Smith, Jr.


Vol. XIV.                               Norwalk, Ohio, April 18, 1843.                               No. 13.


MORMONISM. -- The Locos of Illinois, having no longer any use for Mormon support, are about depriving their allies of the privileges granted them for and in consideration of that support. A bill to repeal the charter of Nauvoo and disband the Legion has passed the Senate of that State.

Note: This is a false report with some basis in fact. Hancock Co. rep. William Smith (brother of Joseph) and his political allies in the Illinois Legislature derailed the 1843 proposition to amend the Mormon charters. Previously William had posed as a pseudo-Whig, but he and the vast majority of the Nauvooites were block-voting "Locos" (Democrats). The Mormons' Democratic allies in Springfield kept the charters proposal a dead issue until well after the assassination of William's two older brothers in June of 1844.


Vol. 29.                             Canton, Ohio, May 18, 1843.                             No. 3.


JOE SMITH -- THE MORMONS. -- The folloeing is the first intelligence we have for some time had, from the Mormon Prophet and his followers. We quote from a letter published in the Cincinnati Gazette, dated at Burlington, Iowa, April 23d.

Jo Smith, the Mormon Prophet, has lately laid out another town, about 3 miles below this, on the Illinois side of the river. He came up last fall in great pomp, with some three or four hundred of his deluded followers, and consecrated the spot. They are now busily engaged erecting improvements; some three hundred new emigrants were landed there yesterday, from variois parts of the world, principally England and Scotland. -- The call the new place "Chocokon," being the Indian name for "Flint Stone." Nauvoo, the great city of "the Latter Day Saints," is about twenty-five miles below this, and is continually receiving large additions to its numbers.

Note: The journal of the notable Mormon, Amasa M. Lyman, says: "The following winter [1842-43] I was engaged by the Prophet to move my family to Shockequon [Shoquoquon/Shockoquon], in Henderson County, where he had bought some property, I repaired to the place where I superintended the surveying of the town site and commenced building. I remained here until the following summer, of 1843, when the Prophet was kidnapped, when I participated in the efforts that resulted in his rescue."


Vol. XIV.                               Norwalk, Ohio, June 27, 1843.                               No. 23.


NAUVOO. -- The editor of the Cuyhoga Falls True American says, he conversed with a gentleman a day or two since, who had lately visited the Mormon Prophet, who states that there are now at Nauvoo, congregated from all parts of the world, some 17 or 18,000 souls -- in a miserable, wretched condition, subject to the order of Smith. While hundreds become dissatisfied with the represented "Promised Land," and leave for a better "heritage," their places are filling by fresh converts to a wicked system of delusion. The great temple, estimated to cost half a million of dollars, has advanced about 14 feet in its walls.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 29.                             Canton, Ohio, July 6, 1843.                             No. 10.


About four hundred Mormon men and women with about one hundred children passed down the Ohio river, bound for Nauvoo on the 10th ult., a few days before another party of them not quite so large went down. They were principally from New York and New England.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Chillicothe  Intelligencer.

Vol. I.                 Chillicothe, Ohio, Tuesday, July 11, 1843.                 No. 63.


A gentleman from Peoria reports that Joe Smith passed through that place on Wednesday last, for Springfield. He was in a carriage, in the custody of officers, and they crossed the ferry without stopping in town. The steamboat Maid of Iowa passed Peoria on Tuesday, and could not have reached Ottawa until after Joe Smith had started for Springfield.

We are told, and it is stated on the authority of a leading Mormon preacher now in this city, that half a dozen citizens of Missouri participated in the arrest of Joe Smith; that when this was accomplished, Joe procured writs to be issued against them, which were executed, and not being able to give bail, they were put in prison; that the Missourians sent an express, and secured the person of Joe Smith; and that it was to meet this body of men that large numbers of the Nauvoo Legion were despatched for Ottawa, by land and water. -- St. Louis Era, July 1st.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Lorain  Republican.

NS. Vol. II.                 Elyra, Ohio, Wed., July 12, 1843.                 No. 34.


A MUSEUM AT NAUVOO. -- The organ of the Mormons at Nauvoo, addresses a few words "to the Saints of all nations," respecting a Museum of curiosities which the prophet is anxious to establish. The invitation is as follows:

"According to a Revelation, received not long since, it appears to be the duty of the members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, to bring to Nauvoo, their precious things, such as antiquities, and, we may say, curiosities, whether animal, vegetable, or metallic, yea, petrifactions as well as inscriptions and hieroglyphics, for the purpose of establishing a Museum of the great things of God, and the inventions of man, at Nauvoo."

Note: History does not record whether or not the "Prophet" at Nauvoo desired to include the recently advertised (June, 1843) Kinderhook plates among the "inscriptions and hieroglyphics" and "the great things of God" in this proposed museum -- probably he did.


Vol. ?                             Norwalk, Ohio, July 12, 1843.                             No. ?

From the Illinois Free Trader.


On Monday, April 25th, at Kinderhook, Illinois, from a tumulus upon the buff, were dug out a number of copper plates, in company with Indian remains. The skull from under which these were taken, was of gigantic proportions. The plates were six in number, of a conical form, with the apex cut off; the base 3 1/4 inches wide; altitude 3 1/2 inches; with four columns of characters, evidently Chinese or Tartar, upon both sides, and these emblazoned with curious devices of suns, crescent moons, and stars of excellent workmanship. The plates had been held together by an iron ring; and upon exposure to the atmosphere the ring fell into oxyde, proving that a long time ago these were committed to parent earth. The writer could not purchase these reliques of by-gone times; the individual who held them considering the gentleman at Nauvoo -- to whom it is believed they have been forwarded -- the only known person capable of deciphering the probable mysterious import of these hieroglyphics; hence, no doubt we shall have another revelation from these wise ones. There appears, from the frequent occurence of remains bearing the stamp of antiquity being met with, that this portion, if not the whole of the elevated part of the Continent, has been once inhabited by a highly enlightened, consequently civilized people, of Asiatic extraction. The Indians are of Tartar conformation, changed probably by climate and pursuits; many of their rites are similar, and no doubt their origin is from the neighboring continent of Asia.   F. G.

==> Upwards of 400 men, women, and children recently passed up the Mississippi river, on their way to Nauvoo, to join the Mormons. Deluded mortals; they may get their eyes open after Joe Smith has plundered them of what money and virtue they possess.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Chillicothe  Intelligencer.

Vol. I.                 Chillicothe, Ohio, Tuesday, July 18, 1843.                 No. 68.

Mysterious Brass Plates. -- Origin of the Aborgines of America.

Our readers, doubtless, remember seeing some time since a floating paragraph stating that some brass plates, inscribed with hyeroglyphic characters, had been found in a mound somewhere in Illinois. On the minds of many, no doubt, it made no serious impression. It seems, however, that this discovery may be the one link wanting to connect the Aborigines of America with their Asiatic ancestors! A gentleman, recently from Illinois, a few days since called upon us, bringing with him a fac simile of these plates, with an authentic account of their discovery. There were sic brass plates, bell [shaped], and some three inches long, with hyereglyphic writing upon them, found in a mound of Illinois in this manner: -- The mound is near Kinderhook, Pike county, and was opened, we suppose, from curiosity. Some bones were found, and these so decomposed, that they mouldered away. Below were found these plates, hung in an iron ring. But the ring was so oxedyzed, that it too, fell to pieces, and was reduced to rust. The brass plates remained, and contained what seemed to be writing, descriptive of the persons who were entombed, or of the events meant to be commemorated.

Now, the first question undoubtedly is -- are these facts authentic? Were the plates so found? In such a place, and with these impressions? -- The paper which contains the fac similes, contains also the certificate of the persons who found them, and of twelve other persons, who, we are told, are farmers of the neighborhood, and who describe the manner in which the digging was made, and the manner in which the plates were discovered. We suppose the facts are so, and at all events this very certificate affords the means of ascertaining, by examining the persons in the neighborhood.

The next question is -- what are these characters? Are they like any other characters in the world? We are told, (without pretending to know,) that some of these characters are the Ancient Chinese! This is a fact capable of being perfectly ascertained. Suppose it to be so. That plates deposited in a mound of the West contained ancient (not modern) Chinese characters used in Asia three thousand years since, and that these had been so long buried in the earth that the iron ring which had bound them had rusted away! -- what follows? It seems to us that it would carry with it the inevitable conclusion, (a conclusion which all a priori reasoning arrives at,) that the Aborigines of this country came over from the Chinese part of Asia, and instead of progressing through the country from north to south, erected these mounds and fortifications -- finally settling in Mexico, here the Spaniards found them semi-civilized, and with all the characteristics of the general Asiatic [family]. If the facts stated above be authenticated, this conclusion is inevitable, and the long deficient link of evidence is found. -- Cincinnati Chronicle.

Note: A follow-up article from the columns of the Cincinnati Chronicle was reprinted in the July 27th issue of the Canton Ohio Repository.


Vol. 29.                             Canton, Ohio, July 27, 1843.                             No. 13.


THE ABORIGINAL HISTORY OF AMERICA. -- We yesterday gave a brief account of the brass plates, found at Kinderhook, Illinois, and of the important end to which they tend. Whether they are or not, is capable of proof. But these are not the only facts, proving one point, that the early inhabitants of this country had some hieroglyphic writing, unknown to us; and which, if traced up to one of the primitive nations in Asia, would connect the people together in a common root.... The brass plates afford the best opportunity... The inscription on those plates is a language. We have been told that it really is the old Chinese, and that it refers to what would seem to be the only object of the plates being placed there -- the character of a great man, who there reposed.... Cin. Chron.

The St. Louis papers say that Joe Smith, the Mormon, has been rescued by his followers, and is now at large. He was arrested for some offence committed in Missouri. -- O. Republican.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Lorain  Republican.

NS. Vol. II.                 Elyra, Ohio, Wed., September 13, 1843.                 No. 43.


PROSPECT OF ANOTHER MORMON WAR. -- The St. Louis New Era of the 16th instant says:

"We learn by a gentleman from Warsaw, that a meeting of the people of Hancock county to be held at Carthage, was called for to-day, to take into consideration their relations with the Mormons. It is said that a good deal of excitement exists against them, and apprehensions of a serious riot and outbreak were entertained. The people of that section of the state are as heartily tired of the Mormons as ever the citizens of Missouri were, but they have suffered them to obtain so strong a foothold that no power exists which can deprive them of their possessions, or induce them to abandon their present residence."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XIV.                               Norwalk, Ohio, Sept. 26, 1843.                               No. 36.


MORMON WAR BREWING . -- Jo Smith and his followers are becoming obnoxious to the people in the counties adjacent to Nauvoo, and the indications are that serious difficulties will soon occur between them. A meeting of delegates from Hancock and the surrounding counties has been held, at which strong Anti-Mormon resolutions were adopted, and the Burlington Hawkeye states, that the meeting declared that if Gov. Ford did not surrender Jo Smith on the requisition of the Governor of Missouri, they would call in aid from other counties to assist them in delivering him up. Rumors being prevalent that the Mormons had threatened lives of citizens, the meeting resolved to avenge any blood that might be shed. They also agreed not to obey the Mormon officers of the county. The Hawkeye says, "there is considerable excitement -- and we greatly fear the consequences." -- Cl. Her.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IX.                             Norwalk, Ohio, September 27, 1843.                             No. 7.


The Mormons. -- Joe Smith's new batch of parsons are traversing the whole state. It seems they are not altogether unsuccessful in their Missionary labors. Recently at Bunkum, a small place on the road to Danville, three of these preachers persuaded as many females to leave their liege lords and go with them to that city of delights and terrestrial paradise, the holy city of Nauvoo. What arguments the pious fathers made use of we have not ascertained, nor whether their success were owing to personal attractions -- a fine head of hair, a handsome hand, &c., matters which have been to the full as effective with the ladies in the pulpit as out of it. The husbands of the three Bunkum ladies were respectively a landlord, a tailor and a blacksmith. The son of Vulcan swore lustily that he would overhaul the saints and give them a sound drubbing. From what we hear we conclude that the others were but too glad to get rid of those who should have been but were not their better halves.   Chicago Express.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Lorain  Republican.

NS. Vol. II.                 Elyra, Ohio, Wed., September 27, 1843.                 No. 45.


MORMON WAR. -- It is now said there is a strong prospect of another outbreak against the Mormons. A good deal of excitement exists against them, among the people in their vicinity, and a meeting of the citizens of Hancock county was called for the 16th ult. at Carthage, to discuss their relations with the Mormons.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 29.                             Canton, Ohio, September 28, 1843.                             No. 22.


ANTI- MORMON MEETING. -- We learn that a large number of Delegates were in attendance at Carthage, on Wednesday last. The resolutions were of the strongest kind. -- They declared if Gov. Ford would not surrender "Jo Smith" on the requisition of the Governor of Missouri -- which he has refused to do from political considerations -- that they would call in aid from other counties and other States, to assist them in delivering him up. As rumors were prevalent that a number of the citizens had their lives threatened by the Mormons, the meeting resolved to avenge any blood that might be so shed. They agreed not to obey the mandates of the Mormon officers of the county, who have been put in power by the Mormons; the whole county treasury being now at their disposal. There is considerable excitement -- the crisis seems to be rapidly approaching -- and we greatly fear the consequences. All may be remedied, if the Mormons as a religious body, will but eschew politics and amalgamate with our citizens; but we fear it is too late to do even that. -- Hawkeye, Burlington, Iowa.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Lorain  Republican.

NS. Vol. II.                 Elyra, Ohio, Wed., October 11, 1843.                 No. 47.


THE MORMONS. -- At a meeting of the citizens of Hancock County, held at Carthage, Illinois, on the 6th instant, it was resolved to call in the citizens of the surrounding counties and States, to assist them in delivering up Jo Smith, if the Governor of Illinois refused to comply with the requisition of the Gov. of Missouri. The meeting also determined to avenge with blood, any assaults made upon the citizens by the Mormons. It was also resolved to refuse to obey the officers elected by the Mormons, who have complete control of the country, being a numerical majority.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 29.                             Canton, Ohio, October 19, 1843.                             No. 25.


THE MORMON PROPHET AGAIN. -- A gentleman from Nauvoo informs us that Joe Smith has sent to Gov. Ford for authority to defend himself by military force against a supposed attack of the Missourians. It is well understood that Joe apprehends no such attack, and that his making this request is more for the purpose, if grantd, of warring upon our citizens, than upon those of Missouri. Joe doubtless understands what his contract with Gov. Ford was, in trandferring the Mormon vote to Hoge, and it is reasonable to suppose that his call upon the Governor for the necessary authority will not be made in vain. -- Alton (Ill.) Tel.

Notes: (forthcoming)


The  Cleveland  Daily  Herald.
Vol. ?                               Cleveland, Ohio, Wednesday, November 29, 1843.                               No. 133.


==> The Warsaw (Illinois) Message says: -- "It is the rumor now at Nauvoo that Hyrum Smith has had a revelation confirming the spiritual wife system. Quite an excitement has been produced in consequence."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Lorain  Republican.
NS Vol. III.                             Elyria, Ohio, December 27, 1843.                             No. 6.


SPIRITUAL WIVES. -- The Warsaw (Ill.) Message says: "It is the rumor now at Nauvoo, that Hiram Smith has had a revelation concerning the spiritual wife system. Quite an excitement has been produced in consequence."

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XV.                               Norwalk, Ohio, January 23, 1844.                               No. 1.


ANCIENT RUINS. -- A gentleman who has traversed a large portion of the Indian country of Northern Texas, and the country lying between Santa Fe and the Pacific, informs the editors of the Houston Telegraph that there are vestiges of ancient cities and ruined temples on the Rio Puerco and Colorado of the West. On one of the branches of the Rio Puerco, a few days travel from Santa Fe, there is an immense pile of ruins that appear to belong to an ancient temple. The building occupies nearly an acre of ground -- portions of the wall are still standing, consisting of large blocks of limestone, regularly hewn, and laid in cement. The ruins bear a great resemblance to those of Palenque or Otolum. There are many similar ruins on the Colorado of the West, which empties into the California sea. Neither the Indians in the vicinity, nor the oldest Spanish settlers of the nearest settlement can give an account of the origin of these buildings.

Note: Such vague reports fanned the imaginations of the early LDS pioneers of the west, who were wont to see signs of prehistoric "Nephite" inhabitation in the sundry Indian artifacts of southern Utah and the region round about.


Vol. XV.                               Norwalk, Ohio, March 19, 1844.                               No. 9.

Another LocoFoco Candidate for President.

Jo Smith, the Mormon Prophet, has announced himself as a candidate for President of the United States. He has been obliged to take this course, he says, because he cannot give his support to either of the candidates that will probably be nominated for that office. He says he cannot vote for Mr. Clay, because he is too much a Federalist; nor for Van Buren, because he is still worse than Clay.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XV.                               Norwalk, Ohio, June 18, 1844.                               No. 22.


MORMON MISSIONARIES. -- The steamer Osprey, which arrived here this morning, brought down from Nauvoo between fifty and sixty Mormons, who are, it is said, regularly licensed preachers, sent out by Holy Joe to preach and expound the doctrines of the Latter Day Saints.

From a gentleman who came down on the same boat, and who resides in the vicinity, we learn that there are several families among them who are going to stop here -- as our informant expresses it -- to keep from starving, which he said they would certainly do if they remained in Nauvoo.

He also informed us that the increase by emigration from Europe within the last two months will amount to between six and eight hundred, and from the United States, (principally Pennsylvania, Connecticut and Massachusetts) to between three and four hundred souls: so great, and so unexpected had been the rush for a sight of the holy city, that the Prophet had not been able to provide places whereupon to rest their heads nor shelter to cover them, but that they were crowded together in small huts and houses, some of which are occupied by a dozen families; the weather had been so unfavorable that their usual occupation of brick making had ceased, and for want of the necessaries of life they were compelled to leave. This did not seem to affect the Prophet much, as he already began to find the kingdom rather heavy for his shoulders, and is himself doing his best to get clear of a portion of the disaffected under the pretext of sending them off to preach.

Our informant further states that a few days since he marched off no less than fifty under the same orders, and that many more will go on a similar errand in a short time. This is the plan, it is said, that Holy Joe has adopted to rid himself of the more intelligent and influential portion, and by this means he expects to break down the late schism which has been formed against his entire control by Foster, Law, and a number of other disaffected spirits. Last Monday he visited Carthage, escorted by his body guard, to answer an indictment for bigamy, which had been found against him by the Grand Jury of Hancock county; but owing to some informality in the proceedings, the trial was put off until the next term of the court. He returned to Nauvoo in great spirits, called a review of the Legion, gave a supper to the head men of the nation, and preached a sermon, the substance of which was that it was always so when the wicked conspired against the Prophets of the Lord.   -- St. Louis New Era.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                               Cincinnati, Ohio, June 22, 1844.                               No. ?


A slip from Warsaw, Illinois, gives the proceedings of the citizens of that place on the 12th instant, relating to the violent destruction of the Nauvoo Expositor establishment, and a threat to destroy the Warsaw Signal, and to assassinate its editor. The meeting regards these acts of violence and threats such as should command the services of every good citizen to put an immediate stop to the mad career of the Prophet Smith. They declare their readiness to defend the Warsaw Press, and in case any citizen, in consequence of any attack being deprived of life, to take terrible vengeance. "They hold themselves ready to co-operate with other citizens to utterly exterminate the wicked and abominable leaders." They raised a committee to notify all persons in the township suspected of being tools of the Prophet, to "leave immediately on pain of instant vengeance, and recommend a like step in other townships, pledging assistance, &c. That all Mormons should be driven into Nauvoo from the surrounding settlements, the Prophet and his adherents then demanded, and if not surrendered, that a war of extermination be waged, if necessary, for the defence of the people, to the entire destruction of the Prophet and his adherents, and to this end that every citizen arm himself. The Nauvoo City Council to imprison any officer arresting any citizen of Nauvoo engaged in destroying the Expositor Press; to take him out of the city for trial. A mass meeting has been called to assemble at Carthage. The streets of Warsaw are patrolled. The excitement in the country is immense. A public meeting to consider on this subject has been called in St. Louis. In addition, we learn that the captain of the Warsaw Cadets left for Quincy to procure a stand of arms, to be placed in the hands of the citizens of Warsaw. Unless the proper authorities take measures to check up or moderate this excitement, terrible consequences may ensue.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IX.                             Norwalk, Ohio, July 3, 1844.                             No. 47.


The Mormon War -- Late from Nauvoo. -- We fear ere this that blood has been shed in the city of the Prophet. Our dates from Nauvoo are to the 17th instant, and the 19th had been set by the exasperated enemies of the Mormons to rendezvous preparatory to the opening of the campaign. Cannon, arms and ammunition had been shipped from St. Louis; Gov. Ford had been applied to for his interposition to suppress Joe and his followers, and Warsaw, Carthage, Green Plains, Spilman's Landing, Chili and :a Harpe, were appointed as places for the military encampments of the Anti-Mormon volunteers. The greatest excitement prevailed in Hancock, Adams, and the adjacent counties of Illinois, and also in the neighboring counties in Iowa and Missouri. Numerous public meetings have been held, the proceedings all breathing extermination to the whole Mormon race.

Smith sets the law and the people at defiance. Officers of justice arrested several persons who destroyer the Expositor printing press; but they were immediately bro't before Smith's Corporation Court of Nauvoo and "honorably discharged." About 200 disaffected Mormons had left Nauvoo.   Cleveland Herald.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XV.                               Norwalk, Ohio, July 9, 1844.                               No. 25.

Death of Joe Smith, the
Mormon Prophet.

The last southern mail brought the news of the death of JOE SMITH and his brother Hiram, at Carthage, Illinois, on the afternoon of the 27th ult. For several days past we have been expecting to hear of there being blood shed at or near Nauvoo, as the anti-Mormon citizens of the county were greatly exasperated in consequence of the destruction of the "Expositor" printing office, by the authorities of Nauvoo.

We give the news as it comes to us, and we think the statements in the main may be relied upon, although there appears to be some discrepancy in the details. One account that we have seen, says that on the afternoon of June 27th, between 5 and 6 o'clock, an armed multitude visited the jail at Carthage, bore off the guard, and killed Joseph and Hiram Smith, and two of his associates. We hope it is not true that the lives of these Mormon Impostors have been taken by mob violence,

From the St. Louis Evening Gazette, Extra.

Friend Flagg -- Enclosed you have a copy of an "Extra" issued at Quincy. We left Nauvoo about daylight this morning (Friday 28th) all was quiet. The Mormons had not heard of the death of the Smiths, as Gov. Ford, who was encamped a few miles back, had (as supposed,) intercepted the messengers from Carthage.

At Warsaw, all was excitement. The women and chidren were all removed, and an immediate attack was expected from the Mormons.

We met the "Boreas," just above Quincy, with 300 men armed and equipped for Warsaw, eager for fight.

I send the "Quincy Herald" printed this morning, containing the particulars of Smith's death. In haste, yours, &c.   A. J. STONE.
On board Steamboat St. Croix:
Friday Evening, June 28, 1844.

From the Quincy Herald, Friday Morning, 3 o'clock.

(read original report from Quincy paper)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IX.                             Norwalk, Ohio, July 10, 1844.                             No. 48.


We received the following last evening, by a passenger:

From the St. Louis Evening Gazette Extra.

Friend Flagg -- Enclosed you have a copy of an "Extra" issued at Quincy. We left Nauvoo about day light this morning (Friday 28th;) all was quiet. The Mormons had not heard of the death of the Smiths, as Gov. Ford, who was encamped a few miles back, had (as supposed,) intercepted the messengers from Carthage.

At Warsaw, all was excitement. The women and children were all removed, and an immediate attack was expected from the Mormons.

We met the "Boreas," just above Quincy, with 300 men armed and equipped for Warsaw, eager for fight.

I send the "Quincy Herald" printed this morning, containing the particulars of Smith's death.   In haste, yours, &c.
               A. J. STONE.
On board Steamboat St. Croix:
Friday Evening, June 28, 1844.

(see orginal article in Quincy newspaper)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. X.                             Cleveland, Ohio, Thursday, July 11, 1844.                             No. 14.


SUPERSTITIOUS CREDULITY. -- No great wonder that the Puritans believed in witches, for in this our day and generation a portion of the people exhibit similar gumption. An instance near by. A Mr. Wait, of Orange, disappeared from this city some weeks since quite suddenly and mysteriously, though circumstances enough attending his exit have come to light to convince most persons that he took himself off Texas or Canada-ward; most probably the former, as he was a very active Polk and Texas leader.

Well, a very worthy old lady in the vicinity of Orange, possesses the truly extraordinary gift of a "peeping stone" -- possibly the identical one of the late Mormon Prophet "saw through" when he translated the golden plates. This wonderful stone she placed in a hat, and with a vision most extraordinary, saw where the unfortunate Wait was butchered and packed like an ox in a barrel, and sunk in the muddy Cuyahoga! The exact number of murderers, three, we understand, was designated, and the bloody boat in which the body was conveyed and chucked into the turbid flood. The revelation was credited and a party of several men, who possessed the faith, came on, found the identical bloody boat, the spot where the body was deposited, and dragged the river in search, but found nothing for their pains. They returned and reported progress. Another peep into the stone in the hat informed the gullibles that they had almost reached the barrelled body, which had been removed a short distance by the murderers while they were delaying the search. The precise spot was again pointed out, and another search instituted, but unfortunatelyfor the credit of the supernatural gift of the old lady, without success. Animal magnetism was next tried, and the clairvoyant engaged for $100 to reveal the murder and find the body; no success, no pay. The clairvoyant, we are informed, traced the body to its resting place under the keel of a mighty steamer, but has not yet proved himself entitled to the reward.

Is it a marvel that witches were hung in former ages of the world, or that such isms as Mormonism should flourish in this?

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 23.                           Sandusky, Ohio, Saturday, July 13, 1844.                           No. 5.

From the Cincinnati Atlas


We are indebted to Mr. England,of Mount Vernon, for the St. Louis papers in advance of the mail, as usual.

There was nothing later, of importance, from Nauvoo. Joe Smith was at Carthage, under arrest; and much anxiety was felt that he might be assassinated, so great was the excitement.

... On the steamer Osprey's way up she was obliged to undergo a strict investigation at Warsaw, under the suspicion that she had powder and muskets on board for Nauvoo; and an armed force of militia drawn up in front of the boat, and a cannon, charged to the muzzle, placed so as to rake the whole boat in case of resistance to their orders.

They stated that the governor of Illinois had ordered a search upon every boat passing that place; but when the documents were demanded, they could not be produced. No such order was ever given by the governor in regard to noats proceeding up.

The lives of every on board were put in jeopardy by one of the cpmpany on shore running forward with a torch for the purpose of firing off the gun, but he was prevented by the bystanders.

An extra from the office of the Warsaw Signal contains the correspondence of Gov. Ford with Joe Smith, in which the governor makes known to Joe the complaints made against the authorities of Nauvoo, requesting him to send a deputation to explain the accusations. Joe sent a committee accordingly, with affidavits, explaining the affair of destroying the press as a nuisance, &c.

Gov. Ford then caused the authorities of Nauvoo to be informed that they must continue to make complete submission to the laws, and that in this particular case, they must permit an arrest to be made of the accused persons, by the same constable and by virtue of the same warrant, to be tried by the same justice whose authority had been resisted -- and if they did not submit to an arrest, the military would be called out, and that if a few would be insufficient, many thousands would be sufficient.

The constable was then dispatched with a suitable escort, who returned after visiting Nauvoo without being able to find the accused, who were secreted. Gov. Ford informed Joe, that, unless the accused were delivered up, he should have to make a military search for them.

Report says, that Joe agreed to produce them, upon a pledge from the governor that they should be protected and have a fair trial. Gov. Ford had also demanded the state arms deposited at Nauvoo, which Joe had agreed to deliver up.


Since writing the above, we have received the following communication from Gov. Ford to the editor of the Warsaw Signal:

Carthage, June 24, 1844.    
Dear Sir: Some misunderstanding between the constable and persons accused in Nauvoo, as to the time of departure, caused the constable to return yesterday without prisoners. In the evening four of the prisoners came in and surrendered themselves. A request was made for another escort for Smith, and the others accused, for to-morrow, which upon due deliberation was refused.

Early this morning I despatched Capt. Dunn with his troop, to demand the artillery and public arms in Nauvoo. On the prairie, four miles on the way to Nauvoo, Capt. Dunn met Smith and the others coming out to Carthage. The order for arms was endorsed by Smith, who returned to Nauvoo to deliver the arms as requested. I am assured that the arms and artillery will return with Capt. Dunn to this place.

I am most respectfully, &c.
                                                      THOMAS FORD.
To the editor of the Warsaw Signal.

N.B. A large portion of the militia will be discharged this evening. I have the most satisfactory information that the Nauvoo Legion has been discharged, and that the Mormons from the country, assembled under arms in the city, have returned to their homes.   T. F.

From the St. Louis Evening Gazette Extra.

Friend Flagg: Enclosed you have a copy of the Extra issued at Quincy. We left Nauvoo about day light this morning, (Friday 28th.) all was quiet. The Mormons [had not] heard of the death of the Smiths, as Gov. Ford, who was encamped a few miles back, had (as supposed) intercepted the messengers from Carthage.

At Warsaw, all was excitement. The women and children were all removed, and an immediate attack was expected from the Mormons.

We met the Boreas, just above Quincy, with 300 men armed and equipped for Warsaw, eager for fight.

I send the Quincy Herald printed this morning, containing the particulars of Smith's death.
In haste, yours, &c.
                    A. J. STONE.
On Board Steamboat St. Croix,}
Friday evening, June 28, 1844.}

From the Quincy Herald, Friday, 3 o'clock A.M.

Joe and Hiram Smith are dead!!!

The steamboat Boreas just in from Warsaw, brings shocking intelligence from the scene of the Mormon war. The following slip from the office of the Warsaw Signal explains the dreadful tragedy:
"Joe and Hiram Smith are dead -- shot this afternoon. An attack from the Mormons is expected every hour. Will not the surrounding counties rush instantly to our rescue?
                    Warsaw, June 27th. 1844.
It seems that the circumstances attending the killing of the Mormon Prophet and his brother Hiram are as follows:

On yesterday Gov. Ford left Carthage with about 120 soldiers for the purpose of taking possession of the "Nauvoo Legion" and their arms. They arrived at Nauvoo about noon, and called for the assembling of the Legion.

About 2000 men with arms immediately responded to its call. These troops were put under command of Col. Singleton of Brown county, who accompanied Gov. Ford to Nauvoo.

The governor finding all quiet left Nauvoo about 5 o'clock P. M. with a company of 60 men for the purpose of encamping about seven miles from the city.

At about the same time that Gov. Ford left Nauvoo, the prophet and his brother were killed at Carthage, under the following circumstances, as near as we can ascertain them:

Joe and Hiram were both confined in the debtor's room of the Carthage jail, awaiting their trial on a charge of treason. The jail was strongly guarded by soldiers and anti-Mormons, who had been placed there by the governor.

A Mormon attempted to rush by the guard for the purpose of forcing his way into the jail. He was opposed by the guard, and fired a pistol at one of the guard, giving him a slight wound.

A general confusion ensued in the crowd around the jail. Joe and his Mormon fellow prisoners it seems had provided themselves with pistols, and commenced firing upon the guard within. He then attempted to escape from the window, when a hundred balls entered his body, and he fell a lifeless corpse.

His brother Hiram shared the same fate. Richards, a leading Mormon, was badly wounded. There our intelligence ends -- what took place after this, God only knows. Mormons immediately left for Nauvoo to carry the news of the death of the prophet. It is feared that the Mormons at Nauvoo will be so exasperated as to exterminate the governor and his small force.

The Boreas brought down most of the women and children from Warsaw. It is feared their town is in ashes before this.

Our citizens were aroused this morning by the ringing of bells and a call to arms. Our three independent companies are already in marching order. Maj. Flood has ordered out the militia of this regiment, and the steamer Boreas is waiting to convey them to the scene of action.

There is no knowing where this dreadful affair will end. Many have expressed fears that our city is in danger, because most of the Warsaw families have taken refuge here -- but we believe there is no danger, we are too far from the scene of action.

Messengers have just left for Hannibal and the towns below for the purpose of arousing the Missourians. The excitement in our city is intense and the anxiety to hear the fate of Gov. Ford and his men is very great.

The Cincinnati Atlas of July 4 says:

"The Mendota left Nauvoo on Friday last at 4 o'clock. Capt. Riley furnished the New Era with many particulars not given in the extract from the Quincy Whig, and published in the postscript to yesterday's Atlas. He says he stopped at Nauvoo several hours and talked with a number of the Mormons; and that while there a body of Mormons came in, bearing the dead bodies of Joe Smith and Hiram Smith. Mr. Phelps was not killed, but was in Nauvoo when the Mendota left, making a speech to the Mormons, and advising them to peace. No Mormons were killed except Joe and Hiram Smith.

"The Mormons all expressed a determination to keep the peace, and not to resort to arms except in necessary self defence. They state that, at Carthage, the Mormons were confined; that about 50 or 100 men disguised, suddenly rushed on the jail house; that the guard fired on them, and wounded three of them; that the men in disguise fired into the jail and killed Hiram Smith before the door was opened. -- Joe Smith had a revolving pistol, and fired it two or three times without effect, but was himself soon killed by the assailants; that Taylor, the editor of the Nauvoo Neighbor, was in jail, and was shot through the thigh, but not seriously injured. -- Richards was not injured. After the assault the disguised mob retreated, and it was not even known who they were. The guard consisted of 50 men, left by the governor, of whom only eight or ten were on duty when the attack was made on the jail house."

The Cincinnati Gazette, of July 4 we find the following:


"The reports about the Mormons and the death of Joe Smith and his brother are various and contradictory. A traveler just from the scene, of apparent candor and truth, gives the following account of the death of the prophet:
"He was left in prison with Hiram at Carthage, and a guard of 60 men placed over them by order of Gov. Ford. -- The guard, except about eight, had left their position at the jail, when a mob dressed in disguise, and painted black in their faces, rushed into the jail, shot Hiram dead, and then killed Joe. No resistance was made by either. Joe was leaning or sitting upon a window when shot; he fell from it exclaiming, My God! My God! and died. After he reached the ground he was stabbed, apparently by a young man, in the breast, who said, "damn you, take that, you killed my father."
We give this as we receive it, without being able to vouch for its correctness. -- We shall probably get at the truth in a day or two.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IX.                             Norwalk, Ohio, July 17, 1844.                             No. 49.

From the Ottowa (Illinois) Free Trader.


Destruction of a Printing Press -- a War of Extermination
Threatened-- Great Excitement.

Nauvoo has of later been the scene of a great deal of excitement, which threatens to end in tho most serious consequences. In the St. Louis Gazette, and the St. Louis Transcript, of the 12th to the 17th inst., we have two letters from Mr. C. A. Foster, and extracts from the Nauvuo Neighbor and from the Warsaw Signal, and other accounts, giving a history of events as they transpired at the holy city, down to the 15th inst.

It appears that, some time in April last, a number of Mormons residing at Nauvoo, becoming, for 1001 alleged reasons, dissatisfied wiih Smith and the church generally, as managed by him and his tools, formed themselves into a new society, slyled the "Reform Mormon Church," and elected William Law iheir President. The seceders were, of course, at once fiercely assailed by the papers at Nauvoo in the interest of Smith; and, that they might he able to defend themselves, they determined to start an opposition press. Accordingly, about a dozen of them clubbed together, contributed the funds, and had the necessary materials brought on. All things having been arranged, the first number of the new paper, under the title of "Nauvuo Exposilor," made its appearance on the 7th inst. We have not seen a copy of it, nor any extracts from it, but presume it of course bore down severely on Smith and his party, which is, indeed, certain, from what subsequently took place. On the day after the paper appeared, a special meeting of the city council was called to deliberate on the best course to take in reference to it; and finally, after two days' deliberation, it was solemnly determined that the "said press was a nuisance, and that the city marshal be directed to destroy it;" which duty the marshal performed to the letter, by tumbling the press and materials into the sireet, setting fire to them, and by demolishing what would not burn with a sludge hammer. The marshal was backed in the performance of his part by about 200 of the "Legion," and the owners of the press were so overpowered by numbers that they could make no resistance.

In justification of this outrage, for outrage it certainly was, the Nauvoo Neighbor says "the paper was filled with libels;" and "was got up to destroy the city charier," and "to further the wicked and malicious designs of a knot of base men towards the church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, and to bolster up the intents of blacklegs and bogus makers, and advocate the characters of murderers.

On the other side, Foster says the only offence the press committed was, to tell the truth and expose the iniquities of Smith and his adherents, whom he charges with every species of enormities. Of Smith himself he says, "he is a man whose crimes are too dark to be recorded, and whose character is stained with deeds that would blacken the bottomless pit;" he charges him with having hired Rockwell to shoot Gov. Boggs, and states that Dr. R. D. Foster has made affidavit that Smith offered him $300 to pay his expenses to go to Missouri and shoot Boggs, promising to reward him handsomly. "He also enumerates among the enormities of Smith, that "he has ensnared scores of credulous females (married and single) in his net, under pretence of divine authority, thereby ruining families," &c.; that "he has been prominently engaged in bogus making and counterfeiting;" the "he now stands indicted before the Hancock circuit court for perjury, fornication, and adultery;" that "he has used his power in shielding fugitives from justice;" and a host of others "too numerous to mention."

On the day after the press was destroyed, (the 11th) a large meeting of citizens of Hancock county was held at Carthage, and, after adopling a series of strong resolutions, writs were taken out to arrest the rioters, and a large committee appointed to accompany and aid the sheriff in the performance of his office. They proceeded to Nauvoo, and were allowed peaceably to arrest all for whom they had writs; but no sooner were they arrested than they were taken, by a writ of habeas corpus, before thy municipal court of the city and discharged! The sheriff then returned with his posse to Carthage, where another meeting of the citizens was held, (on the 14th,) and, after hearing the report of the sheriff, a deputation of two discreet men was appointed to proceed to Springfield to solicit the interposition of the Governor to aid in executing the laws.

Meantime the citizens of Hancock county are preparing for a contest, whether the Executive interposes or not. Six different villages in the county have been appointed as places of encampment. A central committee of 8 has been appointed, and a resolution adopted that constables in the different precincts hold themselves in readiness to obey the officer in possession of the writs, whenever called upon, in summoning a posse.

About sixty stand of arms have been received at Warsaw from Quincy. The citizens of Hancock county were to redezvous at the places appointed on Wednesday (the 19th.) Several hundred Mormons, most of those hostile to the prophet, have left Nauvoo with their property. Joe had laid an interdict on further emigration. F. M. Higbee, one of the publishers of the "Expositor," escaped from Nauvoo on Tuesday noon, (the 11th,) in disguise. The whole county were preparing for a contest, and concentrating their furce for an attack on Nauvoo on the 19th. At Warsaw, all suspected persons were placed under arrest, and a patrol appointed.

Some idea may be formed of the state of feeling that prevails in the neighborhood of Nauvoo from the following extract from the Warsaw paper of the 11th. It had just received the news of the destruction of the press: --

"We have only time to state that this is sufficient! War and extermination is inevitable! Citizens, ARISE, ONE and ALL!! Can you stand by and suffer such infernal devils to rob men of their property and rights without avenging them. We have no time for comment -- every man will make his own. Let it be made with Powder and Ball!!"

Thus far our only object has been to give facts. In tracing the excitement to its origin, it is doubtless true that some wrong might he found on both sides. Yet nothing, surely, was done that can be plead in palliation of the high handed outrage of destroying the printing press and materials of the Nauvoo Expositor. The idea of declaring a press a nuisance, to justify its destruction, is as monstrous as it is impudent. By the same rule, Smith might burn or destroy every store, shop, or private dwelling in Nauvoo. An editor may be fined, and deprived of his liberiy, by regular course of law, for publishing a libellous sheet, but there never was a law to justify a wanton destruction of property. The fact is, the men who perpetrated the outrage should be punished to the extent of the law, and the city of Nauvoo should he compelled to repay to the owners of the press the value of their property destroyed to the uttermost farthing.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 23.                           Sandusky, Ohio, Saturday, July 20, 1844.                           No. 6.


The Mormon war still causes great excitement on the Upper Mississippi. The Boreas brings us some additional items of intelligence. The official statement of Gov. Ford confirms our previous information as to the cowardly and lawless manner in which the impostors were murdered. It is surprising that Gov. Ford, well knowing the solemn pledge of protection he gave to the Mormons, and the previous excitement that existed against them in the community, did not place a stronger guard, and take more vigilant and efficient measures for their protection. It might have been known beforehand that so small a guard could not protect the prisoners from the furious torrent of public indignation that was setting against them in that portion of the country. The Warsaw Signal seems to be of opinion that the war will not yet end, but that the Mormon population must be removed; that they and the other citizens cannot live together in peace.
St. Louis New Era.          

Head Quarters.      
Quincy, June 29, 1844.     
To the People of Illinois:

I desire to make a brief but true statement of the recent disgraceful affair at Carthage, in regard to the Smiths, so far as circumstances have come to my knowledge. The Smiths, Joseph and Hiram, have been assassinated in jail, by whom it is not known, but will be ascertained. I pledged myself for their safety, and upon the assurance of that pledge, they surrendered as prisoners. The Mormons surrendered the public arms in their possession, and the Nauvoo Legion submitted to the command of Capt. Singleton, of Brown county, deputed for that purpose by me.

All these things were required to satisfy the old citizens of Hancock, that the Mormons were peaceably disposed; and to allay jealousy and excitement in their minds. It appears, however, that the compliance of the Mormons with every requisition made upon them failed of that purpose. -- The pledge of security to the Smiths, was not given upon my individual responsibility. Before I gave it, I obtained a pledge of honor by a unanimous vote from the officers and men under my command, to sustain me in performing it. If the assassination of the Smiths was committed by any portion of these, they have added treachery to murder, and have done all they could to disgrace the state, and sully public honor.

On the morning of the day the deed was committed, we had proposed to march the army under my command into Nauvoo. -- I had however discovered on the evening before, that nothing but utter destruction of the city would satisfy a portion of the troops; and that if we marched into the city, pretext would not be wanting for commencing hostilities. The Mormons had done every thing required * * * of them. -- Offensive operations on our part would have been as unjust and disgraceful, as they would have been impolitic, in the present critical season of the year, the harvest and the crops. For these reasons I decided in a council of officers, to disband the army, except three companies, two of which were retained as a guard for the jail.

With the other company I marched into Nauvoo, to address the inhabitants there, and tell them what they might expect in case they designedly or imprudently provoked a war. I performed this duty as I think plainly and emphatically, and then set out to return to Carthage. When I had marched about three miles, a messenger informed me of the occurrences at Carthage. I hastened on to that place. -- The guard, it is said, did their duty but were overpowered. Many of the inhabitants of Carthage had fled with their families. Others were preparing to go. I apprehended danger in the settlements from the sudden fury and passion of the Mormons and sanctioned their movements in this respect.

General Deming volunteered to remain with a few troops, to observe the progress of events, to defend property against small numbers, and with orders to retreat if menaced by a superior force. I decided to proceed immediately to Quincy, to prepare a force, sufficient to suppress disorder, in case it should ensue from the foregoing transactions or from any other cause. I have hopes that the Mormons will make no further difficulties. In this I may be mistaken. The other party may not be satisfied. They may recommence aggression. I am determined to preserve the peace against all breakers of the same, at all hazards. I think present circumstances warrant the precaution, of having a competent force at my disposal, in readiness to march at a moment's warning. -- My position at Quincy will enable me to get the earliest intelligence, and to communicate orders with the greatest celerity.
THOMAS FORD.        

Since receiving Gov. Ford's address, the West Wind is in from St. Louis, and, if possible, the murder of the Smiths, and the treatment of the Mormons, look blacker than ever. Mob rule reigned triumphant. We shall look for full details to-day or to-morrow.

The Mississippi was falling rapidly. It has receded four feet at St. Louis.


(see original article from St. Louis Republican)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IX.                             Norwalk, Ohio, July 24, 1844.                             No. 50.


FROM NAUVOO --Fresh Disturbances Apprehended. -- St. Louis papers of the 8th have late intelligence from the Mormon Country, and a correspondence between Gov. Ford and the committee of safety of Hancock county. The latter exhibit much bitterness towards the Mormons, and declare that they must leave the country, or the Anti-Mormons will be compelled to do so. They call on the Governor to use his power and influence to effect the removal of the Mormons.

Gov. Ford not only refuses to comply with the request, but expresses his determination to keep the peace, and reproaches the people of Hancock county with bad faith in the murder of the Smiths.

Dr. Foster, one of the Mormon seceders, who owns a large property at Nauvoo, has been threatened with the vengeance of the Mormons should he visit the holy city. He was on board a boat at Nauvoo on the 5th, but dared not land.

It is asserted that Prophet Smith left behind him a revelation that his eldest son, about 12 years of age, should succeed him as the new ruler. We copy the following from the St. Louis Reveille.

Affairs at Nauvoo. -- (view original article from St. Louis paper)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 30.                             Canton, Ohio, July 25, 1844.                             No. 13.


THE MORMONS. -- We find in the WEstern papers the following official deocument, addressed by the Governor of Illinois to the people of that State. It declares, it will be seen, that the leading Mormons, Joe and Hiram Smith, were basely assassinated, after they had voluntarily surrendered themselves on the pledge of protection from the Governor of the State, and were awaiting their trial, according to the laws of the land. We hope that Governor Ford and the authorities of Illinois will vindicate this horrible outrage upon humanity, and the honor and dignity of the State, by detecting and bringing to condign punishment every individual who had any hand in the murder: -- Balt. Amer.

(Gov. Ford's Proclamation of June 29, 1844 follows)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                           Washington, Ohio, Friday, July 26, 1844.                           No. 13.

Mormon Matters.

The Governor of Illinois has expressed his full determination to bring to justice the persons who assassinated Je and Huram Smith, and intends to offer a liberal reward for teh discovery and apprehension of the actual criminals. The Mormons, it is said, are begging for mercy, and will not strike a blow unless first charged upon by the citizens. At Carthage there were two thousand militia collected, a portion of whom were for narching upon Nauvoo, and exterminating its inhabitants. Certain persons were busily employed in exciting the passions and prejudices of the militia, by the circulation of the most exaggerated stories among them, with a view to prevail upon them to aid in robbing the Mormons and driving them beyond the limits of the State. Taylor, the editor of the Nauvoo Neighbor, it is supposed cannot survive. One of his lungs was perforated by a ball, and he was wounded in the fleshy part of the thigh with some four or five other balls. The burial of the two Smiths took place at Nauvoo on the evening of the 29th, without creating any excitement or turbulent appearance whatever among the Mormons. Governor Ford has issued an order for the assemblage of troops from eleven counties, which he accompanies by a brief recapitualation of the recent proceedings.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 23.                           Sandusky, Ohio, Saturday, August 24, 1844.                           No. 11.


Illinois. Here is another dark corner, which the LOcofocos have saved. In Illinois Lofocoism is congenial to the citizens. -- Good laws, if they have any, are no security for life, liberty and property, the "Democracy" of Illinois can at any time make a law to suit any emergency. The vote of Nauvoo, the Mormon head-quarters, was rising of 1200 Locofoco to 20 Whig.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Lorain  Republican.
NS Vol. III.                             Elyria, Ohio, September 11, 1844.                             No. 6.


We have intelligence from Nauvoo to the 5th inst. All was quiet. It appears that the reports of the appearance of Joe Smith and the appointment of his son are false, and originated in a desire to injure the Mormons abroad. Sidney Rigdon has retired to Nauvoo from Pittsburg, and preached to the people on the 4th inst. In consequence of the death of Samuel Smith, Joe's brother, since the death of the prophet, Sidney Rigdon will be chosen Patriarch of the Mormon flock. He is their master spirit, and will make a shrewd and energetic leader. There are five widows of the Smith family now living in Nauvoo, the mother of all, and the late wives of Joe, Hiram, and their two brothers. Accessions to the Mormon strength continue to be quite large; in Nauvoo, the usual activity is apparent and the Temple is steadily going up in its unique form and shape. Its style of architecture is of the pure Mormon order. -- St. Louis Organ.

Note: The report saying that Sidney Rigdon was to be ordained as the chief Patriarch of the LDS Church did not turn out to be true. The Mormons functioned without a Patriarch for many months, until the Twelve ordained William Smith, the last surviving Smith brother, to that dignity in 1845. Samuel was never made Patriarch to the Church, and his brother William claimed in 1849 that Samuel had been murdered, in order to keep him from attaining that office.



Vol. ?                           Hudson, Ohio, Wednesday, September 11, 1844.                           No. 35.


SIDNEY RIGDON, it is said, pretends to have had a revelation from Heaven constituting him President of the Mormon Church. Rigdon has always been considered the most telented member of the Mormon Priesthood, and probably thinks himself best calculated to carry on the works of his craft.

NAUVOO NEWS. -- The Warsaw Sognal says that Daniel Spencer has been elected mayor of Nauvoo, pro tem. George Miller and Whitney have been elected trustees of the church property, and under their management the Temple is progressing raoidly. Sam'l H. Smith, brother of the Prophet, died at Nauvoo about two weeks since. William is now the only surviving brother. Sidney Rigdon, who claimed the leadership of the church on the ground of his being the only survivor of the first Presidency, and also, on the ground of his having been named by Joe at one time as his successor, has had his claim rejected by the twelve, who have decided not to have one man for leader but that the church shall be governed by them collectively. --   Cleve. Her.

Notes: (forthcomong)



Vol. I.                 Perrysburg, Ohio, Tuesday, Sept. 17, 1844.                 No. 17.


ITEMS FROM NAUVOO. -- We clip the following from the Warsaw Signal:

Daniel Spencer has been elected Mayor protem. Heorge Miller and Whitney have been elected Trustees in trust for the church property. Under their management, the funds being honestly appropriated, and not embezzled, as in Joe's time, the Temple is progressing rapidly.

Sidney Rigdon, who claimed the leadership of the church, on the ground of his being the only survivor of the first [Presidency], and also, on the ground of his having been named by Joe at one time, as his successor, has had his claims rejected by the Twelve, who have decided not to have any one man for leader, but that the church shall be governed by them collectively.

Samuel H. Smith died in Nauvoo, about two weeks since; William is now the only surviving brother of the Prophet.

FROM NAUVOO. -- The Mormons appear to be sticking new "stakes" since the death of the Prophet. Some 80 families, containing about 200 persons, have removed to the St. Croix river under the charge of Mr. White [sic, Wight], a leading Mormon. They have settled at a place called the Pinery. -- Evening Herald.

The Mormons have publicly resolved to take no part in the approaching Presidential election. This lifts a dead weight of some 1,500 to 2,000 votes off the Whigs of Illinois, and will allow them to make a fair battle.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                             Cleveland, Ohio, Saturday, September 21, 1844.                             No. 76.


MORMONISM. -- Sidney Rigdon and Elder Hyde arrived in this city on yesterday evening. -- We learn that Rigdon, who professed to have had a revelation, and returned a few weeks since from Pittsburgh, to be the successor of Smith, has been regularly unchurched by the Twelve Apostles. He returns to Pittsburgh to establish a paper. His views of Mormonism remain unchanged, although they will not have him to rule over them. The administration of the affairs of the church for the present is to remain in the hands of the Twelve Apostles. --   St. Louis Repub.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. I.                           Marion, Ohio, September 25, 1845.                           No. 19.

Mormon  News.

The Warsaw Signal keeps apparently a pretty keen eye upon the Mormons at Nauvoo. That paper says that Lyman Wright [sic], one of the leaders of the Mormons, has left Nauvoo for the pine regions of the Wisconsin, with about 200 followers, comprising the most reckless of the Mormon community.

Sidney Rigdon is said to have left for Pittsburgh, and it is added that a great number of the English will soon follow him.

Dissensions are said to exist among the Mormon leaders. Mrs. Smith, the widow of Joseph Smith, is accused of withholding the transfer of property belonging to the Church, held in Joe Smith's name. There was a rumor that she had purchased property at Hampton, where Law and the seceders reside.

Brigham Young preached a sermon at Nauvoo last Sunday, in which he is said to have avowed the spiritual wife doctrine -- a matter which has been charged upon, and denied by them.

The Temple is going ahead with astonishing rapidity, a great portion of the population being employed upon it. The leaders prophesy the reappearance of Joe to consecrate and dedicate it to the Lord, and to hasten this event, the poor fanatics are exercising themselves to the utmost.

Many persons are leaving Nauvoo, and others would leave if they could dispose of their property.

At a meeting of the Mormons in the Bear Creek settlement, week before last, they resolved to quit the country.

Gen. John C. Bennett passed up the river a few days since, to Hampton. -- Cincinnati Gazette.

Note: The above material was taken from the Warsaw Signal of the Sept. 4, 1844. Essentially the same compilation also appeared in the Burlington Hawkeye of  Sept. 12, 1844.


Vol. ?                             Cleveland, Ohio, Friday, September 27, 1844.                             No. 81.


==> The Mormons are fast becoming a "divided house." Orson Hyde has written a letter denying all the material statements made by Sidney Rigdon in his recent letter denouncing Hyde and others. He charges that Rigdon was expelled from the Mormon Church for offences entirely different from those stated in his letter. Hyde was formerly a pupil of Rigdon, and both are well known to many persons in this section. As matters are going on these Mormon leaders will soon satisfy the world that they are "no better than they should be."

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. ?                           Hudson, Ohio, Wednesday, October 2, 1844.                           No. ?


MORMON NEWS. -- the Warsaw Signal says that Luman Wight, one of the leaders of the mormons, has left Nauvoo for the pine region of the Wisconsin, with about two hundred followers, comprising the most reckless of the mormon community. Sidney Rigdon is said to have left for Pittsburgh, and it is added that a large number of the English will soon follow him.

Dissensions are said to exist among the Mormon leaders. Mrs. Smith, the widow of Joseph Smith, is accused of withholding the transfer of property at Hampton where Law and the seceders reside.

Brigham Young preached a sermon at Nauvoo last Sunday, in which he is said to have avowed the spiritual wife doctrine -- a matter which has been charged upon, and denied by them.

The Temple is going ahead with astonishing rapidity, a great portion of the population being employed upon it. The leaders prophesy the reappearance of Joe to consecrate and dedicate it to the Lord, and to hasten this event, the poor fanatics are exercising themselves to the utmost.

Many persons are leaving Nauvoo, and others would leave if they could dispose of their property. At a meeting of the Mormons in the Bear Creek settlement, week before last, they resolved to quit the country.

FROM NAUVOO -- DIVISIONS IN THE MORMON CHURCH. -- Since the death of the prophet Smith the Mormons appear to have troublous times in Nauvoo. By the last Nauvoo Neighbor, it appears that a serious division has taken place, and that the hand of fellowship has been withdrawn from Elder Rigdon. James Emmet and Zachariah Wilson, and it is also stated by the Warsaw Signal that ninteen leading Mormons have been rejected from the Church, among them Emma Smith, the Widow of the prophet, and that many disaffected Mormons are moving from the City.

The work on the Temple is progressing rapidly, the third tier of the windows being ready to receive their capitals. Above them is to be a belt of coarse stone, and then six feet of plain cut stone work will finish the walls. For want of other employment a large portion of the population labor on the Temple, and look to the contributions to build it for a scanty subsistence. Private enterprise in the city has been checked by the death of Smith, but few private residences are going up, and property has fallen in value about one third.

St. Louis papers contain a letter from Sidney Rigdon denouncing the conduct of Orson hyde, Brigham Young, Parley P. Pratt, H. C. Kimball, Orson Pratt, Erastus Snow and others. He charges them with making inflamatory speeches against him in Nauvoo, and endeavoring to stir up the people to mob him. -- Rigdon says the excitement was stirred up against him because he and others had made arrangements to remove to Pittsburgh. The quarrel appears to be of a vindictive character, and is probably the beginning of a pretty general breaking up of the Church of the Latter Day Saints. --  Cleve. Her.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 30.                             Canton, Ohio, October 3, 1844.                             No. 23.


THE SPLIT IN THE MORMON CAMP. --The following notice appears in the Nauvoo Neighbor of the 4th inst.: -- "Notice. -- Fellowship was last evening, withdrawn from Elders Rigdon, James Emmet and Zachariah Wilson, by the Counsel of the Twelve, and on Sunday next the matter will be laid before the church for their action." -- Age.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                             Cleveland, Ohio, Tuesday, October 15, 1844.                             No. 96.


TRIAL OF SIDNEY RIGDON, AT NAUVOO. -- We have already noticed the fact that Sidney Rigdon had been cut off from fellowship with the Church of Latter Day Saints. The following are the singular proceedings in the case, as reported in the Nauvoo Neighbor.

TRIAL OF ELDER RIGDON. -- On Sunday, the 8th inst., Elder Sidney Rigdon was tried for unchristian-like conduct. Fellowship had been previously withdrawn from him by the quorum of the Twelve, and he notified to attend and make his defence on the above day. The oldest bishop of the church, at the head of twelve high priests, according to the doctrines and covenants of said church, acted as the tribunal, while the other quorums in order, and between six and seven thousand members, with the Twelve presiding, patiently investigated the matter for five or six hours. Elder Rigdon and his party held a private meeting in the morning, and sent word to the stand that he should not attend the trial or pay any attention to it.

After the meeting was opened by singing and prayer, Elder Young proceeded to lay the specifications against Elder Rigdon before the church both verbally and written, which plainly exposed a secret plan to divide the church, by false prophecy and false pretences; blessing the church and people while on the stand before them, but secretly cursing the authorities, and the present course of the church, and many other matters derogatory to men of God. Elder Hyde followed as testimony, and fully substantiated the charges, and made some very excellent remarks, quoting the trial of the two women for the child before King Solomon, wherein Rigdon said divide the child; but the "Twelve," like the true mother, exclaimed don't divide the child: -- let it live.

He was followed by Elder P. P. Pratt as testimony confirmatory of the same facts, and adding some new items. He was very pointed and plain, giving a detailed account of Elder Rigdon's course since he came from Pittsburg and before, having known him before he was a Mormon. Elder Amasa Lyman supported the previous witnesses and gave some new items, and closed by saying that Sidney Rigdon has prophesied falsely in Kirtland, in 1832, lost his license, and was suspended three months.

Elder Phelps made a few remarks and read a revelation concerning Sidney Rigdon, given in 1833, in which it seems he was "to bow down under the yoke like unto an ass that croucheth under his burthen, but would yet rejoice on account of him that putteth forth his hand and lifteth him up out of deep mire," &c.

Elder Kimball continued the testimony, setting his face against Sidney Rigdon's iniquity [sic - impunity?] and false revelations, declaring them on a par with Gladden Bishop's, adding that Joseph Smith shook him off last fall, but through the mercy of brother Hyrum, the saints agreed to try him a spell longer.

Elder Young again proceeded, and summed up the testimony and refered the matter to the council.

Elder Marks rose and said he felt it his duty to speak in favor of Elder Rigdon; he was patiently listened to some time, but he produced nothing to prove him clear of the charges, or show his innocence.

Elder Young replied with great force and spirit.

Elder Taylor (the editor of this paper) laid the matter open in a masterly manner, and was listened to with great attention. After a few remarks from some others, Bishop Whitney, in a very candid manner gave his decision that Elder Sidney Rigdon be cut off from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, and the twelve high priests, sanctioned the decision by a unanimous vote. The congregation, also, excepting some few whom Sidney had ordained to be prophets, priests, and kings among the Gentiles, sanctioned these proceedings by a unanimous vote.

Fellowship was then withdrawn from his followers, especially Samuel James, Jared Carter, Samuel Bennett, Leonard Soby, George Morey, Joseph H. Newton, and John A. Forgeous, were cut off from the church.

Elder Marks was called upon for his views, &c., and he said he was willing to go by the decision of the church.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                               Norwalk, Ohio, Tues., December 24, 1844.                               No. ?

Ohio  Legislature.

Dec. 17. --

House. -- Both houses, in pursuance of a joint resolution, met for the purpose of balloting for a President Judge of the 2d Circuit; and upon counting the votes it appeared that Ozias Bowen had 62, Oliver Cowdery 38, and 3 blanks.

Note: Judge Ozias Bowen and Oliver Cowdery are both given extensive coverage in William Lang's 1880 History of Seneca County.


Vol. ?                               Norwalk, Ohio, Tues., February 18, 1845.                               No. ?


The Locofocos of Illinois, to secure the political influence of the Mormons, granted them extraodinary Charters and privileges, and the Latter Day Saints have ever kept their part of the contract inviolable, as witnesses the overwhelming Locofoco majority in the State at every election. Like hungry prairie wolves, Locofocoism has now turned upon its faithful servants, and the bill to unconditionally repeal the charter of the city of Nauvoo has passed both branches of the Illinois Legislature, by decided majorities. True, sucha charter as Jo Smith demanded as the price of fealty should never have been granted, and never would have been by any except repudiators, but there is slim apology for the breach of faith and disregard for vested rights exhibited towards the followers of the murdered prophet.

The Repeal created great sensation at Nauvoo, and has called forth the earnest anathemas of the Mormon priesthood. Mr. Babbit, the Mormon Representative, while the subject was pending in the House, made public a letter from "The Twelve," from which we copy the following choice and characteristic extract: -- Cleve. Herald.

"And the sin be upon their own heads and the heads of their abettors if they will do it. The Lord is our light and whom shall we fear? Therefore let us be as bold and steadfast as Daniel; -- peradventure the fury of the liobs will be stayed until their fangs rest upon our ungodly enemies? Should the Legislature repeal our charters, we shall be obliged in self defence to spread the details of our unprecedented wrongs to the extermities of the nation and the world, and then into the ears of the Lord of the Sabbaoth. But we will not believe that they will do it. The injustice, cruelty, and barbarity of such an act, is too appalling for us to entertain such a thought concerning them. Surely before they take such a step, they will wipe away the murdered blood that cleaves to the violated faith of the State!

What more could a bloody mob ask of a State than they will have done when they take away our charters?Oh Illinois! art thou such a Nero or Caligula? Oh Brutus! is it thou, that friend that gave us that heraty welcome and liberal charters? So changed. Oh blush at the thought! From the very day of such an act no chaplain should invoke the benignity of the Heavens upon you henceforth. Let the day itself be blotted from your State journals, as a day of delirium and insanity, when the broad current of reason, humanity and justice were stayed in their natural channels. But if thou wilt do the deed to thy fond and loyal child, and still claim the attributes of humanity and justice, as the Lord God of Israel sits upon his sternal throne, the gallows prepared for Mordecai shall one day be thy own!"

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                             Cleveland, Ohio, Wednesday, Feb. 19, 1845.                             No. 203.


MORMONISM -- SHOCKING DISCLOSURES. -- Elder Rigdon's magazine for January, published at Pittsburgh, gives some disclosures of corruption and licentiousness among the Mormons, in New York, New Jersey, &c. It appears that the degrading polygamy founded by Joe Smith, and established at Nauvoo a short time before his death, has been encouraged and sustained by people of intelligence. Rigdon gives the following account of a recent visit to the Mormon Churches, and of his own efforts to arrest the corruption that was rapidly spreading among the deluded followers. He says:

Among the churches we visited, there was a great deal of excitement; many of the principle members had either withdrawn from the church or had been cut off, and of this number were the presiding elders of the church of Philadelphia, New York, Boston, New Egypt, N. J. and Woodstown, N. J. On inquiring into the cause of the difficulties, in every instance, it was the spiritual wife system which had caused the separation, and exclusion. The course pursued by the advocates of this system, which were the traveling elders, were, that as soon as a man became dissatisfied with the teachings of these believers in polygamy, and was bold enough to express his dissatisfaction, calling it incestuous and adulterous, he or she was immediately arraigned before the church and charged with disobedience to the authorities; and with slandering the heads of the church, at the time of the trial, and every one who dare vote in favor of the person charged, was threatened with immediate expulsion from the church by these tyrants, and thus intimidated, and compelled to obey the mandate of their masters. A notable instance of this was related to me while in Boston, old elder Nickerson, a man who was highly esteemed in Boston, and the father of the church there; when this system, of a plurality of wives, first made its appearance there, rose up against it, as every man of virtue would, and was so deeply affected with it, that he wept over the corruption that was creeping into the church, and declared his intention and determination, to lift his voice against it; this was no sooner known, than he was besieged by two of the so-called authorities, and threatened with exclusion, if he dare give testimony against those whom he had declared he knew were guilty of great improprieties, such as called for the interference of every virtuous man; and the old gentleman was so intimidated by their threats, he shrunk from his duty, and instead of discharging it, with a manly boldness, actually lifted his hand in favor of those whose conduct he had previously deprecated in the strongest terms. Every effort of this kind was made, that the most corrupt could invent, to conceal this system, without their having knowledge of it, till they were informed by some runner sent for the purpose, that at such a meeting they had been cut off from the church.

Every person who was known to be opposed to this system, if he or she could not be won over; or made to succumb by threats, were excluded, and their characters assailed in a most outrageous manner in order to destroy their influence, that their testimony might not be believed.

Note: Given this early (Jan.-Feb., 1845) notice, from a former member of the Mormon First Presidency, it is difficult to fathom how the Reorganized LDS leaders were later able to assert that Joeph Smith, Jr. had nothing to do with secret polygamy, and that the whole practice was a later innovation in Utah. Rigdon's disclosures essentially support those made by the contributors of the Nauvoo Expositor in mid-1844 -- which, in turn, support much of what John C. Bennett exposed in 1842. It is perfectly clear that secret "spiritual wifery" was being practiced by the topmost Mormon leaders before 1842, and that the doctrine was being spread though the congregations of the Saints by traveling elders (such as William Smith, Joseph Smith's brother) several months prior to the assassination of Joseph and Hyrum. It cannot be seriously alleged that those two members of the First Presidency were unaware of the doctrine, or that they were opposed to the secret practice.



Vol. I.                           Elyria, Ohio, Tuesday, April 22, 1845.                           No. 43.


The Mormons have commenced building a rampart around Nauvoo, enclosing six acres 14 feet high, 6 feet thick; to be built of solid stone masonry. The fools are not all dead yet.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                         Cleveland, Ohio, Monday, May 5, 1845.                         No. 25.


THE MORMONS. -- It is feared, from present appearances, that there will be a serious disturbance between the Mormons and their enemies before long again. It appears that the Governor of Illinois has received intelligence from two authentic sources that some anti-Mormon forged an order, in the name of Gen. Deming, for a piece of artillery in McDonough county, and that the same has been conveyed, on the authority of his forgery, to the "Carthage Greys," in whose possession it now is. We learn also, that the Governor has sent an agent to Carthage, to take possession of all the State arms in the hands of these incipient rioters.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                             Cleveland, Ohio, Friday, May 9, 1845.                             No. 271.


MORMONISM. -- The article we copy to-day from the Pittsburgh Gazette shows that Mormonism has assumed a new phase under the teachings and pretended revelations of Rigdon, a learned, talented man; but, as we believe, an arch hypocrite. That Rigdon had a hand in getting up the Book of Mormon, is quite probable, as his discourses when a preacher of Campbellism contained frequent allusions to a "new light" the religious world was soon to receive, evidently aimed to prepare the way for the imposition he soon after became a prominent actor in.

We understamnd the Mormon Church at Kirtland, is now divided into "Joeotes" and "Rigdonites," the former being the most numerous. Rigdon visited Kirtland a few months since, delivered a course of lectures in opposition to the course pursued the late prophet Smith, and many other vicious practices charged upon him by seceding Mormons. It is stated that Mrs. Joseph Smith, widow of the prophet, is expected to take charge of the Mormon interests at Kirtland.

The history of Mormonism, and the facts disclosed at Pittsburgh, are a melancholy illustartion of the power of fanaticism over the human mind. Millerism is akin to it, and the record of both infatuations will appear almost incrediable to the next generation.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. 2.                 Conneaut, Ohio, Thursday, May 15, 1845.                 No. 15.

            From the Pittsburgh Gazette.

More  Mormon  Fanacticism.

Very few of our readers we presume are aware that Pittsburgh is the center of a very important and extensive branch of the Mormon delusion, and that Grand Councils, and Conventions and Quorums are held here, and that a semi-monthly paper is published. The head of this branch of these modern impostors is SIDNEY RIGDON, who was well known in this region, as a Baptist preacher, before he united his fortunes with those of Joe Smith. Since the death of the latter, Rigdon has fallen out with the "Council of Twelve," who now rule at Nauvoo, and was forcibly compelled to leave the "city of thieves." We do not understand exactly the nature of the quarrel, but bekieve that Rigdon, who was one of the three members of the High Presidency, -- Joe and Hiram Smith being the other two, -- on the death of the Smiths, considered himself of the highest power and authority among the 'Saints.' The 'Council of Twelve,' the next in authority, not relishing this, usurped the supreme power, asserting that as the quorum of Presidents was broken, it could not be restored. They therefore expelled Rigdon, and have maintained their power to the present. Many of the "Saints," however, have rallied around Rigdon, who has established himself in this city, and has lately received so many new revelations that he bids fair to rival Joe Smith himself.

A friend has given us a copy of the Mormon paper published in this city, which is called the "Messenger and Advocate," of date May 1st, from which we learn that a "Conference of the Church of Christ," as it is denominated, has been held in this city, commencing on the 6th of April, and ending on the 11th. By this "Conference," the "Kingdom of God," as these fanatics say, was organized in this city. From a portion of the proceedings of this body we append a few extracts, to show our readers that quite as strange things are enacted in this enlightened age as ever took place in the darkest eras. On Monday the 7th of April, the "Kingdom of God" was organized, and the editor does not forget to tell us, it was the very day on which the great earthquake took place in the city of Mexico. On Wednesday, the 9th, the following extraordinary proceedings are said to have taken place:

"Wednesday Afternoon, 2 o'clock.      

"Conference met pursuant to adjournment, and was called to order by Austin Cowles; the first presidency of the high Quorum entered and took their seats. President Rigdon arose and read Hymn on page 104. "Arise, arise, with joy survey," which was sung by the conference.

After which, President Rigdon said, since the commencement of this conference, I have had one unceasing desire, deep and intense, that was, to have the matter forever put at rest, whether God would accept our work. -- The Spirit whispered to me this morning to set apart some brothers, and consecrate them to God, in a room in my own house, which I did, (which was the reason I was not with you this morning,) and after the washing and anointing, the Patriarchial seal, as the Lord has directed me, we kneeled, and in solemn prayer we asked God to accept the work we had done; during the time of prayer there appeared over our heads, in the room, a ray of light forming a hollow square, inside of which, stood a company of heavenly messengers, each with a banner in his hand, with their eyes looking downward upon us, their countenances expressive of the deep interest they felt in what was then passing on the earth; there also appeared heavenly messengers on horseback with crowns upon their heads, and [plumes floating] in the air, dressed in glorious attire, until like Elisha, we cried in our hearts, "the chariots of Israel, and the horsemen thereof;" even my little son of fourteen years of age saw the vision, and gazed with great astonishment, saying, that he thought his imagination was running away with him, after which we arose and lifted our hands to heaven in holy convocation to God, at which time, it was shown an angel in heaven, registering the acceptance of our work, and the decrees of the Great God, that the kingdom is ours, and we shall prevail; my anxieties, therefore, in relation to our work in organizing the kingdom, and the acceptance of that organization, by our heavenly Father, is now forever at rest.

Wlder Wm. E. McLellin, then, arose and bore testimony to the manifestations of the power of God in the heavenly vision; he then gave the substance of a revelation given in the morning relative to the opening ceremony of the consecration; after which he kneeled and dedicated the conference by prayer. He then arose, and said, brethren, I wish to say some things to you which will benefit you on the present occasion; he set forth in a clear manner, the principles which constitute the fulness of human happiness, giving much important instruction in relation to it.

President Rigdon then proceeded to ordain Hiram Falk and Curtis Hodges to the office of High Priests. After which several bottles of oil were presented and consecrated to the Lord."

The next day, April 10th, ever memorable on account of our Great Fire, was spent in "washings and annointings," and "consecrations," &c., until noon. In the afternoon, at 2 o'clock, the "Conference" met again. At this time the fire was raging in fearful sublimity. We here copy the proceedings of that afternoon, together with the notice of the fire, that our readers may know to whom they are indebted, according to these men, that the fire was stayed:

"The washings and annointing was contnued until the official members present were annointed. After having finished the annointing, president Rigdon read a hymn which was sung, after which all the quorums took their seats in proper order, to receive their Patriarchial seal. The Patriarch then proceeded to place his Seal upon their heads, sealing upon them all the promises and propheseyings pronounced upon them, during their washing and annointing, commencing with the quorum of the Twelve; next in order cames the presidents of the Stake of Pittsburgh, and the High Council. After these quorums had received their Patriarchial Seal, the Conference adjourned until to-morrow morning at 9 o'clock. Benediction by President S. Rigdon."

This was the afternoon of the great fire which desolated our city. While we were thus organizing the Kingdom of our God, and consecrating the officers thereof, to the Most High, our city was fast laying in ruins by the violence of fire; and our friends and neighbors in the midst of sorrow, distress and confusion, were flying for their lives, amidst the ragings of the devouring elements, to places of safety, and leaving their all to perish in the common ruin. In the closing prayer, for the adjournment, president Rigdon presented before the Lord the deep distress and great calamity which was then befaling the inhabitants of the city; presenting before the heavens the widow and the fatherless, and the sufferings and deep afflictions that were overwhelming our city; oraying God to stay the violence of fire, that our whole city be not laid in ruins -- in which prayer the Conference joined with all the feelings of their soul. During this prayer, an escort of heavenly messengers that had hovered around as during the time of this Conference, were seen leaving the room, the course of the wind was instantly changed, and the violence of the flames were stayed "and our city saved from an entire overthrow."

So, these fanatics quietly pursued their mummeries while the city was consuming. The claims of humanity, the terrible sublimity of the spectacle, could not withdraw them from the practice of their impious ceremonies. Our citizens would have thanked them to have sent their "escort of heavenly messengers" a little sooner, and not have waited until the fairest part of our city was laid in ashes, and many lives had fallen a sacrifice to the devouring element.

Our readers are probably disgusted with what we have already given them of this specimen of the sad weakness and knavery of human nature. On the last day of the session of this body, each day of which was made up of blasphemous mummery, it was ordained that the Patriarch should have fifty cents for each blessing he delivered. He did not forget the means of 'raising the wind,' The following is also gravely told:

"Wm. E. McLellin then arose, and related to the conference the substance of a revelation given to himself and Joseph M. Cole, on last evening, while in their room at the house of president S. Rigdon, after having offered up solemn prayer to God, which was relative to the bones of the said Joseph M. Cole; it having been shown in a previous vision, that brother Cole should be slain before the coming of the Savior. The revelation had required on the part of brother McLellin, that he should enter into a covenant with brother Cole to carry his bones with him, as the bones of Joseph were carried out of Egypt, until the kingdom of God should meet Jesus upon mount Olivet; that there his bones might, with the bones of his brother and namesake, who was carried thither out of Egypt, come forth together in the morn of the resurrection, to partake in the triumph and glories of the kingdom of God."

Our readers will bear with us, if we copy the closing proceedings of this famous convocation. After various proceedings are related, among which are the confirming of "two sisters" who had been baptized the evening previous, the account proceeds:

The Book of Mormon was then received as the word of God, by the unanimous vote of the Conference.

The Book of Doctrine and Covenants was also received as a revelation from God, containing the pattern for the organization of his Church, by the unanimous vote of the Conference.

The Conference then stood upon their feet, with their hands lifted to heaven, and received the holy convocation, presenting the covenants which they had entered into, before God, and all the work they had done, asking God to register it in heaven, and place his seal of approbation upon the great work they had done before him; which the Lord did, and bore testimony by his Spirit, that he had accepted their work, and placed his seal upon it.

Elder J. M. Cole then related to the Conference a vision of heaven, shown to him last fall, giving a history of all the important events which shall transpire in the world until the Savior comes.

Conference adjourned to meet in tis city, on the 6th of April, 1846.
SIDNEY RIGDON, President. Wm. E. M'Lellin,
Joseph M. Cole,
} Secretaries.
George W. Robinson.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. 2.                 Conneaut, Ohio, Thursday, May 22, 1845.                 No. 16.

            From the Pittsburgh Gazette.

Pittsburgh  Mormonism.

We use this term in contradistinction to "Naucoo Mormonism," as it differs in some essential particulars, and is probably the more dangerous fanaticism of the two. We yesterday gave some account of the institution of the Church of the Pittsburgh branch of this modern heresy, but since then through the politeness of some of the Mormon leaders, we have been put in possession of a copy of each number of their periodical issued since SIDNEY RIGDON made his headquarters here last November. From these documents we have gleaned some additional facts, which may prove of some interest to our readers.

The Conference which was held in this city last month, was convened by a call from Sidney Rigdon. It was numerously attended, and resulted in the establishment of a branch of Mormonism entirely distinct from that at Nauvoo, and under a different name. That is called the "Church of the Latter Day Saints" -- this is denominated "the Church of Christ." They both, however acknowledge the "Book of Mormon" and the "Book of Covenants" as the Word of God, and as of equal authority with the Bible. The principal difference between them is, that the Pittsburgh Mormons, to their credit let it be spoken, repudiate and abjure the "spiritual wife system," the dogma that "it is sometimes lawful to lie," and assert the duty of obedience to the laws of the land.

The Government of the two sects is very similar. The principal Legislative body is called the "Quorum of Seventy-Three." This quorum is composed of those who have been ordained "prophets, priests and kings unto God." This quorum is now full, in the Pittsburgh branch, and sixty-two were present at the late Conference.

"The highest executive officer is called the "First President." Sidney Rigdon enjoys this office, and the manner in which he attained it, is so curious that we cannot but copy the account of it from the "Messenger" of the 15th of April. After the new Church had been organized, and the "Quorum of Seventy-Three" was full and had received the charge of the institutor, President Rigdon, who had been ordained by the Prophet Joe Smith himself, the account proceeds:

"The President then said -- the quorum was now full -- was organized agreeably to the pattern of heaven, and he had now so far done what God had commanded him, he therefore surrendered the control and management of the kingdom of God into their hands. I now throw myself into your arms. Now, what relation shall I sustain to this kingdom? What office shall I hold?

Whereupon Elder Joseph M. Cole arose and nominated Sidney Rigdon as first president of this kingdom and church, and to stand as prophet, seer, revelator and translator, to this church and kingdom of Christ of the last days, which was seconded. The vote was put by W. E. McLellin, one of the Secretaries, and carried by a unanimous vote; every member of the quorum standing on his feet. It was then put to the whole church, and was carried in the affirmative without one dissenting voive."

The new "First President" was then consecrated by each member of the Quorum coming forward, and taking him by the hand, and making a solemn pledge to "stand by jim and his family in all righteousness before God until the time of the end," and until they shall "meet the Son of God, on Mount Olivet, and the earth is redeemed." The "Messenger" says the scene was of a most impressive character.

United with the "First President" are two others, making what is called the "President's Quorum." the highest Court in the church. This is the quorum to which Regon belonged in Nauvoo, when Joe Smith was First President. The other bodies are the "Quorum of Twelve," the "High Council," the "Quorum of Elders," &c., almost too numerous to mention.

However, we have not time or inclination to pursue our inquiries into the government of this extraordinary sect of religious enthusiasts farther. The inglorious rise, and wonderful progress of this fanaticism, are, however, subjects for profound inquiry and philosophic research. Scarcely any thing parallel can be found in ancient or modern times, except it may be in Mohammedanism. Too little attention has been paid to this heresy by the religious public. It is, as far as we can learn. spreading further and more widely than people generally imagine.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 24.                           Sandusky, Ohio, Saturday, June 14, 1845.                           No. 1.

From the Louisville Journal


On the 21st instant the trial of the persons charged with the murder of Joe and Hiram Smith, commenced at Carthage, Illinois. -- The prisoners, J. C. Davis, late an Illinois Senator, T. C. Sharp, editor of the Warsaw Signal, Mark Aldrich, Wm. N. Grover, and Col. Levi Williams, complained by affidavit of the partial manner in which the jurors had been selected, and prayed the court that Elisors be appointed to select a jury, which the court granted. -- The jury was not entirely empaneled at the last accounts. A correspondent of the St. Louis Republican says:

"Everything thus far has been entirely quiet and peaceable, yet there is a deep and intense anexiety felt, which pervades all classes -- the characters of the accused, the nature of the charges against them, and the peculiar state of the relations existing between the Mormons and anti-Mormons, all conspire to make the present trials of deep interest to the old citizens of this country. Every body almost, attending court comes armed to the teeth, and frequently muskets and rifles will be seen taken out of wagons with as much deliberation as if they were attending a militia muster instead of a court of justice. This is a bad state of things, but extraordinary cases demand extraordinary remedies.

The Mormons are said to have expressed a determination to take revenge, in case the defendants should not be convicted, but it is hoped that more discreet counsels will prevail.


(read original article from PA paper)

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 24.                           Sandusky, Ohio, Saturday, June 21, 1845.                           No. 2.


MORMON TRIALS. The St. Louis Republican of Monday, the 2d inst., speaking of the trials going on at Carthage, Illinois, says:

"We are informed that the jury in the indictments for the murder of Joe Smith, the Mormon Prophet, after an absence of about thirty minutes, returned a verdict of not guilty. The indictments for the murder of Hiram Smith will be tried at a special term; which will be held after the circuit is gone through with."

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. 2.                 Conneaut, Ohio, Thursday, June 26, 1845.                 No. 21.


PITTSBURGH MORMONISM. -- This new phase in fanaticism continues to put forth remarkable supernatural revelations to astonish the ignorant and superstitious. The "Messenger and Advocate," the organ of the Branch of Mormonism in this city, is full of Rigdon's effusions, and letters from traveling missionaries abroad. He complains very much that his Church is confounded with that of the Twelve at Nauvoo, and insists that it is totally dissimiliar in every essential particular. He talks with detestation of their wickedness -- repudiates it entirely, and consigns it over to perdition; says the Twelve and their followers are hastening to destruction, and mentions particularly that in such abhorrence does the Church here hold the Nauvoo Mormons, they cannot be received without repentance, confession of their faith and baptism. He characterizes the Nauvoo Mormons as polygamists, liars, perjurers, coiners, counterfeiters, &c. -- quite a catalogue. It is clear enough from his account, that they are not at all responsible for the infamous expression of a wish in the Nauvoo Neighbor that "God who never errs, might sprinkle, upon every man and city that belies the saints, as upon Pittsburgh, now and then a hot drop!" The enmity between the two is excessively bitter.

In a letter from one Hutchins, dated at Boston, May 19th, we have another specimen of what, in our opinion, is blasphemy, not in legal, but in a moral sense. It appears that the converts from the old church had assembled under the direction of Hutchins to wash and anoint. When these ceremonies were performed, he says they entered into a covenant:

"And while in the attitude of this covenant, as we did at Conference, about to say amen, something appeared before me like a bright cloud, and my speech failed me, and my tongue began to flutter like a leaf among the leaves, and in this cloud there appeared to be a center, and in that center the Son of God; I did not see the whole form of a personage, but a glorious light, and I talked for some minutes in an unknown tongue, which I never knew, and my discourse seemed to be directed to this personage in the cloud. In a few minutes I found myself with my brethren amazed."

All this is told with an imperturbable coolness and will be received as Gospel by the members. It nearly rivals the famous revelations made by Rigdon himself, when the Church was organized. The cloud of madness is upon the minds of these deluded people. -- Pittsburgh Gazette

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. II.                           Elyria, Ohio, Tuesday, July 22, 1845.                           No. 4.


NAUVOO. -- The Warsaw Signal contains numerous statements of violence in or about Nauvoo.

Irvine Hodges was murdered there; he said his best friend killed him; yet gave no name. The Signal thinks he gave the name, but it was suppressed.

William Backenstos, late Sheriff of Hancock, has been ordered to leave the holy city. He is accused of being the correspondent of the Warsaw Signal.

Patriarch Bill Smith, of Nauvoo, brother of the Prophet, whose wife died about 4 weeks since was married on last Sunday week -- having been a widower about 18 days. His bride is about 16 years of age, and he is 36.

The split among the Nauvoo Saints is growing wider. Bill Smith heads one party, the twelve disciples the other.   Cincinnati Gazette.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. II.                           Defiance, Ohio, Thursday, July 31, 1845.                           No. 54.


A BROTHER OF THE MURDERERS MURDERED. -- Irvine Hodges, who was here in attendance last week, at the trial of his brothers, Stephen and William, left for Nauvoo on Monday morning last, and on the night of the same day was murdered in the latter place.

Of the fact of the murder there seems to be no question, but the circumstances attending it are not so well understood. Conflicting reports are in circulation on this point. The story told us is, that upon arriving at home Hodges was approached, by two or three persons and solicited to engage in the contemplated robbery of a store... -- that meantime, he advised the owner of the store of the meditated robbery, and a guard was placed in the house -- that, upon ascertaining their intentions were discovered, the robbers, as is supposed, sought vengeance of H. for their betrayal, and killed him. This however, is not a probable tale. The supposition of many is that he was murdered by a gang of scoundrels to which he and his brothers are supposed to have belonged, to prevent disclosures which it was feared the execution of Stephen and William might provoke. -- He was knocked down with a club or bludgeon, and stabbed, as is reported, with his own bowie knife. Upon being interrogated, before he expired, as to the author of the deed, the only answer that could be got from him was that it was done by one he had considered his best friend.

We shall probably be able to give fuller and more authentic details in our next number. Truly, this murder of the poor old German Minister has been a tragical affair. Miller, stabbed to the heart, and sent without a moment's warning into the presence of his Maker -- Leisa, shot and mangled, permitted to live for a brief period, as if to augment his sufferings, and then doomed to die -- the murderers, brothers -- arrested, tried, convicted, and only awaiting the lapse of a few days to expiate their crime on the gallows -- and now, produced by causes doubtless originating in the first shedding of blood, the violent death of a third brother, from the blows of the assassin. Bloody narrative at the recital of which humanity recoils! Let all beware of the first step in crime.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                             Cleveland, Ohio, Saturday, Sept. 13, 1845.                             No. 70.


==> A correspondent from the Albany Atlas writing from Nauvoo, of the "City of St.Joseph," as the Mormons style it, gives the following description of a call made upon the family of Joe Smith:

I of course called upon the widow of Joe Smith, who I found a plain woman enough, without anything remarkable about her that I could observe. She appeared not at all displeased with the attention of our party in calling upon her, and answered our questions very readily. She had a little Joe in her arms. -- The mother of the deceased prophet is the keeper of the Egyptian mummies, and various relics and curiosities, which she exhibits to the public at two bits per head . While exhibiting the traps, the old lasy gives an account of the manner of her son's finding the golden plates, and also informs the spectator that her deceased son interpreted the hieroglyphics upon the mummy cases, which figures corroborated perfectly every thing Joe had ever said, and confirmed beyond the shadow of a doubt his divine mission. She tells the same things to every visitor, and if she weeps as much with every one as she did while relating her stories to me, she would be invaluable in Broadway on a dusty day. Poor old woman, she trusts in the prophet Joseph with her whole heart. -- William Smith, the brother of Joe, is a man of some influence a,ong his people, and is one of the "Twelve," a list of whom I will give below, but he is not regarded with any thing like the same veneration as was his brother. They say he (William) is a tolderably good Mormon, but the prophet Joseph was of course an out-and-outer. William is very sociable, and would be called the world over a jolly dog. I could not help thinking him out of place among the ascetic looking, ling headed fellows, his coadjutors of the "Twelve."

The community are governed entirely in their spiritual, and I rather think somewhat in their temporal concerns, by a Council composed of Twelve men, who are called Elders, and each has certain duties, when not acting as members of the Grand Council. They have also titles of honor.

Notes: (forthcoming)



NS. Vol. I.                           Columbus, O., Wed., September 17, 1845.                           No. 11.

                   From the Seneca Advertiser.
Seneca  County  Democratic  Convention.

In pursuance of notice given by the Democratic Central Committee of Seneca county, the delgates appointed by the several Townships, assembled in convention at the Court House in Tiffin, on Saturday, the 30th ult., for the purpose of nominating candidates to be supported by the Democratic party at the coming election....

O. Cowdery, Esq., then offered the folowing resolutions, which, on being read by him, were unanimously adopted...

Note: The above abbreviated excerpt is offered merely to document that Oliver Cowdery was involved in local Democratic party politics, in Tiffin, during the mid-1840s.


Vol. 24.                           Sandusky, Ohio, Friday, October 10, 1845.                           No. 18.

From the Cincinnati Atlas


The recent events in the Mormon country furnish food for much thought. -- Such manifestations of mob spirit are to be deeply regretted; for they make yet more unstable what was insecure before; and atim directly at the foundation of alllaw and order. Yet we fear similar events will ever follow all attempts to build up among us ecclesiatical combination, wielding absolute power over a horde of fanatical and bigoted perosns, as in the case of the Mormons, who are entirely under the control of a set of crafty, ambitious and designing men. Men disregardless of every thing like decency; and who trample under foot every principle in order to obtain wealth and power.

From the very first of Joe Smith's pretended revelations, we have watched with anxiety every new phase of this preposterous and growing abomination. We had hoped that long ere this, his blinded and misguided followers would have been undeceived as to his power of working miracles, and other superstitions; and would have turned in disgust and laothing from the barefaced and ridiculous absurdities. But no, they have gone on receiving strength from every opposition, until they are now almost able to defy the power of the state; and the question is seriously asked, how is this hydra-headed monster to be destroyed? Not by force surely, for that has been tried time and time again. When but a handful they were driven from Ohio to Missouri, and from thence to Illinois; and now an attempt is made to expel them from that state, yet after each remove they have been stronger than before. What then is to be done? -- This is a question easier asked than answered. Yet something must be done, for it has been justly remarked by a contemporary that "the sway which has been exercised by the Mormon ecclesiastical leaders over the minds of the mass of the people, is entirely repugnant to republican principles and hostile to liberty. Perosns who are in a state of religious slavery are not very suitable persins to form members of a republican community."

But are the Mormons alone to blame? It is to be questioned whether any laws can be enacted, by which this dangerous tendency can be checked. Laws never yet controlled the action or belief of the human mind; and what is more, they never will. Neither will persecution or force change the current of religious fanaticism. These have been tried in the old world, and they have been tried in this; but in both, in every instance, they have signally failed. It is only by education, by the diffusion of knowledge and the enlightenment of the human mind, that its action can be controlled, and its energies kept within the narrow limits of right.

But what have we done to check this monstrous growth of error and superstition among Mormons? Have we sent teachers among them? Or have we done aught to arrest the progress of these doctrines, except to denounce them as abominable and at variance with the light of revelation and reason? We look in vain for an affirmative answer; for if we are not mistaken, no very efficient attempts have been made to reclaim them from the lamentable errors into which they have unhappily fallen. Their superstitions have been suffered to go on in their blindness, until the seeds of error have become so deeply planted, that it will take years of careful culture to exterminate them.

Since the beginning of Mormonism, the heathen in foreign lands have had missionaries sent to them; the isles of the sea have heard the glad sounds of salvation, and the deserts of Arabia have been gladdened with the waters of eternal life -- but the dark clouds of superstition and error have been suffered to gather unmolested, in our very midst, until they overshadow us like the pall of night!

Can it be wondered at then, that we occasionally reap the bitter fruits of our neglect? Most assuredly not. If we fail to plant good seed and cultivate and nourish it, we will be certain to gather nothing but a harvest of tares....


By the last dates from the Mormon country we are gald to learn that "order reigns in Warsaw," and that the war is nearly ended.

We learn from the St. Louis New Era that on Saturday, the 20th instant, the Mormons, numbering between five and eight hundred, under command of Sheriff Backenstos and E. A. Bedell, post-master at Warsaw, marched into that place in triumph. All the citizens who had taken an active part, or in any way snactioned the late outrages, had previously left for the opposite side of the river, so there was but an empty victory.

Backenstos, after marching his troops through the principal streets, and making some pretence to search for offenders, finally drew them up in a solid phlanx on the bank of the river, and in full view of the fugitives from his vengeance on the opposite side, he made them go through the various modes of exercise, no doubt to impress the refugees with a proper respect for his importance in future; when tired of displaying his military preparations, and after satisfying himself that none of the house-burners and mobocrats were in the city, he placed a strong force on guard and withdrew with the main portion of his army to an encampment about two miles distant. The Mormons kept possession of the town until they found the warlike citizens across the river were not going to return. They then withdrew, and encamped about eight miles from the town, where they were at the last advices. The general belief was, however, that the war was over.

This, remarks the Era, is certainly good news to the refugees; they will, no doubt, be glad to return home, but our word for it, they will not attempt to do so, so long as the shadow of a Mormon remains about ill-fated Warsaw. Backenstos may have withdrawn his forces for the purpose of ambuscade; should this be his object he will get woefully disappointed;for men who will run and leave at the approach of danger, their firesides and their families, as they believed, to the mercy of a reckless foe, have the gift of self-preservation too strongly developed in their compositions to hazard either life or limb in returning to them.

It should be mentioned for the credit of the Mormons that though they had full and quiet possession of Warsaw for some time, no act of violence had been offered, or was intended to the property of their fleeing enemies; but on the contrary they avowed their determination not to injure but to protect every thing pertaining to the town so long as they should remain in possession of it.

Mr. Backenstos may then rest assured that any thing at stratagem will not succeed, brave men have often been led into danger by it, but onwards never; when he and his troops are at a respectable distance, Warsaw will again receive her citizens, but without a strong reinforcement, not till then.   Cin. Atlas.

Note: Another reprint of the New Era report adds these remarks: "Everything is said to be quiet in Hancock county at this time, the Mormons having possession of the three principal towns, Carthage, Augusta and Warsaw; but the prevalent opinion is, that it is but a delusive calm before the outbreak of a terrible storm."


Vol. I.                         Cleveland, Ohio, Tuesday, October 18, 1845.                         No. 198.


MORMON ORATORY. -- A brother, a veritable brother of the martyred Joe Smith, has lately been lecturing in St. Louis on the Mormon abuses. -- The Reveille gives the following as a specimen of his preculiar oratory.

"Sez I to Brigham Young, sez I, 'how is it a going to be about the young Joseph, who should in right be the head of the church, as his father and his family have stood the brunt of the storms[.'] Sez he, Sir Brigham Young, 'if we go to preachin' young Joseph now, those enemies on our borders will shoot the young prophet as they did his father;' and so they set the head of the church aside, and ever since it aint bin a gittin' along at all."

Note: It seems likely that "Patriarch" William Smith was capable of speaking proper English when it suited his purposes -- but he may have occasionally moderated his vernacular to fit the character of his audiences.



Vol. 2.                   Conneaut, Ohio, Thursday, October 23, 1845.                   No. 58.


DISCOVERY OF MORE ANCIENT PLATES. -- All humbugs on the subject of old plates did not die with Jo Smith, for already a fresh plate digger, and translator has arisen.

By a letter from a very respectable source, we are informed that some brass plates bearing marks of antiquity have recently been brought to light in Burlington, Wisconsin. The circumstances are stated to be these: It appears that a certain man who has for some time past believed himself inspired, had it revealed to him, that by digging under a certain tree he would find a vessel containing plates with inscriptions relating to the aborigines of the country. He accordingly selected three of his neighbors to dig in the appointed place, who, (as they affirm,) after carefully examining the ground, to be sure that it had not been disturbed, dug to the depth of several feet, and found at last the said vessel, which, after being exposed to the air, crumbled to pieces, exposing three plates of brass covered with characters, the meaning of which they were entirely ignorant, but which the prophet has since translated. -- The language from the translation purports to be that of a King or Chief describing the destruction of his whole people and place where they perished. Several persons have been to see the prophet, and many of them after seeking the plates believe them genuine. Whether this will resolve itself into Mormonism, or become the basis of a new sect, is a matter of speculation. In either case, it will find adherents. The world is full of dupes, and as it purports to be the result of divine revelation and is backed by the testimony of three honest men, it stands a good chance of being successful. -- Cleve. Herald.

Note 1: The old record, "translated" by Elder James J. Strang, purports to be "The Record of Rajah Manchou of Vorito." The witnesses to this discovery were Aaron Smith, Jirah B. Wheelan, James M. Van Nostrand, and Edward Whitcomb. They never denied their testimony of the divinity of "The Record."

Note 2: The Introduction to Strang's translation of Rajah Manchou's text begins thusly: "My people are no more. The mighty are fallen, and the young slain in battle. Their bones bleached on the plain by the noonday shadow.... God hath sworn to give an inheritance to his people where transgressors perished. The word of God came to me while I mourned in the Death-shade, saying, I will avenge me on the destroyer... The forerunner [i. e. Joseph Smith, jr.] men shall kill, but a mighty prophet [i. e. James J. Strang] there shall dwell. I will be his strength, and he shall bring forth thy record. Record my words, and bury it in the Hill of Promise...."


Vol. ?                             Cleveland, Ohio, Wednesday, Oct. 29, 1845.                             No. 109.


MORMONISM. -- There has been a feud and division among the Mormons. When Joe Smith, the head imposter, was killed, there was a struggle for teh ascendancy; Sidney Rigdon thought he ought to be the next in command, but he was defeated and denounced. Emma Smith, the widow, seemed disposed to be the spiritual ruler, but her claims were not recognized; Wm. Smith, the brother of Joe, set himself up as Patriarch, but the other Mormon leaders would not give him control of their affairs. Brigham Young and the Council of Twelve, then took upon themselves the spiritual and temporal government of the Mormons. They propose to remove all the Saints beyond the Rocky Mountains and there set up for themselves. To this Wm. Smith, the pretended Patriarch, is violently opposed, and he resists it with all his power. He favors the plan of a dispersion of the Mormons and their settlement as other denominations throughout the country, but is in favor of an adherence to their religious absurdities and superstitious observances. He thinks that if their religious and political embodiment in separate communities were abandoned, that violent opposition to them would cease, and that they would enjoy more peace. he denounced Young and his adherents, and the feud between them seems to be very violent.The mass of the Mormons appear to be disposed to adhere to Young and his party as affording the best chnace to carry on the objects and purposes of their fanatical association. -- St. Louis New Era.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. 2.                     Conneaut, Ohio, Thursday, November 13, 1845.                    No. 41.


FLIGHT OF THE MORMON PROPHET FROM NAUVOO. -- William Smith, of the Patriarch's family, has fled from Nauvoo. -- The St. Louis papers of Saturday week published his address, "a faithful warning to the Latter Day Saints," against the unrighteousness of the Elders, who have usurped the Patriarchal chair, of which he is the only legal occupant. He councils peace, love to all men, and a resolution of confidence between Mormons and their neighbors, opposing emigration to Oregon and promises further exposure of the unrighteousness of the "wicked Elders." -- William is now in St. Louis, under the protection of some friends. His address is dated 25th October.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                               Norwalk, Ohio, Tues., November 18, 1845.                               No. ?

More  Mormon  Troubles.

The more rigid the examination, the more glaring becomes the villainy, corruption, and defiance of law, of the Mormon leaders. To those residing at a distance from us, and who apparently sympathize with the Mormons, and take ground against the old settlers, for having in their past course, contended only for their lives and their property, we commend the following extract from the Quincy Whig. This Brigham Young is the head apostle of this infatuated sect, whose fundamental principle is implicit obedience to the requisition of their leaders. Charged with the odious crime of counterfeiting, he openly resists the officers of the law, and boldly defies the constituted authorities of the State. How long is Illinois to submit to such insolence, insult and degradation? And where is the law, human or divine, that requires farther submission to such outrages? -- Alton Telegraph.

Col. Warren, Judge Purple, and Mr. Brayman, Attorney of the State, visited Nauvoo -- near the environs of the City, they saw assembled a force of about 200 armed Mormons. This being contrary to the orders of Gen. Hardin, in relation to armed men assembling in the county, Col. Warren felt it his duty as an officer, to inquire into the matter. For that purpose, he invited Brigham Young and others of the leading authorities to a conference. He informed them that the armed men on the prairie was contrary to orders, and wanted to know what it meant. To this Young gave no satisfactory reply; he stated, however, that it was their intention to submit to no further arrests, and ridiculed the Court, the Judge, the Attorney of the State, who were present, and in substance, defied the power of the State. After him, Elder Taylor, another of the Twelve, got up, and abused the Governor, State officers, &c. Brigham Young again got up, and said he was not very good at an apology, but that they must not mind what Elder Taylor said; that he was always making trouble, &c. -- offered to treat, and called in a couple of gallons of wine. But Col. Warren refused to drink with them. He got up and told them in a plain talk what he thought of their conduct, and that, as an officer, he should do his duty and carry out the law.

While this was going on, a deputy of the U. S. Marsahll arrived with a detachment of the Quincy Rifles, with a writ for Brigham Young, charged with counterfeiting the coin of the United States. This becoming known in the city, the excitement was tremendous. The Mormons assembled in large crowds, and a disposition was manifested by them to resist all attempts to arrest any person in Nauvoo. After a consultation with the officer, by Judge Purple and others, it was deemed advisable to postpone the execution of the writ at the time, for the personal safety of all concerned.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                               Norwalk, Ohio, Tues., November 25, 1845.                               No. ?

Scene  at  the  Gallows.

John Long, Aaron Long, his brother, and Granville Young, were executed at Rock Island, Illinois, on the 25th ult., for the murder of Col. George Davenport, last 4th of July. John Long addressed the crowd, substantially admitting his own guilt, but earnestly protesting the innocence of his brother and Young. After this, the following horrible scene occurred, as described by a correspondent of the Chicago News:

After Long had closed, he returned to his seat, and after consulting the other prisoners, returned and stated that it was their dying request that their bodies be given to their friends, and not to the physicians. Mr. Gatchell now stepped forward and offered up a short and appropriate prayer, after which, Mr. Haney read a psalm. The prisoners now severally shook hands with those on the scaffold, and with each other. Aaron Long and Young nearly overcome with emotion. John quite calm and collected. The sheriff bound their arms, put the caps over their faces, and led them forward up on the drop. Taking the axe, he severed the rope at one blow, and down went the drop, letting them fall the distance of four feet. But now remained a scene most revolting to behold, and most horrible to describe. The middle rope broke, letting Aaron Long fall, striking his back upon the beam below, and lying insensible from the strangling caused by the rope before it broke. For a moment not a human being moved, all were horrified, and seemed riveted to their places. Soon, however, the officers descended and raised him up, when he recovered his senses, and was again led upon the gallows, suffering intensely, raising his hands and crying out, "the Lord have mercy on me! The Lord have mercy on me! You are hanging an innocent man. -- And (pointing to his brother,) there hangs my brother;" but, alas! he heeded him not. He was already gone beyond his sympathy -- he was left alone, to endure the dreadful sight of his brother's last agonies, and once more to pass through the dreadful scene -- the rope -- the platform -- the axe! I shall never forget the appearance of that man, as he sat upon the bench, a large bloody streak about his neck, his body trembling all over, while preparations were making for his final fall. But there was another act in this drama.

As he was ascending the gallows, signs of an outbreak among the crowd were evident. Some cried, "That's enough -- let him go," while others gave expressions to their horror. Just at this moment some cry was raised in a remote part of the crowd; no one knew what it was; some were frightened -- one wing of the guard retreated towards the gallows -- the tumult increased -- a sudden panic seized the immense crowd, and they all fled precipitately from the place. If the earth under the gallows, had opened, and Pluto himself had arisen from the infernal regions with his horses and chariot, it could not have caused greater consternation, or a more hasty flight. The guard were with difficulty kept in their places; the crowd returned, and soon all was quiet, every one ashamed of himself for having been frightened at nothing. One wagon was found upset, but it was supposed to be the effect, and not the cause of this panic. The wretched victim of the law was at length dispatched, and the crowds dispersed. Thus ended the first execution I ever witnessed, and God grant that it may be the last.

Baxter, another of the prisoners charged with the murder of Col. Davenport, has been tried, found guilty, and sentenced to be hung on the 18th of November. Birvh, another of the accused, not tried for want of time. The jury could not agree in the case of the two Redings, father and son, charged with participation in the murder of Col. Davenport. The jury stood 11 for conviction, 1 for acquittal. Prisoners remanded for a new trial on the 4th Monday of May next.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. II.                           Washington, Ohio, November 27, 1845.                           No. 83.


The last "New York Sun" has an editorial article, as well as a letter from Nauvoo of the 27th of October, concerning this extraordinary people. The letter is from Mr. James Arlington Bennett, and professes to sketch their future designs as follows:

(read original articles from NYC paper)

We entirely concur with the "Sun" in the belief that "our government should look to this matter in season." With angry and fanatical feelings such as the Mormons would carry with them, our own citizens would find them "troublesome customers," let the tide of emigration be diverted to Oregon or to California.

We understand that the number of Mormons is already estimated at 57,000.

Notes: (forthcoming)



NS. Vol. I.                           Columbus, O., Wed., December 3, 1845.                           No. 22.


THE MORMONS. -- The last 'New York Sun' has an editorial article, as well as a letter from Nauvoo of the 27th October, concerning this extraordinary people. The letter is from James Arlington Bennett, and professes to sketch their future designs as follows:

"The present organization of the church, with the twelve apostles at its head, with a president who holds the keys of the kingdom, is the one that must stand; and when these shall have gone to California, Mormonism will be no more in the United Sates. But there will be a mighty gathering from all nations of the earth to the Mormon empire now about to be established on the Pacific ocean! One thing you may rely on -- and that is, this people will never annex themselves to any government on earth; nor is it desirable they should, as they are determined to be governed by their own laws. The Mormons consider Governor Ford as an old woman in breeches. They say that, instead of permitting them to defend themselves against the mobs, he legalizes the mobs by throwing into their aid some of the State forces. This is what is called their abuse of the governor that we see in the papers.

"There are already organized twenty-five companies of one hundred families each, to be filled up during the winter, for the march to California. Each family of ten persons will have a wagon drawn by four oxen, and supplied with everything necessary for the journey.

"A troop of horse will be organized as an advance guard.

"The whole Mormon people are called in from Europe and America, so that they expect about two hundred thousand persons to congregate within one year at the bay of San Francisco! Several ships will be fitted out in England to take their people round Cape Horn, and others will sail from New York in the spring. Is not this a tempting place for an old United States officer like myself, who has been through the last war? They wish me much to join them, and I presume, if I did, I would have the first military command in the camp of the saints. They certainly require a leader with a military and mathematical head, and one who has seen active service; but I am too old to settle in the west!"

The 'New York Sun,' in its own editorial article, runs as follows:

THE MORMONS. -- William Smith, brother of Joe Smith, the Mormon prophet, states that it is their design to set up an independent government somewhere in the neighborhood of the Rocky mountains, or near California. That the plan has been maturing for a long time, and that, in fact, with hate in their hearts, skillfully kept up by the Mormon leaders, whose pockets are to be enriched by their toil, the mass of the Mormons will be alike purged of American feeling, and shut out by a barrier of mountains and church restrictions from any other than Mormon freedom. That the design of Brigham Young and the 'twelve' is to build up a sacerdotal tyranny, the spirit of which will be more [repugnant] to the spread of republican principles than could possibly be the rule of Europe. These are William Smith's views. He is opposed to the plan of organization and its leaders. We find the following in the Mormon paper, which speaks a bitter and in some respects, we apprehend, a true spirit in reference to their wrongs. We could not believe that in a government of laws, any sect, no matter what their faith might be, would ever have been driven out of the land vi et armis. The Mormon paper says:
"We owe the United States nothing" we go out by force, as exiles from freedom. The government and people owe us millions for the destruction of life and property in Missouri and in Illinois. The blood of our best men will preserve it till God comes out of his hiding place, and gives this nation a hotter place than he did Sodom and Gomorrah. 'When they cease to spoil, they shall be spoiled,' for the Lord hath spoken it."
"They will become formidable enemies to the United States, either in California or Oregon; and government should look to this matter in season."

We entirely concur with the 'Sun' in the belief that 'our government should look to this matter in season.' With angry and fanatical feelings, such as the Mormons would carry with them, our own ctizens would find them 'troublesome customers,'let the tide of emigration be diverted to Oregon or California.

We understand that the number of Mormons is already estimated at 57,000. -- Washington Union

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XI.                          Cleveland, Ohio, Wednesday, December 24, 1845.                          No. 156.


ORIGIN OF MORMONISM. -- The Albany Evening Journal gives the following account of Joe Smith's early operations:

"Joe Smith, previous to his becoming a Prophet, Prophet, was a "Loafer." He resided near the village of Palmyra, spent most of his time in bar-rooms, and seemed only anxious to live along "from hand to mouth," without work. He was then remarkable for nothing in particular, but indolence, and scheming on a small scale. In 1824 or '5, he went a vagabonding off into Western Pennsylvania, where, nobody knows how, he got possession of the manuscript of a half-deranged Clergyman, with which he returned to Palmyra, where he pretended that he was directed in a dream to a particular spot in the woods, to possess himself of an oracular "slate," or, as he called it, a "Golden Bible." From this inspired "slate," which he used to place in his hat, he read to the "gaping few" new and strange revelations: and finally, he produced the "Book of Mormon," as the creed and faith of a People of whom he was designed by Providence to be the Prophet and Ruler. The "Book of Mormon" is a copy of the manuscript which Smith obtained near Pittsburgh.

A wealthy Farmer, by the name of Harris, was his first believing convert. Harris mortgaged his Farm to raise the money required for the temporal support of the Prophet, and printing of the "Book of Mormon." The Prophet and his Convert (Smith and Harris) came to Rochester and offered us the honor of being their Printer. (We were in like manner, a year afterwards, asked to print "Morgan's Revelations of Free-Masonry.") But as we were only in the newspaper line, we contented ourselves with reading a chapter of what seemed such wretched and incoherent stupidity, that we wondered how "Joe" had contrived to make the first fool with it. But he went on, making not only fools, but knaves, in America and Europe, for more than twenty years, and until his career was abruptly cut short by men who became themselves violators of the laws they were called to vindicate.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. ?                       Cincinnati, Ohio, Tuesday, February 24, 1846.                       No. ?


... [Mr. Samuel] Searls, a messenger from the new Mormon Prophet. James J. Strang, at Voree, Wisconsin, arrived in this city on Friday last, and on Sunday both branches of the Mormons here, the Rigdonites and the Twelveites, disbanded, and all but three individuals acknowledged the power and glory of the new Prophet. The messenger brings the news that Emma Smith, wife of Joseph, and her son, Joseph the Second, acknowledge Strang as the Lord's anointed. One of the Smiths came from Voree, a few days since to Nauvoo, and proclaimed Strang the head of the Church in the Temple, at that place, without molestation. The Saints are flocking to Voree in great numbers; it is to be the gathering place of all this strange people, except the awfully corrupt Twelve and their adherents, now on their way to California, over the Rocky Mountains, or to some other country.

James J. Strang is a lawyer of considerable emmence in the west. We believe he is the person who came out of Missouri with the Mormons at the time of their disturbances, planned the Temple at Nauvoo, and wrote the bulletins of Joe the Prophet. He will doubtless establish the Mormon dominion again at Voree, and, by his intelligence and spirit of enterprise, regenerate this people, casting off the corrupt Twelve and all their followers.

We presume that William Smith, who has been lecturing here, will join with the new Prophet, and Voree will become a second Nauvoo, in all except the wickedness of that place. They declare themselves determined to behave with more respect for the laws of the country; indeed it would seem that those who left the corrupt Twelve and spiritual wife business, as well as the practising of other enormities did it out of principle. However, we must await and see what this new move will amount to. If the Mormons in establishing Voree fully discard all their offensive acts which have heretofore caused them to be outcast and killed, they can get along, but if Strang be not wise and pure, and use judgment in his new position, he will fix himself in a terrible fix, before long. Let him be wise and not take revelations from bad angels, and he may succeed.

Note 1: The exact contents of the above article remain undetermined. The text is taken from a reprint published in the March, 1846 issue of J. J. Strang's Voree Herald. It appears to have been written by John. C. Bennett, in response to his hearing Elder Searls' pro-Strang lectures in Cincinnati on Feb. 20th. According to the Feb. 27, 1846 issue of the Galena Northwestern Gazette, William Smith was offering anti-Twelveite lectures in Cincinnati at about the same time that Samuel Searls was lecturing in that city. William was then in the company of George J. Adams. Apparently John C. Bennett spoke with both Searls and Smith at length about the possibility that J. J. Strang would accept himself, William Smith and G. J. Adams as religious allies in the anti-Twelveite cause. Mention of Bennett's letters to Strang, advocating such notions, was published in the Elkhorn New Era of Jan., 1847. G. J. Adams also corresponded with Strang about this time, seeking similar possibilities.

Note 2: "One of the Smiths... from Voree" was Elder Moses Smith, brother of J. J. Strang's counselor, Aaron Smith. These Wisconsin Smith brothers were not related to the Joseph Smith, Sr. family of Nauvoo. The exact impact of Moses Smith's preaching in Nauvoo, upon the inclinations of the Joseph Smith, Sr. family, remains unknown. William's "conversion" to the Strangite cause probably was well underway, before he ever returned to Nauvoo and heard of Moses Smith's preaching there.

Note 3: The Cincinnati editor's guess ("that William Smith... will join with the new Prophet") subsequently proved true. Although William did not publicly join Strang's group until the summer of 1846, as early as Mar. 11, 1846 the Hancock Co. journalist, Thomas C. Sharp, was writing: "He [William] did not seem hostile to Strang, it may therefoe be that he will yet become the Patriarch of Strang's Church."



Vol. II.                         Washington, Ohio, Thurs.,  April 23, 1846.                         No. 52.


The Albany Evening Journal gives the following account of Joe Smith's early operations:

Joe Smith, previous to his becoming a Prophet, was a "Loafer." He resided near the village of Palmyra, spent most of his time in bar-rooms, and seemed only anxious to live along from hand "to mouth," without work. He was then remarkable for nothing in particular, but indolence and scheming on a small scale. In 1824 or 1825, he went a vagabonding off into western Pennsylvania, where, nobody knows how, he got possession of the manuscript of a half-deranged clergyman, with which he returned to Palmyra, where he pretended that he was directed in a dream to a particular spot in the woods, to possess himself of an oracular slate or as he called it, a "Golden Bible." From this inspired slate, which he used to place in his hat, he read to the "gaping 'few" new and strange revelations: and finally, he produced the "Book of Mormon," as the creed and faith of a people of whom he was designed by Providence to be the Prophet and Ruler. The Book of Mormon is a copy of the manuscript which Smith obtained near Pittsburgh.

A wealthy farmer, by the name of Harris was his first believing convert. Harris mortgaged his farm to raise the money required for the temporal support of the Prophet, and printing of the Book of Mormon. The Prophet and his convert (Smith and Harris,) came to Rochester, and offered us the honor of being their printer. But as we were only in the newspaper line, we contented ourselves with reading a chapter of what seemed such wretched and incoherent stupidity, that we wondered how "Joe," had contrived to make the first fool with it. But he went on, making not only fools, but knaves, in America and Europe, for more than twenty years, and until his career was abruptly cut short by men who became themselves violators of the laws they were called to vindicate.

Note: The above item was widely reprinted in Ohio papers (such as the Cleveland Herald of Dec. 24, 1845).


Vol. XI.                             Cleveland, Ohio, Tuesday, May 5, 1846.                             No. 278.


SIDNEY RIGDON'S HUMBUG. -- One of the most accomplished and successful religious fanatics of the modern times is Sidney Rigdon, well known in all this Lake Region. After trying his hand for some time as a religious reformer, he became a follower of Joe Smith, and aspired to a high seat in the Temple of Mormonism. About the time of the murder of Smith he branched off from the Nauvoo society, and established himself with a knot of adherents in Pennsylvania. Rigdon, in imitation of the first Mormon prophet, claims to have received an immediate evelation from heaven, and has organized a kind of ecclesiatical government among his followers called a quorum of twelve. This quorum have purchased a tract of land in the Cumberland Valley, Franklin Co., Pa., where, according to Rigdon's revelation "the Lord directs his people to gather." Rigdon is styled "President and Prophet," and himself and followers claim that he is "to prepare the way for the coming of Elijah and the Savior."

The Rigdonites publish a paper in Pittsburgh called the "Messenger and Advocate," abounding in the whims of this new sect.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. ?                       Zanesville, Ohio,  May 17, 1846.                       No. 21.


VOREE. -- It appears from the last "Herald," that the new Mormon City, in Walworth county, W. T., is rapidly increasing in size and population. Teams are crowding into it from all directions, and it is said now to look more like an encampment than a town. No less than 300 wagons have come into Voree from the great California expedition, which left Nauvoo some six months since. City lots in Voree sell at the uniform price of $50 per lot. Conditions are inserted in all the titles, that no grog-shops shall ever be opened on the lots. The Mormons have at least the merit of being thorough going te-totallers. The new Prophet, Mr. Strang, publishes an address "to the Saints in Hancock county," Illinois, urging them to come to Voree as soon as they can, and telling them that every kind of property is good at its value in Voree, except guns and watches. "We are too poor," says the Prophet, "to purchase watches, and too peaceable to need guns, and neither will buy land of unbelievers."

The last number of the "Voree Herald" contains the trial of certain members of the "Quorum of Twelve," charged with conspiracy, usurpation, blasphemy, and other high crimes and misdemenors. -- The persons composing the Court, were James J. Strang, first President, Aaron Smith, Counsellor, John E. Page, of the Twelve, sixteen High Priests, and a large number of Elders, Priests and Teachers. The result of the trial, was, that President Strang pronounced the unanimous judgment of the council, 'that Brigham Young, H. C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, P. P. Pratt, John Taylor, William [sic] Richards and George A. Smith, be excommunicated from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, and be delivered over to the buffetings of Satan in the flesh." -- Milwaukee Sent.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. II.                         Cleveland, Ohio, Wednesday, May 13, 1846.                         No. 37.


THE RIGDONITES. -- The followers and disciples of the Rev. Sidney Rigdon have recently purchased a large farm on the other side of the Allegheny mountains, in Pennsylvania, for the sum of about $12,000. Their Conference, lately held in Pittsburgh, was convoked for the purpose of liquidating this sum. They intend, we are informed, to remove to this farm, and make a settlement of themselves exclusively, similar to that (of unfortunate memory) at Nauvoo. Mr. Rigdon labors under the hallucination that he is [designated] by the Lord to go forth to battle and conquer the nations of the earth, and finally reign in Jerusalem!

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 24.                           Sandusky, Ohio, Tuesday, June 2, 1846.                           No. 52.


A Mormon settlement, under the influence of Sidney Rigdon, has been commenced in the vicinity of Greencastle, in the county of Franklin, Pennsylvania. They have purchased a large tract of land from a Mr. McLanahan, for which they paid some fifteen thousand dollars. Upon the tract is a very valuable water power, and it is said the propose erecting extensive manufactories -- among the rest a cotton factory.

A considerable number of the faithful have commenced locating upon their new premises. Sidney Rigdon being present and directing their movements.
Hagerstown News.          

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. II.                         Cleveland, Ohio, Wednesday, June 25, 1846.                         No. 37.

Mormonism  and  Mobocracy.

The only danger which threatens Republicanism, is its tendency to the extremes of Mobocracy and Aristocracy. The medium between is the point at which our social compact is calculated to dispense the greatest good to to greatest number. Every vibration of public opinion from this medium should be carefully watched and sternly rebuked.

The state of things in Hancock county, Illinois, as depicted in another column, is truly alarming, and as a cotemporary says -- such things are so common in this country, that the indifference of the public is somewhat surprising. Here is a section of a neighboring state in which the law has become powerless; in which anarchy stalks abroad unrestrained. The Executive has actually issued his proclamation declaring his inability to afford protection of law to a portion of his fellow-citizens. A whole sect of people has been driven by violence out of the state. The mass of them have been compelled to set off for the wilderness to find a home free from the ferocity of civilized man. A few only remained, who, according to the best accounts we can get, were too poor to remove immediately, although they gave every assurance that they would follow as fast as they could. The mob, not satisfied with this, have organized to hurry off the miserable wretches by destroying their property and shockingly abusing their persons.

We are aware these lawless outrages are not without a cause. They are a terrible retribution for the outrages perpetrated by the Mormons under the forms of law and order, if the accounts of the anti-Mormons are to be credited.

The Mormons are a sect which constitute an anomaly in the present age; addicted to the most absurd superstition, which absolutely stultifies the common sense of the age, they have multiplied with great rapidity, until they actually make a formidable community. They constituted the ruling power of a county. They had the administration of the civil and criminal law; and had, of course, the power to shelter from the penalty of the law, any outrages which their depraved community might commit on what they were taught to believe an infidel world, which might be robbed by the saints, in obedience to God. Their enemies say they are thieves and rogues upon principle, and that they were even more depraved in practice than principle. Whether these things are true or not, we have no means of knowing, among the contradictory statements that are made. Be the facts as they may, the anti-Mormons have voluntarily relinquished all claims upon the sympathy of the community by their brutal atrocities. Bad as the Mormons may be, they are not worse than the miscreants, who, without cause, are now perpetrating their inhuman atrocities upon the ignorant and unoffending. If Governor Ford had not the power himself, to suppress these lawless proceedings, he had the power to call for help. As it is, the whole affair will remain a standing reproach to the United States. A lawless rabble has usurped the power of a county and defied the power of the law. The supreme officer of the State has acknowledged his inability to put a stop to their outrages. These deeds must go unpunished -- ruffian-like and infamous as they are. It is high time the moral sense of the United States was aroused on this subject. It is probably too late to apply a remedy. What is passed cannot be recalled; but we hope that public opinion will teach the perpetrators of such deeds that they cannot thus act with impunity in this country, so that in future men may see an appropriate penalty in the universal execration of the good in all parts of our country.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. ?                     Cincinnati, Ohio, November ? 1846.                     No. ?


Mormonism -- The Prophet -- The Pontiff --
Big Beaver Island Enterprise -- &c., &c.

Friend Curtis: -- As I promised to give you an occasional inkling of events in the regions of the north and as the Mormons, with their peculiar isms are attracting considerable attention, I think it would not be amiss to devote a few remarks to the subject. Their present head quarters, as you are aware, is Voree, a little village in Wisconsin where they are congregating in considerable numbers. Those who follow the new prophet are usually denominated "Strangites," and embrace in their number most of the talented. well disposed, honest, law abiding, and devout portion of the church. There are a few of what are called "Brighamite" Mormons, at Voree, who adhere to the emigrating camp, who have recently given some striking proofs of their thieving propensities, to the great annoyance of the citizens. It is supposed they were sent there to bring odium on Strang's adherents. Prophet Strang,( an attorney and Counselor at law by profession) is a small man, about thirty-two or three years of age, light complection, high forehead, intellectual, fluent in speech, of great suavity of manners, companionable, and in a word, what we would call a f,"first rate clever fellow." His extraordinary governing powers are easily accounted for by the fact that the "Latter Day Saints believe in him." As to whether he is a true or false prophet I will only say "there are various opinions about that." While the Prophet was in the east, last summer, the "Aaronic clique of Pseudo-Mormons." got up a molten calf and established image worship. The calf bawled loudly against the "New and Everlasting Covenant of God," and against "Masonary," "Odd Fellowship," and "all secret associations," whether of God, man, or the devil -- this, however, was soon vetoed by authority. The secret of the Lord is with them that fear him; and he will show them his Covenant," Psalms, 25-14. Their former Pontiff whom I saw in Nauvoo, in the palmy days of his military glory as "Joab, General in Israel," is with Strang. The Mormons used to call him their "forty-two pounder." He has filled many high and responsible situations with signal ability; and is a man of great prowess and energy of character. Whether he has been restored to the Pontificate, I am not advised; but he is evidently one of the confidential advisors of the Prophet. Adams, who was lecturing in Cincinnati, last spring, is now the editor of the "Star in the East" printed in Boston, and devoted to "Strangite" Mormonism. It is a beautifully gotten up pamphlet, but presumably you have seen it, I will not notice it in detail. It is pretty generally understood that Adams and young Joseph Smith are the right and left bowers of Strangism, but they do not take the ace. William Smith is the chief Patriarch and is a noble fellow. William Marks and John E. Page, William E. McLellin and John Hardy, are numbered with their great men. Mr. Strang's followers now number about fifty thousand, all told. From twelve to fifteen thousand gave in their adhesion in the eastern states last summer. What number they have in Europe I cannot say. They have a new project on foot, which they call the "Indian Mission," it is understood to be the establishment of a mission school, and a large colony or "stake" of their church, on Big Beaver Island," in Lake Michigan. The island is about twenty-four miles long, by eight wide on an average, and is one of the most delightful spots on earth, fertile, salubrious, and picturesque; which an enterprising population could make an earthly paradise. It has one of the best harbors and fisheries in the world -- there this unfortunate people will be free from unjust persecution, oppression, and violence; and can enjoy all the advantages of commerce and agriculture, the arts of civilization and education, the establishment of their peculiar religion and organization, without molestation. We shall look forward with much interest to the result of this new and grand enterprize and in its consummation we wish them success, happiness and prosperity, so long as they act justly towards all men, and no longer. What adds greatly to the beauty of the scenery is a little lake within the island itself, at one end of which the Indian Village was originally located. Kirtland and Voree are to be continued as "stakes," as they call them, but the island is, most unquestionably, to be the seat of power. This is truly a new era big with interesting events -- political, educational, and religious revolutions, (rapid yet bloodless) appear to be the order of the day.   Yours respectfully,
                                                          W. S. O.

Note 1: The exact date and full contents of the above article remain undetermined. The text is taken from a reprint published in the Dec., 1846 issue of J. J. Strang's Voree Herald. The original letter was almost certainly written by John C. Bennett, who had recently been living in Cincinnati, where he was associated with that cities dubious Botanico-Medical College. The letter appears to have been addressed to Alva Curtis, the president of the college and editor of its Botanico-Medical Recorder. Either Curtis first published Bennett's letter in his own paper, and it was reprinted in the Commercial, or perhaps he simply handed the communication over to the Commercial, as a professional courtesy.



Vol. ?                            Cincinnati, Ohio, February ? 1847.                            No. ?


MORE OF SHARP. -- Sharp, of the Warsaw (Ills.) Signal, is just about half crazy. He fancies the Mormons are the most desperate animals on the face of creation. If he were in a forest, where the sight of beasts, formidable to excess, came frequently to pass, he would still cry "Mormon!" Nothing startles his shackled nerves like that word. Doubtless the echoes play it for him while his hair dances mad as a sign of his terror. We [pity] this fellow being -- this disturbed "Sucker" -- we do. In his last Signal he states that Bennett, one of the Voree Mormons, wrote a letter to this paper, &c., &c. Now, how does Mr. Sharp know our correspondents? Why just as he knows so many other things destitute of foundation. We tell this knowing gentleman -- this frightened Sucker, that our correspondents are beyond his reach. Now Sharp knows he slanders the people of Voree when he calls them "knaves." Dupes they undoubtedly are, but we learn from our correspondents that the Mormons at Voree are very sober, orderly persons. So much for Sharp's last.

Note: The exact date and full contents of the above article remain undetermined. The text is taken from a reprint published in the Mar. 4, 1847 issue of J. J. Strang's Zion's Reveille. Probably the notice appeared in the Cincinnati Commercial about the first of February, 1847. The editor's antipathetic words came in response to Thomas C. Sharp's accusation in the Jan. 23, 1847 issue of his Warsaw Signal: "In the correspondence of the Cincinnati Commercial, we find a long letter... written by Bennett... we have a prediction to make... particularly those editors who have regarded the doings of the people of Hancock with such holy horror. It is this -- That in five years time the Mormons will be driven from Wiskonsan, root and branch!"



NS. Vol. I.                           Columbus, Ohio, June 2, 1847.                           No. 116.

                                            From the St. Louis Republican.
From the Upper Missouri.

Six of the fur traders engaged in the fur companies on the upper Missouri, have arrived in this city. They left Fort Laramie on the 20th of April, and reached here on the 24th inst. We learn from them that the trade in that quarter has been successful...

The advance of the Mormon emigrants, consisting of seventy three wagons, were met 230 miles from Westport, going on very prosperously. They were wll armed, and had with them six pieces of artillery.

They first met the Oregon and California emigrants at Ketchum's Fork, and from thence they were scattered all along the Wakarouse, in companies of forty to fifty wagons. The whole number of wagons was between 200 and 500. The emigrants were all getting along well. Some apprehensions of attacks from the Pawnees was felt, but the numbers who travel together, and a strict watch, will prevent anything of this kind. After this year, and as soon as military posts to Oregon are established, this danger will cease to present itself.

Startling Rumor -- Mormon Murders,

A gentleman from Burlington, Iowa, brings news of the return of two men who left that place some time since with a company of Oregon emigrants, who report that they were forced to return by a band of Mormons who left Nauvoo last fall. They report that one of the emigrants being sick, was forced to stop at Council Bluffs, that a number of his friends, including two that have returned, remained with him, designing, as soon as he should recover, to hasten forward and overtake their companions. After resuming the march, and being far behind the white settlements, they were attacked by the Mormons, robbed, and all murdered except the two who bring the sad intelligence, and who barely escaped with their lives. Nothing is known of the fate of those in advance. Several of the persons murdered were taking out considerable sums of money, which was made known to the Mormons by a brace of worthies, now under guard at Burlington, who have acted as runners for the Mormons during the past winter. --   St. Louis Revielle, 27th.

Note: The second article above is a reprint from a May 27, 1847 issue of the St. Louis Weekly Reveille. The same text was also reprinted in the Painesville Telegraph of June 9, 1847.


Vol. ?                             Cleveland, Ohio, Saturday, Sept. 25, 1847.                             No. 87.

Editorial Correspondence.


RACINE, August, 1847.    
...At Voree, near Burlington, is a settlement of Mormons, gathered there by James J. Strang, who claims to be the Heaven appointed successor of the murdered prophet. Last year the settlement numbered about 1000, and bid fair under Strang's ausoices to become a large town. But divisions have arisen, some have apostatized and scattered, some removed to Kirtland, the first promised land in Ohio, and others to the new Zion on Beaver Island, so that now only some 400 remain at Voree. -- President Strang is described as a shrewd and talented man, and Zion's Reveille, the Mormon organ at Voree, says "there is not his equal on this earth for patience, faith, prudence, wisdom, aptness to teach, and indefatigable perseverance," which is a little ahead of the virtues and qualifications of his predecessor, Smith, it must be confessed. That he has power in the Church is indicated by the following "bull of excommunication" copied from the Reveille.

==> John C. Bennett has been removed from all official standing in the church, for the following reasons: -- 1st. Suppressing letters addressed to Pres. Strang. 2d. Giving instructions to the Saints, purporting to be by the authority of the First Presidency, which were entirely unauthorized, and directly contrary to their known instructions and settled policy. 3d. Teaching unsound doctrine.
Voree, June 7th, 1847.
We add another "bull" from the Reveille as a specimen of the Mormon manner of dealing with refractory "Saints":

SUSPENSION -- -- John Greenhow is suspended in all his official duties in the church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints for reasons as follows: -- 1st. For disclaiming his "office and membership in the church." 2d. For frequently disregarding the directions of the first Presidency of the church, relative to the management and issue of the "Reveille." 3d. For indulging in the practice of intoxication.
                    JOHN E. PAGE.
                    Pres't of the Twelve.

It is doubtless supposed by some that Mormonism became extinct with the murder of its founder and the dispersion of sixteen or seventeen thousand of his "Saints" who were inhumanly driven from Nauvoo toward the Pacific at the point of the bayonet, by a rithless Illinois mob. Such is not the case. As in former religious persecutions, "the blood of the martyrs is the seed of the Church." Mormon "stakes" are now planted in Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, new York, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Virginia, the Carolinas, Oregon, California, and the British Empire. The "Reveille" asserts that the Mormon, or "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, has brought into its embrace some Two Hundred Thousand members from other sects,and has, for a period of seventeen years, and throughout the United States and the British Empire, constantly challenged investigation." The efforts to proselyte now making by that branch of the Mormon Church over which Pres. Strang presides, may be learned from the minutes of the Annual Conference held at Voree last April. Seven High Priests were ordained, and a first Bishop. No less than thirty-two Apostles, High Priests, and Elders, were appointed to travel and preach, or to preside over districts , in the States above named. Of the "quorum of Twelve Apostles," Hohn Greenhow, Wm. Smith, and John E. Page were appointed to go on a mission to England; of the "High Priests," Richard Stephens was appointed to travel and preach in the Southern part of Ohio; W. M. Blanchard to preside over the Ashtabula district, Austin Cowls over the Kirtland district, Frederick Manyweather over the Cincinnati district, and Ebenezer Leonard to preside over the Northwestern district of Ohio. Three were also ordained into the "first quorum of seventy."...

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. IV.                               Conneaut, Ohio,  October 21, 1847.                              No. 38.

The Mormons.

For some weeks past, a paragraph has been circulating through the papers, to the effect that the Mormons, theough their chief man or prophet, Joseph [sic - James?] J. Strang, had selected Great Beaver Island, in Lake Michigan, as the abiding place for the sect for all time to come. At first, this seemed to be rather an improbable story, and we were disposed to regard it as unworthy of credit; but we have recently learned, from such a source as to leave no room for doubt, that the statement is true, and that the preliminary steps have been taken for acquiring, ultimately, the title to this Island. This is a matter of time, and cannot be accomplished without some difficulty. The land has been surveyed by the government, but it has not yet been bro't into market, and is of course subject to preemption.

Great Beaver, as the largest island of the cluster of some half a dozen, is called, lies about 60 miles southwest of Mackinac. It contains a little more than 25,000 acres, chiefly covered with beach, maple and ever-greens of different varieties. The soil is not productive, and lies too far north for agriculture -- scarcely anything but potatoes coming to maturity. There are now several squatters on the island, most of them being exployed in preparing wood for the steamboats. It is some fifteen or twenty miles out [sic - off?] the direct route from Buffalo to Chicago, but there is a good harbor near the northern extremity, and boats frequently touch there. The Northwestern Fishing Co., of Rochester, N. Y., about a year since, made a permanent location there, and are now making improvements. This company have the best location on the island for a harbor and fishing grounds. -- Mr. Strang has visited the agent at Rochester and negotiated with them for their claim. A surveyor has recently gone to the island to locate their future city and lay out the lots. Some of the 'chosen people' have already arrived on the Island,

The Detroit Free Press has collected some facts respecting the conditions and prospects of the Mormons, that are not [---- ----- ---- ------ ------] in former religious persecutions, "the blood of the martyr is the seed of the Church." Mormon "stakes" are now planted in Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Virginia, the Carolinas, Oregon, California, and the British Empire.

Mr. Strang claims to be the Heaven appointed successor of their prophet, Jo Smith. He is now located at Voree, near Burlington, Wisconsin, and has about 1000 in his settlement, who will soon move to the island, and all others will be ordered there.

The Cleveland Herald says President Strang is described as a shrewd and talented man, the Zion's Reveille, the Mormon organ at Voree, says "there is not his equal on this earth for patience, faith, pridence, wisdom, aptness to teach, and indefatigable perseverence." Of this is correct, he surpasses the virtues and qualifications of his predecessor, Jo Smith, and the sect is not likely to suffer ultimately by the change.

The "Reveille" asserts that the Mormon or "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, has brought to its embraces some Two Hundred Thousand members from other sects, and has, for a period of seventeen years, and throughout the Unoted States and the British Empire, constantly challenged investigation." The efforts ti proselyte now making by that branch of the Mormon Church over which President Strang presides, may be learned from the minutes of the Annual Conference held at Voree last April. Seven High Priests were ordained, and a first Bishop. No less than thirty-two Apostles, High Priests, and Elders were appointed to travel and preach, or to preside over districts in the State above named. Of the "quorum if Twelve Apostles," John Greenhow, Wm. Smith, and John E. Page were appointed to travel and preach in the Southern part of [---- ----- ---- ------ ------]...

From late English papers, we notice the strange sect are busily engaged in the manufacturing districts of Great Britain, and have enlisted a large number of followers who are generally persuaded to emigrate to this country and join them. Every ship that reaches our sea-ports has a number.

We find the following by the last steamer, in an English paper:

A number of Mormonite fanatics have for some time infested the parish of Harrisbury, in various parts of which they hold meetings twice or thrice a week. Last Sunday evening they assembled at a pool on the estate of Mr. Amphlet, of Atonhall; the "elder" took up his station in the middle of the pool, and calling his disciples to him one by one, after muttering some impious gibberish, soused each over the head and ears, in the muddy element; this performance over, they sang a hymn, after which the dipping assemblage dispersed.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. IV.                               Conneaut, Ohio,  November 25, 1847.                              No. 43.


LATER FROM THE SALT LAKE. -- Mormon Location, &c. -- We yesterday saw a person direct from Council Bluffs, who states that on the day he left, a rumor [sic] came in, who was sent on in advance by the Mormon "Twelve," who were on the route back from the Salt Lake. They sent a small party to the Bluffs twenty days in advance of the main returning party, in order to have fresh teams, provisions, &c. sent them, as they did not intend to burthen themselves with a full outfit back.

Our informant says that the Mormons have located their grand gathering place about half way between the Utah and Salt Lake... They are in the midst of the Blackfeet, Utah and Crow tribes of Indians, who are said to be peaceable, and favor this settlement.

The main body of emigrating Mormons, which started from the Bluffs in June last, had advanced about two hundred miles beyond the South Pass, by the latter end of July, and were passed at Green River at that time. They had got on without difficulty to that point, and were passing on to their location. St. Louis Rep. 28th ult.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                           Kirtland, Lake Co., Ohio, December, 1847.                           No. 3.


When we commenced the publication of the Ensign of Liberty, we fondly anticipated its edition from month to month; but circumstances which we could not control have ruled it otherwise. Soon after we published the second No, our duty required us to visit Pittsburgh, Pa. From there we returned, so as to attend our June Conference; during the sittings of which it was determined that we should immediately make a tour through the western States... we had the privilege of addressing a very respectable portion of our old friends in Pittsburgh... We found no one in that city whom we considered strong in Strangism, except Elder James Smith. The minds of the most seemed to be in uncertainty relative to the leading or presiding authorities of the "work of the last days. We spent our time very pleasantly, visiting and freely conversing among our friends, and obtained a number of subscribers for our paper. On Sunday, before the congregation, we heard Elder Benjamin Winchester relate his recollections of the circumstances attending the appointment and ordination of David by Joseph. He was present and witnessed the occurrence, and gave to us by request, a lucid and clear statement of the facts.

[several paragraphs of travelogue follow]

Thence we passed directly to Richmond, Mo. -- We reached there on Saturday, the 4th of Sept., and put up with our old friend D. Whitmer. One o'clock at night still found us communing in close conversation. On Monday, the 6th, David and Jacob Whitmer and Hiram Page accompanied me to Far West to visit with their brother, and our old friend John Whitmer. We remained with him two days and nights, and never did men since the world began have a more pleasant time. Union of feeling and harmony of action governed our every movement. Brethren and friends, let me say to you, 'all is right, all is well' with those witnesses! Our visit with Oliver Cowdery we will lay over for want of room...

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                           Kirtland, Lake Co., Ohio, January, 1848.                           No. 4.


RAY COUNTY MO., May 30, '47.    

Bro. William: -- Yours of May 4th, came to my hand the 28th, and it is so full of questions, and of such magnitude, that my little sheet will only give room for an introduction, and the plain simple truth is always the best without exaggeration....

In the next place you want to know my faith relative to the Book of Mormon and the winding up of wickedness. As to the Book of Mormon, it would be doing injustice to myself and to the work of God of the last days, to say that I could know a thing to be true in 1830, and know the same thing to be false in 1847. To say my mind was so treacherous that I had forgotten what I saw. To say that a man of Joseph's ability, who at that time did not know how to pronounce the word Nephi, could write a book of six hundred pages, as correct as the Book of Mormon, without supernatural power. And to say that those holy angels who came and showed themselves to me as I was walking through the field, to confirm me in the work of the Lord of the last days -- three of whom came to me afterwards and sang an hymn in their own pure language. Yea, it would be treating the God of heaven with contempt to deny these testimonies, with too many others to mention here....

I am yours in the bonds of truth.
                                        HIRAM PAGE.

Note: Marvin S. Hill, in his 1972 "Brodie Revisited: A Reappraisal," (Dialogue VII:4) had this to say about the Hiram Page letter: "With only a veiled reference to ‘what I saw,’ Page does not say he saw the plates but that angels confirmed him in his faith. Neither does he say that any coercion was placed upon him to secure his testimony. Despite Page's inconsistencies, it is difficult to know what to make of Harris' affirmation that the eight saw no plates in the face of John Whitmer's testimony. The original testimony of these eight men in the Book of Mormon reads somewhat ambiguously, not making clear whether they handled the plates or the ‘leaves’ of the translated manuscript. Thus there are some puzzling aspects to the testimonies of the witnesses. If Burnett's statement is given credence it would appear that Joseph Smith extorted a deceptive testimony from the eight witnesses. But why should John Whitmer and Hiram Page adhere to Mormonism and the Book of Mormon so long if they only gave their testimony reluctantly? It may be that like the three witnesses they expressed a genuine religious conviction. The particulars may not have seemed as important as the ultimate truth of the work”


Vol. I.                           Kirtland, Lake Co., Ohio, May, 1848.                           No. 6.


From Oliver Cowdery to David Whitmer.

ELKHORN, Walworth Co., Wisconsin,    
July 28, 1847.    

Brother David: Our mutual friend and former co-laborer, Elder McLellin called on me a day or two since, informing me at the same time, that he was, or is now, on his way to Missouri, mainly for the purpose of visiting yourself. That is, that such was his ostensible object in now visiting the west.

We have had a lengthy conversation exclusively and disconnectedly upon the subject of the religion we believe, and matters and things connected with the upbuilding [of] our Redeemer's kingdom here on earth. As he is to visit you, it is not needful that I should trouble you with a recital of his labors for the last year or so. I will however say, that so far as I understand his labor, it has simply been directed to one great object — to witness: in preparing, or endeavoring to prepare the way for the old ship to unhitch her cables and again sail forth. There is no doubt in either of our minds I apprehend, as to the fact that she has been "lying to," for some time past, either for the want of pilots or hands to work her.

Let me speak plainly. The Lord, as you well know, confirmed the holy priesthood upon certain men, (among that number yourself is included,) who went out to teach repentance and organize a church. At head of that body Joseph Smith was placed.

Now it is not necessary that I should occupy time in detailing what was done correctly or incorrectly; suffice it to say that by-and-by, yourself with many others were found wandering about in the world, despised by the world, and libelled by those for whom life had been periled. The church claiming to be the chosen of God was driven from their own possessions, and in process of time, Joseph Smith was meanly and unlawfully murdered!

Then came a trying time for the existence of that boastful church and then followed and is yet following a time or season of strife, to see who is to be called the HEAD. Rigdon succeeded in gathering around him a large number of persons. But he has had his day. He has tried, as try he must, to be the great man. Strang has raised his standard, and cried "Lo here." The twelve have perhaps not as a matter of choice at first, but of necessity taken such as would adhere to them and fled to the western slope of our continent.

I do not say that it were necessary that those men should all try to be great, and occupy the place of Joseph Smith; but I do say, that for any one who could accomplish that great work, to witness, lead the church, to have undertaken to have done so, he would only have made "confusion worse confounded."

In consequence of transgression, we have fallen back a series of years. Men's minds have become so confused, that they must have time to see for themselves that those individuals have not the authority, consequently not the POWER.

No brother David, as to the time — a change of circumstances with Moses worked a delay of forty years to the children of Israel in their coming out of Egypt. So it may be in our day. But be the time longer or shorter, there is one thing certain — Our characters have been villified.

This villifying has had its effects upon the minds of men. If ever the church rises again in true holiness, it must arise in a measure upon our testimony, and upon our characters as good men.

Such being the case it is or was necessary before that time, that some ONE should step forward — capable and worthy, who knew us well; and whose heart the Lord should or has touched, whose duty and office should be to vindicate our characters, and disabuse the minds of the honest of those prejudices which they do and would otherwise labor under. All this must be done without solicitation on our part. And it is expedient it should be done by one who has known us from the beginning.

Now whether the Lord will call us again publicly or not to work in his great cause, is not known to me; nor does it particularly matter: for when once the imputation is wiped away our names will shine in his holy kingdom on earth, when that kingdom is once built up — whether we live to see it or not. On this great subject I want to see you much.

True it is that our right gives us the HEAD. It is no matter of pride with me, but an anxious desire to do all that the Lord may require of us. We may not live to see the day, but we have the authority, AND DO HOLD THE KEYS. It is important, should we not be permitted to act in that authority, that we confer them upon some man or men, whom God may appoint, that this priesthood be not taken again from the earth till the earth be sanctified. I want to see you much on this great matter.

That our brother William [McLellin] has been directed and influenced in what he has been doing by the Holy Spirit, I need not say to you I fully believe. I do not say that every thing he has done has been done by inspiration — it would be strange if it were so. But that God has touched his heart, that he might begin to prepare the way, I have no doubt. In thus doing he has done well, and he will in no wise lose his reward.

As to the time, I will further add that those men of whom I spoke must have time to develop to their followers that the Lord has not chosen them for that purpose or work. Whether this will take many or few years, I am not now advised. But this much I do know, when the time fully comes we shall know it.

I have sought dilligently to know and feel well assured of what I say. You will talk this matter all over, and make all necessary enquiry and I will only say that when the time comes, I AM READY!

But I AM NOT PERSUADED THAT IT HAS YET FULLY COME. Let the Lord vindicate our characters, and cause our testimony to shine, and then will men be saved in his kingdom. —

The God of peace and of glory be with you brother David, and cause his face to shine upon you continually. Amen.

Lay your hands upon brother William, that he may be patient and steadfast. Let us hear from you often, and to come and see us if you can.

Our love to all our relatives, father, mother, and all.

As ever your brother,              

(under construction)

Note 1: See the Dec. 1847 issue of the Ensign for the context of Cowdery's letter. The Ensign's editor, and would-be latter day leader, William E. McLellin had visited with Cowdery in late July and continued his travels by going to see David Whitmer as well. After McLellin left, Cowdery write to his brother-in-law, David Whitmer and expressed an interest in the leadership struggle then going on between Rigdon, Strang, and Young, but in his letter he shows little inclination to support any of these factions in their bids for "authority" or saintly "power." Oliver's primary message is that he and David Whitmer (who he sees as holding "the keys") and William McLellin need to first clear their good names before the LDS movement can prosper and progress beyond its current fragmentation. Oliver appears to envision a supreme leadership role for Whitmer and himself, but he does not leave McLellin and Young totally out of the picture either.

Note 2: In his 1989 book, Oliver Cowdery, The Elusive Second Elder of the Restoration, Cowdery biographer Phillip R. Legg supplies these comments regarding the July 28, 1847 letter: "Oliver had just referred to talking with McLellin, and he observed his efforts and the efforts of others to get the church reorganized and back 'in the water.' The suggestion made here was that proper leadership, or possibly leadership with authority, had been absent... Clearly, Oliver did not feel that any leaders of the different church factions had the authority to be the "Head." It also was clear that he thought it would take time for people to realize that the men they had chosen to follow lacked the authority to lead the church. Obviously, he had kept well informed as to the movements of the splintered church. Brigham Young, who was referred to when he mentioned the 'twelve,' lacked the authority also... Oliver recognized the importance and the validation of the testimony of the three witnesses. He also knew that the foundation of the church was unstable if his character was besmirched. Most likely the 'ONE' who would help clear their names would be Phineas [Young]... The authority to lead the church belonged to David and himself, Oliver suggested. Oliver, now as before, considered himself the recipient of "keys" -- keys which were given to him and Joseph... At this point, he recognized the possibility that he might not live to see the fulfillment of his restoration to a leadership position. He made it clear that it was important that he confer authority on someone to carry on in the eventuality he would die... In any event, Oliver was now ready to place his fate in the hands of the Lord."


Vol. XIV.                             Cleveland, Ohio, Monday, May 8, 1848.                             No. 113.


BACKSLIDING. -- Cowdery, who certified to Jo. Smith's Golden Bible, is a candidate for office in Wisconsin. He has given up preaching Mormonism and joined Locofocoism. -- The dupes of the first have gone to Salt Lake; those of the latter are bound up Salt River.

Note: See also the Milwaukee Sentinel of Apr. 29, 1848.


Vol. ?                           Sandusky, Ohio, Monday, October 16, 1848.                           No. ?


The Mormons have lately been negotiating for the purchase of a large tract of land on the Pierdenalos, above Fredericksburg, and intend to form a new settlement there. The anxiety they manifest to purchase this land has excited some suspicions that they have discovered mines upon it. They have also probably discovered that the soil of the Pierdenalos valley is admirably adapted to the culture of wheat and other grains, which they had been accustomed to raise in Missouri and Illinois, and will afford them all the facilities they desire for a new and extensive settlement. They have also a pretended prophecy that the new Jerusalem of their great prophet, is to be found in Texas. This opinion has long been prevalent among them, and we have been informed by an English gentleman that the presiding elder of the Mormon society in London has often said that the Mormons will, ultimately, all congregate in Texas. We should be sorry to learn that they have located the New Jerusalem on the Pierdenalos, or the San Saba, for our frontier settlements will soon be pushed beyond these streams, and then wars might arise between "the saints" and new settlers. If the Mormons, however, should find the New Jerusalem on the Puerea, many years would probably elapse before the frontier settlements would reach them, and they might build up their city, and fortify it with seven walls, if they desired, long before the advancing limits of the frontier settlements would be pushed even to the sources of the Colorado.   Houston (Texas) Telegraph, Sept. 3.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                             Cleveland, Ohio, Friday, Feb. 10, 1849.                             No. ?

To  the  Editor  of  the Plain Dealer:

Sir: -- Upon my own individual responsibility, I send you this copy of resolutions, desiring that political justice and judgement shall be speedily executed, even in this generation, and trusting to the omnipotence of truth, "eternal truth" through the press, I request you to give this an insertion in your paper in case they shall not soon appear in the Democrat.

Even then I will not complain, for political matters in the present state of affairs are being closely watched and scrutinized.
                Yours with respect,
                               SOLOMON SPALDING.
Avon Lake, Lorain co., Feb. 12.

[resolutions from Feb. 10, 1849 Avon "Free Soil Meeting" follow -- Dr. Spalding was the secretary of the meeting]

Note: Dr. Solomon Spalding was the namesake and younger second cousin of Solomon Spalding of Ashford. See notes appended to the Rochester Daily Advertiser of Apr. 7, 1832.


Vol. XX.                             Norwalk, Ohio, Tuesday, April 17, 1849.                             No. 14.

                                        From the Cincinnati Atlas.
The  Mormons.

We want to call the reader's attention to the new, and most extraordinary position of the Mormons. Seven thousand of them have found a resting place in the most remarkable spot on the North American Continent. Since the children of Israel wandered through the wilderness, or the Crusaders rushed on Palestine, there has been nothing so historically singular as the emigration and recent settlement of the Mormons. Thousands of them came from the Manchesters and Sheffields of Europe, to join other thousands congregated from western New York, and New York, and New England -- boasted descendants of the Pilgrim Fathers -- together to follow after a New Jerusalem in the West. Having a temple amidst the churches and schools of Lake county, Ohio, and driven from it by popular opinion, they build the Nauvoo of Illinois. It becomes a great town. Twenty thousand people flock to it. They are again assaulted by popular persecution -- their Prophet murdered -- their town depopulated -- and finally their temple burned! Does all this series of signal persecution to which they have been subjected destroy them? Not at all. Seven thousand are now settled, and in flourishing circumstances on the Plateau Summit of the North American Continent! Thousands more are about to join them from Iowa, and thousands more are coming from Wales! The spectacle is most singular, and this is one of the singular episodes of the great drama of this age. The spot on which the Mormons are now settled is, geographically speaking, one of the most interesting on the North American Continent.

There is no other just like it, that we can recollect of, on the globe. Look at the map a little east of the Great Salt Lake, and just south of the South West Pass, and you will see in the north east corner of California, the summit level of the waters which flow on the North American Continent. It must be six thousand feet, perhaps more, above the level of the Atlantic. In this sequestered corner, in a vale hidden among the mountains and lakes, are the Mormons, and there rise the mighty rivers than which no continent has greater. Within a stone's throw almost of one another, lie the head spring of the Sweet Water and the Green River. The former flows into the Platte River; that into the Missouri; and that into the Mississippi; and that into the Gulf of Mexico, becoming part of the Gulf Stream, and laves the shores of distant lands. The latter, the Green River, flows into the Colorado; the Colorado into the Gulf of California, and is mingled with the Pacific. The one flows more than 2,000 miles; the other more than 1,500. These flow into tropical regions. Just north of the same spot are the head streams of the Snake River, which flows into the Columbia, near lat. 46 deg., after a course of 1,000 miles. Just south are the sources of the Rio Grande, which, after winding 1,700 miles, finds the Gulf of Mexico. It is a remarkable point in the earth's surface where the Mormons are, and locked in by mountains and lakes, they will probably remain and constitute a new and peculiar colony.

The new temple to be erected by them, is to be a monstrous affair. They have enclosed with a mud wall eight feet high, a lot of ground seventeen by twelve miles, in which are to be built four cities. The dimensions are not given, but the highest point reaches up 600 feet, and can be seen 80 miles either way. They have discovered near them a kind of rock which resembles corbelian stone, and which is beautiful for the ornamental parts of the building.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 35.                             Canton, Ohio, May 30, 1849.                             No. 6.


CHOLERA -- At St. Louis on the 24th, there were 34 deaths of this disease. The number of cases for the week ending on Tuesday, was 221. It has also broken out among the Mormons at Council Bluff -- and was raging to some extent among the California emigrants.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Daily  Evening  Nonpareil

Vol. ?                         Cincinnati, Ohio, Friday, July 27, 1849.                        No. ?

The  Mormons

We may say what we please of the nonsense and humbuggery of Mormonism; nevertheless the fact cannot be disguised that there is some life in their religion and some courage in their hearts. No sect of people ever met with severer trials in any age than have these in this age of enlightenment and toleration (!) and in this, model republic where it is the boast of the people that they may think and speak what they please as long as private character is unmolested. But instead of exercising the freedom of speech whenever private character is not at stake, we seem to lack toleration in everything except slander, in which all seem to think they have a right to indulge _ad libitum._ Hundreds are this moment engaged in wholesale slander for every ten who are canvassing political, social or religious questions, and nine out of ten thus exercising their legitimate freedom, are abused on account of their opinions. Even we, in our poor Nonpareil efforts -- harmless as we are and as unworthy of attention as we own ourselves -- are occasionally checked by those wearing long drawn countenances of solemnity, because we presume to question some of the old, rusty, cob-webbed notions that have no other foundation than the antiquity of their origin. There was a time when courtesy and politeness so characterized the people that Pollok said of them --

"And he that stabbed his neighbor to the heart,
Stabbed politely;"
but now, one sect or party thinks it winking recognitions with the Devil to presume on courtesy and politeness in abusing each other. True, a few sects have attained so much consequence in the world, that they have mutually agreed to be known as evangelical, between whom there is an understanding that all young and infant sects shall be swallowed at once. True again, that one of these evangelical sects will not break bread and drink wine with any other unless they chance to meet in some Restaurant -- but then, this sect numbers more than any other, and it will not do to exclude them from the evangelical alliance. We are rejoiced, however, that there is so much harmony among the larger sects. What we are at is, that the Mormons, Who have been smoked out, burnt out, and starved out, as if they were wild beasts, are still alive. Their persecutions have only increased their energies and developed them to an indomitable courage and bravery. By misfortune, bankruptcy, & c., they were compelled to leave all their first settlements. But they learned that "in union is strength," and concentrated at Nauvoo, where they built up a large city, expended nearly half a million of dollars in constructing a temple which was one of the finest specimens of architecture in the country, and large amounts in rendering theeity ornamental and comfortable. They went to Nauvoo poor, but by industry became rich. Those who had some means defrayed the expenses of their poor brethren until they could help themselves. But they were compelled to abandon their city to the fury of the Vandal, and behold the burning of their temple which was consecrated both in their affections and religious sentiments.

The apology that the Mormons of Nauvoo infringed the rights of the people in the country round to an intolerable degree, is totally insufficient, because the law is strog enough to try under the safeguard of the Court, and to punish all offenders. If a case should arise in which the State is unable to punish the enemies of its peace, the whole power of the Union can be called in to secure the triumph of order. But it may be said that the Mormons had all the power of that jurisdiction, and ruled to please themselves. If so, they had a majority, and in this country we recognize the right of the majority to rule. No -- it was none ot these reasons that applied the torch to their temple, -- the true reason was, that by concert of action, the same as every party has, by which they outvoted those who were ambitious to rule, they were driven away from their homes. Thus again they were scattered without money or places for shelter. But they did not despair -- they looked far away to the Western wilds, and dreamed of security in the almost impenetrable depths of the desert. Between six and eight thousand of them are now happy far beyond the reach of their persecutors for, perhaps, half a century. They incurred all the troubles and trials of a wilderness at the risk of starvation, -- but the earth did not respond to the curse of their persecutors, for it yielded abundantly at the touch of their industry, and they are now supplied. Tell us not that such men ever intended to wrong their fellows.

Not only are they established thousands of miles from the Western frontiers, but they are seeking out islands in the midst of the waters. They have found a cluster of Islands in Lake Michigan, fifty miles West of Mackinaw, lying near the track of the Chicago steamboats, where wood is in demand, and where the trout and white fish are abundant. The Mormons have recently settled these islands under the direction of Mr. Strong [sic], formerly a lawyer of Chautauque co., New York. About 500 are already on the ground and 1000 are expected this fall. -- They have already built a town, and messengers have been despatched to gather up the scattered Mormons. They have the materials on hand for a newspaper which will be soon commenced. It is expectcd that they will be permitted to occupy these ( Beacon) Islands in peace, as there are none of any other faith within fifty miles, and during the winter they are locked from the main land by walls of ice.

We speak not of the religious tenets of these people -- they believe them and that is enough -- It is sneeringly said that they are under leaders whose word is obeyed. What if they are? -- what sect under heaven is not under the guidance of leaders whose word is also law? None of us in the evangelical denominations are yet free enough to criticise the government of the Mormons. If their leaders rule it is because their opinions are readily received into the hearts and heads of their followers, as are those of the leaders of any other sect. The Mormons have proved themselves heroes -- and a health we now drink to the free and the brave!

Notes: (forthcoming)


Daily  Evening  Nonpareil

Vol. ?                         Cincinnati, Ohio, Tuesday, July 31, 1849.                        No. ?


We have received a communication from a gentleman signing himself "William Smith, President of'the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints," in reply to a few facts we gave in relation to the Mormons of Salt Lake and Beaver Islands. Instead of there being five hun-dred on these islands in Lake Michigan, with a prospect of one thousand next fail, as we stated, Mr. Smith thinks there are not over thirty or forty families. Instead of Mr. Strang being a Mormon leader, he says he is an apostate from the "true, faith." As to the Mormons of Salt Lake, he says they are also a "base set of apostates from the true faith and the original Mormon Church."

As to the number now on Beaver islands and expected within a few months, our source of information is probably as reliable as that of Mr. Smith. We quote the Buffalo Commercial Advertiser, which is brought into immediate contact with these islands by a daily line of steam-boats. Moreover, the same authority informs us that several missionaries have been sent out to gather in the scattered "saints."

We understand that "William Smith, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints," does not recognize the Mormons of the islands and the wilderness as "Latter Day Saints," -- they are "base apostates." We would iike to put the question to President Smith which was put to Rolla -- "How numerous is your army?" He might reply as definitely as Rolla did -- "Count the leaves of yonder forest;" but it is probable that the followers of President Smith can be numbered by those expert in mathematics. If those who remain in the "true faith" according to him should prove to be more numerous than we suspect, he should be a little modest about pronouncing the main bodies of the Mormons "base apostates." They have probably excommunicated him and his followers, and the world is left sadly in the dark as to the real "Church of Christ of Latter Day Saints."

As to the communication of President Smith, we decline publishing it because of the apparent bad temper which dictated it, and the unfounded denunciation with which it abounds. Saying nothing of the Presidency of the "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints," we think the communication unbecoming even the humblest layman among the "saints." Though "base" heretics ourselves, we could not have written so ill-natured an article. We mention these things for the improvement of our friend President Smith, that he may adorn a godly life and dignify his exalted position with patiance, humility, long-suffering and charity. We have a high regard for the honor of the "faith," and respectfully commend to President Smith the Scriptures, "which are given for doctrine, for reproof, and for instruction in righteousness."

A word now as to apostary. There was a time when apostacy was considered next to the unpardonable sin. He who should break from the evangelical fold was branded under ecclesiastical solemnity and awe, and cast out among the vilest of the earth. For what? Because in the exercise of the mind he had -- of the powers he received from the Eternal, he formed a difference of opinion between himself and those with whom he was connected, and as an honest man he could no longer profess his belief in what he thought to be erroneous. The effect was, as it still is in any similar case, that the apostate was disgraced on account of his honesty; for had he been cowardly enough to fear the power of Diets, Synods, Conventicles, and Conferences, and hypocritical enough to profess what he did not believe, he would have glided on in the "true faith," respected and beloved by his brethren.

And who are they that presume to sit in judgment upon the opinions of their fellows? They are those who are conscientious, to be sure, in what they do, but yet are in error -- who know not the rights of mind and therefore cannot respect them -- who believe themselves commissioned by the divine will and constantly sustained by the Almighty hand in all they do -- they are, in short, individuals who nave surrendered themselves, soul and body, to faith and forms that have come they know not whence. -- They place the best impulses of the heart and the highest thoughts of the head under ban, and thus attempt to annihilate all that is great and glorious in human nature.

The only difference between the past and the present in this respect is, that apostacy is becoming honorable and is no longer a disgrace except with the narrow-minded few whose pride is wounded by the exposures of the apostate. -- The man of independence enough to think for hirnselt and owe no thanks to a priesthood, and to act faithfully to his convictions of right, is now regarded as a superior person whom no ecclesiastical censures can intimidate nor no solemn gravity of self-constituted prophets and apostles can awe.

The great truth on this subject is being known -- the truth that every man is his own prophet, priest, and king, and it is an insult to high heaven to interfere with the practice of this truth. No body of men have a right to restrain the mental operations of any inquiring mind, except in the individual exercise of the right that all possess, of free and candid conversation with each other for mutual enlightenment. -- Reader, you have as much authority to excommunicate a whole conclave of these ecclesiastical conspirators against the right of free inquiry, as they have to excommunicate you.

Little is said at the present day among respectable people, of apostacy; and this affair of President Smith and the Mormons is a rich burlesque on all efforts of the Church in the restraint of freedom of inquiry, and on its excommunication for heresy. President Smith is a benefactor of his race in rendering absurdity ridiculous.

No -- every man is himself responsible for the exercise of such faculties as he has, and none can act for him. He annihilates himself in so far as he yields to others his freedom of thought and action. No sect or party can do my thinking, and I regard it as an insult for any to claim my homage. In doing so they propose to strike me from the list of freemen and merge me in a confused mess of incoherent inconsistencies.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. ?                     Cincinnati, Ohio, August ? 1849.                     No. ?


...[William Smith] claims to be the President of the original Mormon Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. He is the brother of the once renowned Jos. Smith, (who, with his brother Hiram, were killed in the jail, at Carthage, Illinois,) and says that he is the guardian of Joseph's children, and by right is the successor of Joseph in the Church. We learn that about half of the Mormons are against Mr. Smith's ruling over this late and singular people, and about half acknowledge his right. Smith is now building up a church in Covington, where they hold meetings every Sunday.

We further learn that the Mormons in California are many of them in favor of Wm. Smith, and that he intends to make his head-quarters there next year. Brigham Young is the Mormon leader in that country. A man named Strong [sic, Strang?] is in the western part of the United States, and in the valley of the Cordilleras mountains is a man by the name of White [sic, Wight?], who has some fifteen hundred Mormons under his charge. They have a large settlement, extensive mills worth $10,000 to $20,000, with flocks and herds innumerable. These people are favorable to Smith; as his foothold is worth something in the gold diggins. Some of these Mormons are real clever fellows, always poor, and always praying; but still they live in hopes of converting the world. That they are the most singular people on earth, no one will deny; and that they are destined to occupy a still greater page in our national history, will be developed, we think, when it is known what they have done and are doing in California and the Rocky Mountains.

Note: The exact date and full contents of the above article remain undetermined. The text is taken from a reprint published in the Aug. 15, 1849 issue of the Philadelphia Dollar Newspaper.



Vol. ?                     Cincinnati, Ohio, September ? 1849.                     No. ?

One Way to Work a Miracle.


The notorious John C. Bennet, officiating. -- Strang had sometime previous to this event promised an endowment to his deluded followers, provided they would biuld a certain house, wherein to administer the endowment. The house being nearly completed, Strang and his master of ceremonies, set about the work of dedication to prepare the way for the wondeful display or illumination of the Holy Chost. Now the promise of Strang to his followers was, that if they would hold on to the faith (for some already began to deny that Strang was a prophet, or were growing weak in the faith,) a few days, until an endowment could be given, that he would promise them the Holy Ghost as a sign; and that he should not only set upon them in cloven tongues of fire, but that they should see it visible, with their natural eyes. The day of the Feast came, and the invited guests assembled. The house of Strang was not quite finished, but sufficient, however, to speed the work of confirmation, as it was dangerous to delay. The table was aparently set with many rich danties, and Bennet proceeded to dedicate the house by calling over the names of Judah, Ephraim, Levi, Daniel, &c., as key words to the Danite Covenant, given to Strang by J. C. Bennet. The call was responded to by the holders of these names in secret order. Bennet then took a bowl of water and begin to sprinkle the room, and said these words:

"In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, I dedicate this house to the Lord," &c.
The table was aranged, chairs, etc., all gathered around in high expectation of a rice repast. Grace was said by the prophet, and all proceeded to the work. Ducks, chickens, geese, and other poultry were there, and also eggs, etc. Judge of the surprise of the guests when on opening the eggs, geese and ducks, they were found to all be stuffed with bran, and the whole feast turnd out to be all a hoax and a fiction, while the prophet Strang and J. C. Bennet had a hearty laugh for having accomplished so great a feat. What reasons Strang ever gave for having been engaged in such a trick of deception, I have never been able to learn.

The night came on, and solemn preparations were made for the endowment. Strang had two rooms of his newly dedicated house prepared, a basement and upper story; the basement was arranged with seats, &c. for meeting privileges; the upper story was well illuminated with candles at every window; Strang taking good care to let the basement be lighted with only one candle and a stove, which did only indifferently light the room. The gathering of the people was in the basement. Meeting began with praying and singing, &c. The solemn ordinance of washing feet was performed by Strang himself, girt with a towel.

This was done in the upper story, where two or three were called up from the basement at a time; and after the ceremony of washing of feet by Strang, a sort of composition of oil and phosphorus was put upon the head, for anointing, by. J. C. Bennet. The room where this was done being illuminated with such a clear and bright light, none of this deception could be discovered until the endowed person had gone into the dark room below, Strang taking good care while on a mission of instruction, near the close of the interview in the basement, while standing on the stairs, through mistake or otherwise, to take the only candle there was in the room and carry it above, leaving the meeting in total darkness excepting the fire in the stove. The phosphorus then gave a most brilliant light upon the heads of the saints. The Holy Ghost was poured out in this way, and the sign given that Strang was a prophet. Some shouted, and others bore testimony, while the others smelt rather a bad smell in the spirit that was poured out. The meeting broke up, and about one-half of them turned away from following Strang any more. -- Notwithstanding, Strang has been trying ever since to make people believe that he is a prophet, and the rehearsal of facts respecting him, is called persecution by Strang.
                      WM. SMITH.
          President of the Church of Jesus Christ
                      of Latter Day Saints.

Note 1: The exact date and full contents of the above article remain undetermined. The text is taken from a reprint published in the Sept. 15, 1849 issue of the Syracuse Literary Union. The Cincinnati article may have appeared several months before the Literary Union editor got hold of it.

Note 2: In his Gospel Herald of August 17, 1848, James J. Strang published a response to the "phosphorus illumination" allegations which had recently been leveled against him by his opponents. This was actually his follow-up rebuttal: prior to that, following the publication of the first and second public exposures of his purported trickery, Strang had issued issued his initial rebuttal on Dec. 23, 1847. Then he had denied the charges, but made no mention of William Smith. Only in the Aug. 17th reply did Strang say, "William Smith has published far and near and got it in the religious papers generally that I got a house built on the promise of a heavenly illumination." Whether the Cincinnati Commercial was slow in printing the exposure; or whether William told the story on several different occasions; or whether it was the Literary Union that delayed its printing of some "old news," remains unknown. But it seems that Smith first gave his version of the event to the press during the summer of 1848.



Vol. ?                           Cincinnati, Ohio, Tuesday, October 16, 1849.                           No. ?


TO THE EDITOR OF THE CINCINNATI COMMERCIAL: Sir -- Many exaggerated reports have been circulated in favor of the Salt Lake City. This city contains a few mud houses, built up by a few runaways from justice. As to agricultural advantages, there is contiguous to the Salt Lake valley a barren chain of mountains, and an extensive desert. In the valley itself, a shower of rain is a circumstance of rare occurrence, and the only chance of riasing crops is by irrigating the land. This will be a good military post for the government, no doubt, and we would advise the government to watch the military tactics of the renegade Salt Lake Mormons. The valley may be a suitable place for horse thieves, bogus makers, murderers and outlaws, or they never would have taken up their abode in such a barren desert. We would not make these explanations if fanaticism of bigots and fools did not have a tendency to lead thousands of men, women and children, to destruction.   WM. SMITH.

Note: With each new party of Mormons departing for the west, "Patriarch" William Smith saw his lot of potential followers decreasing. After failing to effect a viable union with Lyman Wight's church, William had little chance of making converts to his own church at the beginning of the new decade, and his sole hope of leading a band of followers was to try and prevent additional defections to rival leaders like Strang and Young.


Vol. XX.                               Norwalk, Ohio, Oct. 30, 1849.                               No. 42.

New States of California and Deseret.

It is possible that at the next session of Congress, two new States, from the Far West, will be ushered into our Union. -- ... In addition to the movement for organizing a State Government in California, a similar effort has been made by the Mormon population residing in the valley of the Great Salt Lake. The new state is to be styled the State of Deseret, which is, by Mormon history and interpretation, the "Honey Bee," significant of Industry.

In February last, notice was given to all the citizens of that portion of Upper California lying east of the Sierra Nevada mountains, that a convention would be held at the Great Salt Lake City, on the 5th of March, for the purpose of taking into consideration the propriety of organizing a territorial or state government.

Accordingly, on the day appointed, the convention met, "consisting of a large portion of the inhabitants of that part of Upper California lying east of the Sierra Nevada mountains.

Daniel Spencer was elected chairman. A constitution was elected in 5 days, and adopted by the Convention on the 10th of March. It was submitted to the people on the first Monday of May, and a general Assembly elected under it. Millard Snow was elected Speaker of the House. After the organization, he announced that a majority of the votes of the people had been given for the adoption of the Constitution, and that Brigham Young had received a majority of votes for Governor, and Heber C. Kimball for Lieut. Governor. On the third of July a resolution was passed, providing for a joint committee to memorialize Congress for a State or Territorial Government, which memorial was reported and adopted. On the 5th of July, the Legislature, on joint ballot, elected Almon W. Babbitt, Esq., a delegate and representative to Congress. The Legislature adjourned on the 9th of July, having been in session only 7 days. The memorial to Congress sets forth the reasons which induced them to organize a state government

They cite the failure of Congress to provide a government for the territory acquired from Mexico, the abrogation of the Mexican law, the anarchy which followed. "The revolver and the bowie knife," they say, "have been the highest law of the land -- the strong have prevailed against the weak -- while persons, property, character and religion have been unaided, and virtue unprotected." Finally, they represent that there is now a sufficient number of inhabitants residing within the State of Deseret to support a state government, and to relieve the general government from the expense of a territorial government, and they therefore ask that the constitution accompanying this memorial be ratified, and that the State of Deseret be admitted into the Union on equal footing with the other states, or that such form of government may be given to them as may be deemed expedient; and that their delegate may be received and their interests properly represented in the Congress of the United States.

The constitution adopted is similar to most of the other states, dividing the government into three departments, Executive, Legislative and Judicial.

In the declaration of rights, it is declared "that all men have a natural and inalienable right to worship God according to the dictates of their own consciences, and the general assembly shall make no laws respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or disturbing any person in his religious worship or sentiments -- provided he does not disturb the public peace nor obstruct others in their religious worship."

Nothing is said about Slavery in the constitution, and as the region is in the latitude of 30 degrees, we trust Congress will not suffer the instrument to be adopted without incorporating the prohibitory clause. The boundaries of the State of Deseret are proposed as follows:

"Commencing at the 33rd degree north latitude, where it crosses the 108th degree of longitude, west of Greenwich; thence running south and west to the northern boundary of Mexico; -- thence west to and down the main channel of the Gila river, on the northern line of Mexico) and on the northern boundary of Lower California to the Pacific Ocean; thence along the coast northwesterly to the 118th degree 30 min., of west longitude; -- thence north to where said line intersects the dividing ridge of the Sierra Nevada Mountains; thence north along the summit of the Sierra Nevada Mountains to the dividing range of mountains that separates the waters flowing into the Columbia river from the waters running into the Great Basin; thence easterly along the dividing range of mountains that separate said waters flowing into the Columbia river on the north from the waters flowing into the Great Basin on the south, to the summit of the Wind River chain of mountains; thence southeast and south by the dividing range of mountains that separates the waters flowing into the Gulf of Mexico from the waters flowing into the Gulf of California, to the place of beginning as set forth in a map drawn by Charles Preuss and published by order of the Senate of the United States in 1848."

The constitution will be pressed upon Congress, and, if ratified, two new senators and a representative will soon appear in that body from the State of Deseret -- a state which was without settled inhabitants four years ago, and which is some twenty-five hundred miles from the seat of the federal government.

The toleration expressed in behalf of religion, and the liberal spirit evinced in the Constitution, are highly auspicious to the prosperity of the new State. The number of inhabitants in the valley of the Salt Lake is already, from 15,000 to 20,000. It is the half-way house between the frontier and the Pacific. Many who have undertaken to cross this fall, will winter at the Salt Lake. The population does not seem large enough at present to second the demand for admission as a state and it is very likely that a Territorial probation will be required for a few years longer. But it will not require much time to place a population of 60,000 in the Great Basin, at the present rate of immigration. There are many men of high talents and probity in the Mormon ranks, who are assuming the controlling influence, and we trust that a great improvement in the character and condition of these unfortunate and persecuted enthusiasts will be soon realized

A correspondent of the Chicago Journal thus writes from the City of the Salt Lake:

"Allow me to give you a description of this famous city. It is situated on a slight slope or side hill. The slope is hardly perceptible; and is about three miles square, and laid out in nineteen wards, and fenced into wards. The streets are beautiful -- eight rods wide, and every street has a small stream of water for irrigating their lands. These streams abound in speckled trout. Their farming land is up the Valley. They have a farm in one enclosure that is 5 by 14 miles in extent. The lands are very rich.

They are building a large Council House of stone, forty feet square. They are also building a mint. Next year the intend to commence to build their Temple. They find good building stone in Kanyons about five miles from the city."

The Elyra Courier publishes a letter from Henry W. Garfield, a California emigrant from that place, written from the city of Salt Lake, dated July 15, which give the following additional items of interest, respecting the country and its inhabitants.

The valley is surrounded by high mountains, some of them covered with perpetual snow. Southeast of the city is a very high mountain, which looks as though a man might go to the summit in two hours, but it is said to be twenty-five miles distant. This is, taken altogether, rather strange scenery -- harvest going forward almost in the snow.

The Mormons intend to soon commence the building of a Temple that shall outshine Solomon's in all its glory. There is abundance of white marble in the mountains, and gold in California (if not nearer,) for the adorning of it. It is to exceed the Jewish in size and splendor, and will no doubt be one of the seven wonders.

The people here, many of them. dress in skins. Yesterday there was a General Muster and one of the officers wore epaulets on each shoulder, upon a buckskin coat. The ladies trip about town in moccasins, but I have seen no other kind of ladies' gear of this primitive kind of covering.

The City is of course well watered, as every garden needs irrigation. Every few yards a stream of bright, clear water crosses the streets. At the north side of the town a stream of warm, or almost hot, water gushes from the side of the mountain.

A little further north, along the base of the mountain, are hot springs -- even to boiling heat. The population of the valley is not accurately known. The lowest estimate is ten thousand; the highest about twenty thousand. The Mormons were obliged to keep in a fort until last fall, on account of the Indians, so that all their buildings are nearly new. There is no danger from the savages now, except to cattle, and but little to them, as the Mormons have inflicted signal chastisements on these marauders, having entirely destroyed one considerable party of them. The Indians in the vicinity now wish to be instructed in farming, and are very desirous to procure cattle for the purpose of raising stock. The Utah, of the south part of the valley, have manifested strong desires to be educated in the arts of civilized life. * * *

The Mormon Prophet (Brigham Young) still lives in wagons. This is the case with great numbers. They set off the box with the cover upon it. I have seen many such as I have been passing along the streets, who had a bed made up in one end, and other necessaries occupying the other end -- in such cases there are generally two or three wagons together. The most of the emigrants brought out three or fur wagons, and now buy them for almost nothing, of the Californians.

There are hundreds of men here who have been to the mines, and returned with thousands. The circulating medium here is much of it gold dust, in papers marked with their value. They are also coining gold here. The pieces are plain, with the words "ten dollars" stamped on them. The gold we see here is in lumps, from the size of a kernel of wheat, or smaller, to the size of acorns, or of four or five dollars. Those who have returned from the mines say that the average yield in the dry diggins is not less than fifty dollars a day, and from that to one and two hundred. A saw a Mormon at Green River, who had got seven hundred and fifty in half a day.

Mr. L. P. Buckley, from Akron, O., in a latter from Sacramento, describing his overland passage, gives the following sketch of the Mormon settlement.

We arrived at the Mormon city June 25th, and left July 1st. The Mormon valley is a lovely place. They have lain out a city for beauty and comfort. City lots 1 1/4 acres each. The city is divided into 16 wards, and numbers some 9000 souls. The streets are 8 rods wide and cross at right angles. They have other lots around the city of 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 acres. No person is allowed more than one city lot, and is obliged to fence it, if able, and if not he is helped; other back lots as he is able to work them well. All they cost is the surveying and recording, which amounts from one to three dollars. The land of course belongs to Uncle Sam as of yet. They irrigate their lands from the mountain rills, or kanyons as they call them; the water is most excellent. I never saw better crops -- I was shown wheat that they expected to yield 40 bushels per acre, called California wheat. All the people appeared to be sober, industrious, and I think happy. You know that it was said that gold had been discovered there, but I think not; it would be an unfortunate thing for them. It would ruin them, so their best men talk, and it would too. Their houses are mostly built of large, unburnt brick, called dobies, and mostly one story high. So much for the Mormon City.

Notes: (forthcoming)



Vol. 35.                             Canton, Ohio, Dec. 5, 1849.                             No. 33.


St. Louis, Nov. 20 -- On the 14th inst. on the Colorado, the Tonkewa Indians murdered Lt. Harrison of the U. S. army, belonging to the escort corps of Capt. Marcy, returning from Santa Fe. Marcy had arrived at the [Washita], accompanied by Thomas Forseyth, of Salt Lake, which he left in Sept. Many California emigrants were there. A party of Mormons from California had reached home with a good deal of gold. Pomeroy of Lexington, Mo., has been tried by the Mormons as actor in the Mormon wars. The leading Mormons express great hostility towards the United States.

Notes: (forthcoming)

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