(Newspapers of Pennsylvania)

Misc. Pennsylvania Newspapers
1810-1819 Articles

The frontier town of Pittsburgh as it appeared in 1817

1810-19   |   1820-39   |   1840-42   |   1842-43   |   1844-49   |   1850-99   |   1900-99

RAdv Jan 03 '10  |  PitGz Jun 15 '10  |  WRep Jun 24 '11  |  PitGz Aug 09 '11  |  PitGz Jan 24 '12  |  PitGz Feb 28 '12
PitGz Mar 13, '12  |  PitMr Aug 20 '12  |  PitMr Aug 27 '12  |  PitMr Oct 22 '12  |  PitGz Oct 23 '12  |  PitMr Nov 05 '12
PitMr Dec 24 '12  |  PitGz Dec 25 '12  |  PitMr Mar 11 '13  |  Comw May 05 '13  |  PitMr May 27 '13  |  WRep May 31 '13
PitMr Jul 22 '13  |  PitMr Oct 28 '13  |  Comw Nov 10 '13  |  CWM Nov 10 '13  |  PitMr Dec 09 '13  |  PitMr Feb 23 '14
PitMr Mar 16 '14  |  PitMr May 25 '14  |  PitMr Jun 01 '14  |  PitMr Jun 22 '14  |  PitMr Aug 10 '14  |  PitGz Aug 19 '14
PitMr Aug 31 '14  |  Comw Sep 07 '14  |  WRep Oct 24 '14  |  PitMr Nov 02 '14
PitMr Jan 18 '15  |  PitMr Feb 01 '15  |  Comw Feb 04 '15  |  Comw Feb 11 '15  |  Comw Feb 25 '15  |  PitMr Mar 01 '15
PitMr Mar 28 '15  |  PitMr May 13 '15  |  PitMr May 20 '15  |  PitMr Jun 03 '15  |  PitMr Jun 10 '15  |  PitMr Jun 17 '15
PitMr Sep 23 '15  |  PitMr Oct 07 '15  |  WRep Oct 09 '15  |  PitMr Oct 28 '15  |  Comw Oct 28 '15  |  WRep Oct 30 '15
PitMr Nov 04 '15  |  PitMr Nov 25 '15  |  PitMr Dec 02 '15  |  PitMr Dec 23 '15  |  PitGz Dec 30 '15  |  PitGz Feb 10 '16
PitMr Mar 09 '16  |  WRep Mar 18 '16  |  PitGz Mar 30 '16  |  CarGz Apr 17 '16  |  Comw Jul 09 '16  |  PitGz Nov 22 '16
PitGz Dec 27 '16  |  PitGz Jan 07 '17  |  PitGz Mar 11 '17  |  PitGz May 09 '17  |  PitGz Oct 28 '17  |  PitGz Nov 04 '17
SpT Dec 08 '17
PitGz Jan 06 '18  |  WaEx Mar 02 '18  |  SpT Mar 09 '18  |  PitGz May 08 '18  |  PitGz May 22 '18  |  PitGz Jun 12 '18
State Sep 05 '18  |  State Nov 07 '18  |  PitGz Nov 17 '18  |  PitGz Jan 01 '19  |  PitGz Jan 15 '19  |  State Jan 16 '19
PitGz May 04 '19  |  PitGz May 25 '19  |  PitGz Jun 01 '19  |  PitMr Aug 27 '19  |  PitGz Oct 01 '19

Early Pennsylvania magazines   |   Philadelphia Newspapers   |   Adams Co., Pa. Papers


The Hornet; or Republican Advocate.

Vol. I.                          Fredericktown, Md., Wednesday, January 3, 1810.                          No. 47.

Last  Notice

The subscriber informs all persons who are indebted to the "Republican Advocate," or for advertising, that their accounts are left in the hands of Mr. John Markell, merchant, in Frederick-town, who is fully empowered to receive the amount, or to proceed according to law with such as do not immediately comply. The length of time for which those accounts have been standing, will be sufficient apology for any disagreeable measures which may be pursued. All persons to whom he may be indebted, will present their accounts to Mr. Markell, for settlement.
Silas Engles.      
Dec. 25, 1809.

Note 1: Silas Engles (1781-1827) first made his appearance upon the public stage in 1803, as a Philadelphia journeyman printer. Newspapers of that city mention a "Silas Engles, junr.," who belonged to the local Typographical Society. By 1804 he had joined forces with a fellow Philadelphia printer, to establish "Engles and Stiles," who were soliciting subscriptions for book publishing in that place. Thomas Truxton Stiles, Sr. (1784?-1831) soon separated from Engles and operated his own publishing business. In 1864 Stiles was seemingly accused of having been the Pittsburgh "foreman for a publisher of the name of Patterson" who received Solomon Spalding's writings from his employer and then handed the manuscript over to Sidney Rigdon for futher review. The writer of this recollection clearly confused T. T. Stiles with his old partner Mr. Engles, (Stiles never worked with Patterson in Pittsburgh, but Engles did).

Note 2: Although not properly a Pennsylvania newspaper, the above Advocate notice is reproduced here to document the transition of the printer Silas Engles, Jr. from Fredericktown, through Philadelphia, and on to Pittsburgh after 1810. Arriving in Maryland from Philadelphia, Silas had purchased the local paper in January of 1807 -- it ceased to exist a few months after his 1810 departure. Engles is next seen back in Philadelphia where he is listed in 1811 newspapers as a member of the "corresponding committee" for the "Journeyman Printers of Philadelphia, who were seeking employment. At the end of that year he shows up in Pittsburgh, under the name of "S. Engles & Co.," as the publisher of Rev. David Graham's new periodical, the Pioneer. In her 1949 thesis, Virginia E. Luckhardt reports: "The short life of the Pioneer left Engles with no major publication, although the entry 'Engles, S. & Co., printers, Wood, between 3d and 4th' in the city directory for 1813, indicates that the house still functioned."

Note 3: William E. Du Bois, in his 1847 genealogy, A Record of the Families of Robert Patterson, says of Siles Engles, Jr.: "Silas, born in 1781, married [Ann Maria Hauer, b. 1784] in Fredericktown, Md. [14 Dec 1809], and soon after removed to Pittsburg, where he lived a number of years, and where his remains lie. As in the case of [an alcoholic uncle], and from the same cause, his life was passed under a cloud." -- See excerpts from various 1813-1827 Pittsburgh newspapers for subsequent notices of Engles' activities.


Vol. XXIV.                                  Pittsburgh, Friday, June 15, 1810.                                 No. 1237.

Patterson &  Hopkins.

ROBERT PATTERSON of Pittsburgh; and BENJAMIN B. HOPKINS, of Philadelphia, having entered into partnership, under the firm of Patterson and Hopkins, have opened a Store of BOOKS AND STATIONERY corner of Wood and Fourth Streets, in the house lately occupied by Joseph Parker, where they have, and will constantly keep on hand, a large and extensive collection of Books in Law, Physic and Divinity; School Books, Classics, and a general miscellany of Philosophy, History, Science, and works of Taste.

All these, except European publications, they will sell, for prompt payment, at Philadelphia retail prices; and on large purchases they will allow a liberal discount, proportionate to the magnitude of the purchase.

They have established connections with respectable Booksellers in all the large towns of the United States, viz. New-York, Baltimore, etc. etc., so that they can, with the least possible delay, fill up any order for books.

They receive and promptly fill up orders for Maps, Globes, Surveying and Mathematical Instruments, Philosophical Apparatus, etc. etc.

They have now connected with the Store, an excellent Binding, where binding, in all its variety, will be executed with neatness. Customers will find their blank stationery, at prices far below what has been usual on this side of the mountains.

They will shortly have a Printing Office connected with their Store, where printing will be executed on the usual terms, in all its variety.

Besides cash, they will take in payment, such articles of country produce, as can soon be disposed of, without loss.

N.B.  R. Patterson has received a power of attorney to collect all debts due to Joseph Parker, late agent in this place for the houses of Ferrand and Co. and Hopkins and Co. Philadelphia.
  Pittsburgh, June 14, 1810.

Note 1: The same ad ran in the Washington Reporter, beginning on June 25th. Robert Patterson, Sr.'s new business partner, Benjamin Bronson Hopkins (1776-1852), obtained his Master's degree from Princeton in 1798 and remained at that school as a tutor until about 1802. From 1803 to 1804 he served as the second Principal of the newly established Pittsburgh Academy (an office subsequently filled by Robert Patterson, Sr., between 1807 and 1810). Hopkins evidently remained in Pittsburgh through much of the year 1806, because the Philadelphia United States' Gazette was then listing him as its sales agent in Pittsburgh. However, by the end of that year Hopkins had moved to Philadelphia, where he opened a bookstore under the management of "B. B. Hopkins & Co." This firm remained in business until November of 1811, when it ceased running weekly newspaper advertisements. Hopkins evidently split his residence between Pittsburgh and Philadelphia for a few years, publishing and selling books in both cities. By March of 1813 notices appeared in the latter city's papers, identifying him as an "insolvent debtor." Hopkins briefly operated the Lower Dublin Academy in Philadelphia, but by 1819 he had departed that city for Georgia, where he died in 1852.

Note 2: Given the fact that Robert Patterson, Sr. had no former experience in operating book shops (along with the fact that he seems to have always been a relatively poor man), it is reasonable to assume that Hopkins was the "guiding light" in their short-lived firm, and that it initially served primarily as the western outlet for his Philadelphia "B. B. Hopkins & Co." In time, however, the Patterson brothers' role in the Pittsburgh operation grew, and at an early day Joseph Patterson, Jr., began to furnish locally produced paper for the firm's stationery sales and book publishing ventures. On Nov. 5, 1812 the partnership with Hopkins was dissolved and replaced by the new family firm of "R[obert]. & J[oseph]. Patterson." By the end of the year Joseph Patterson, Jr. had upgraded his rag paper mill to new innovation of steam powered equipment. This was the time period when Solomon Spalding first arrived in town, hoping to sell the publication rights for his preColumbian American epic, the "Manuscript Found."


"Tis pleasure, through the loop-holes of retreat, to peep at such a world"

Vol. III. No. 45.                 Washington, Pa., Monday, June 24, 1811.                 Whole No. 149.


A number of citizens, of the town of Amity, and its vicinity, having in contemplation to celebrate the anniversary of American independence, on the 4th of July, met at the house of Leslie Carrons, in Amity, on Saturday the 15th inst. for the purpose of making the necessary arrangements.

Maj. Daniel M'Farland was called to the chair, and Ziba Cooke, esq. chosen secretary, after which the following resolutions were unanimously adopted, viz: --

1. Resolved, That we celebrate the 4th of July, 1811, at the house of Leslie Carrons, in the town of Amity.

2. Resolved, That Thos. Vennum, Thos. Ringland, Thos. Brice, Daniel L. Goble, and Daniel M'Farland, be the committee to arrange and direct the order of the day.

3. Resolved, That Abel M'Farland, seq. be the orator of the day, &c.

4. Resolved, That these resolutions, &c., be signed by the chairman and secretary and published in the Washington newspapers.
DANL. M'FARLAND,           
       ZIBA COOKE, Sec'ry.
All gentlemen who are so disposed, are cordially invited to join this proposed assembly of friends and brothers, in celebrating the anniversary of the birth day of our country's independence -- Those coming will please forward their names to Mr. Carrons, or to one of the committee of arrangement, if convenient, before that day -- All are requested to bring with them, one of the fairest of the fair, to participate in the enjoyments of the day.

==> Dinner to be on the table, at 2 o'clock precisely.

Note 1: Left unmentioned in this press release are the Dodds, Baldwins and Rigdons of Amity -- also those families which had not yet migrated to the little village -- the Millers, Seamans, Spaldings, etc.

Note 2: Probably the only building then standing in Amity, large enough to hold a large number of gathered guests, would have been the old Amity Inn, then operated by Leslie Carrons. In fact, his "house" was probably that selfsame village tavern, built by Henry Wick in 1796. See notes appended to the article from the Reporter of Apr. 1,1955.


Vol. XXVI.                                Pittsburgh, Friday, August 9, 1811.                                No. 1288.




For publishing by subscription, a
work, entitled.

"The Two Sons of Oil."


==> Subscriptions to be returned before the first of November, 1811.




... Gentlemen who wish to subscribe for this excellent and complete set of Dr. Johnson's Works, are invited to set their names on a subscription paper in the Bookstore of
            PATTERSON & HOPKINS.

Note 1: The Pittsburgh business firm of Patterson and Hopkins engaged in both book selling and book publishing between mid-1810 and the end of 1812. The first partner, the Rev. Robert Patterson, Sr., had been the fourth Principal of the Pittsburgh Academy and the second partner, Benjamin B. Hopkins, had been the school's second Principal. John H. Hopkins became one of that school's instructors in 1814: he prepared astronomical calculations for the firm's locally produced almanacs (and was probably a relative of Benjamin, and perhaps a relative of one of the firm's employees, J. Harrison Lambdin). It appears that these academics contracted out their printing work to the Pattersons' like-minded cousin in Pittsburgh, Silas Engles (whom Robert called "an excellent scholar"). For example, the partnership's 1811 Catalogue of books & stationary for sale by Patterson & Hopkins, Pittsburgh, stated that it was: "Printed by Silas Engles & Co." and its 1812 publication of John Willison's An Example of Plain Catechising... listed Engles as the printer on the title page.

Note 2: If Solomon Spalding arrived in Pittsburgh during October 1812 (it is likely he had relocated there before the end of that month), one of his options in getting his fictional writings published would have disappeared before his eyes. Business partners Patterson and Hopkins was then having their annual almanac printed (apparently by printer Silas Engles) and were readying that booklet for its Oct. 22nd publication. However, when B. B. Hopkins pulled out of the partnership two weeks later, he no doubt took with him a good deal of the firm's financial assets. Patterson and Hopkins announced the dissolution of their partnership on the Pittsburgh Mercury issue of Nov. 6, 1812. Even with his wealthier brother (Joseph Patterson, Jr.) joining him in the new partnership of R. & J. Patterson, the senior partner in the old book publishing business was probably unwilling and unable to take upon himself the financial burden of publishing Solomon Spalding's intended book. There is no evidence that the Pattersons even bothered to write up a subscription solicitation for the hapless Spalding's fiction.

Note 3: A reprint edition of Findley's Observations on The Two Sons of Oil was issued by Patterson & Hopkins, shortly before the break-up of the partnership in 1812. Its title page says: "S. Engles & Co. Printers."


Vol. XXVI.                            Pittsburgh, Friday, January 24, 1812.                            No. 1313.


GENTLEMEN holding subscription papers for "THE PIONEER" will please return them to S. ENGLES and Co. Printers, Pittsburgh, as the work will be commenced without further delay.

Note 1: The first issue of Silas Engles' literary magazine, The Pioneer was advertised for sale in the Gazette on Feb. 28, 1812. The magazine was sold in Pittsburgh at the bookstore operated by Patterson and Hopkins. The July 7, 1812 of The Pioneer included an article on the then popular notion that the American Indians were lost Israelite tribes. If Solomon Spalding read a copy of this same issue in Ohio a few weeks later, the subject matter of the July 7th article may have provided him with the hope that Silas Engles (or Engles' uncles, Robert and Joseph Patterson) would publish his own fictional history of the ancient Americans.

Note 2: For an earlier mention of Silas Engles in the public press, see his "Last Notice" in the Fredericktown (Maryland) Hornet of Jan. 3, 1810. In a card dated Dec. 25, 1809, Engles turned over the editorship of that paper (previously titled the Republican Advocate,) and removed to Pittsburgh shortly thereafter.


Vol. XXVI.                            Pittsburgh, Friday, February 28, 1812.                            No. 1318.


Subscribers to the Pioneer are informed that the first number is now ready for delivery.

Subscription papers are still open in several Bookstores in the Western Country, where those who have not yet subscribed, may have an opportunity to patronize the work, and receive their numbers from the commencement.

Subscribers in Pittsburgh, who may not be regularly served, will please call for their numbers at Messrs. PATTERSON & HOPKINS' Bookstore, and leave their address, that regularity may be observed in future.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                                    Pittsburgh, March 13, 1812.                                    No. ?

PATTERSON & HOPKINS have just received from Chambersburgh, and have for sale at their Bookstore, corner of Wood & 4th Sts., Pittsburgh, a quantity of Fuller's Press Boards, of the best quality.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                                       Pittsburgh,  August 20, 1812.                                       No. 7.

Comparison between Alfred the great
and Washington.

The similarity between the public virtues of Washington and those of Alfred the Great is admirable. These extraordinary men were both celebrated for their love of justice, their fortitude, patriotism, and piety. When Alfred exchanged the military garb for that of the peasant, he suffered greater reverse of fortune than ever befell Washington: and when in disguise he explored the camp of the Danes, and lulled suspicion by the melody of his harp, he evinced a more enterprising genius than the American.

The capture of the Hessians at Trenton, however reminds us of the achievements of Alfred; who by surprising the Danish camp, revived the hopes of his countrymen. Washington founded a republic: he was instrumental to the establishment of its polity, and retired "with all his blushing honors thick upon him" -- obedient to the will of his country, he resumed the command of her armies, and died as he had lived, a true patriot.

Alfred, by the subjection of his country's enemies, secured her liberties and peace; he was "her voice in council, in the field her sword." As a legislator, he ummortalized his name by the institution of a trial by jury; as a magistrate, he presided with unparalled wisdom; the sceptre of power was consecrated by his hands, and he was beloved, revered; nay, almost deified, by his countrymen.

Washington, like Alfred, was energetic and determined in every emergency. Though their virtues were homogeneal, Alfred claims the palm for ardour and brilliancy of genius: Washington excelled him in descretion; he weighed the consequences of every step, and his prudence triumphed over opposition. In short, Alfred the Great was like the rising sun, which breaking through a dark cloud, illumines and beautifies the creation. His superior mind shone with an effulgence that dissipated the gloom of superstition and ignorance which surrounded him, and, like the vice-regent of Heaven, he promised the happiness of the human species.

Washington the great was like the declining sun, that adorns the face of nature with the mildest radiance -- his actions, equally brilliant with Alfred, were more imitable than his; and the virtuous American will be esteemed by posterity as worthy to stand in the same rank with this illustrious Englishman.

Note: It is possible that this short article was written by Solomon Spalding. If so, the piece was perhaps communicated by him via a letter to Pittsburgh. Spalding was probably still residing in New Salem, Ashtabula County, Ohio at the time this article was printed in the new Pittsburgh paper, The Mercury. The article's comparison and contrast of the two heroic figures, Alfred the Great and George Washington, is noteworthy in regard to its significant thematic overlaps with the final chapters of "Romance of Celes," an unpublished novel attributed to Solomon Spalding, and currently on file in the Library of Congress.


Vol. I.                                       Pittsburgh,  August 27, 1812.                                       No. 8.


The following interesting article was received at the post-office, yesterday by express:

            Warren, August 25, 1812.

John Johnston, Esq.

Inclosed I send you for publication a copy of the articles of capitulation entered into by the traitor Hull, with the British. It may br relied on as genuine. It was received by Mr. Seymour Austin from one of the officers of our army, who was landed at Cleveland among the prisoners on Saturday last. The British have released all the Ohio volunteers, but Hull and the regulars are detained, I have just arrived from the Lake, and on enquiry found that no intelligence had been forwarded to the government. I have therefore sent an express with a dispatch directed to the general post office. Unless you are certain that an express is gone ca with this intelligence, I wish you immediately to forward it by an express to Washington city, otherwise send by mail. The people of this country are all in arms, and gone to Cleveland. There is no body left to guard the houses but the women and children. Perhaps this will arrive in time to go by the express mail. If not, do not delay it. In great haste,
Yours, &c.
            CALVIN PEASE.

P.S. There will be no other express mail sent this week.

Note 1:  The sender of this letter was the same Calvin Pease, Sr. of Warren who acted as the legal agent for Gideon Granger in Granger's 1803 land dealings with Solomon Spalding. This Calvin Pease may also have been a brother or cousin of Mary Pease Woodbury, the future mother-in-law of D. P. Hurlbut, the anti-Mormon lecturer. The "John Johnston, Esq." addressed in the letter was the Post Master of the then small U. S. Post Office in Pittsburgh. His daughter, Rebecca Johnston Eichbaum (1792-1882), was the regular clerk in that Post Office between 1811 and 1816.

Note 2:  Spalding and his family were quite likely still residing in New Salem, Ashtabula Co., Ohio at the time Pease wrote this letter. Spalding's widow provided a statement in 1839 in which she said that her husband had been writing an historical romance in Ohio in mid-1812 and that "Hull's surrender at Detroit, occurred near the same time." The USA declared war upon Great Britain on June 18, 1812, but the Ohioans living along the south shore of Lake Erie were not greatly alarmed by the threat of a British invasion from neighboring Canada until about the time of American General William Hull's surrender of his forces to the British (at Detroit on August 16, 1812).

Note 3:  One of the stories Spalding was writing in mid-1812 was his "Roman" manuscript (now on file in the Oberlin College Archives). Parts of the story relate accounts of war-threatened villagers fleeing to ancient earthen forts for refuge from armed enemy invaders. A very similar incident occured among the residents of New Salem on the night of August 11, 1812, when they fled to the safety of the mound-builders' old "Fort Hill" to escape a supposed landing by ship-based British raiders operating on Lake Erie. The possibility that Spalding was still in New Salem at this time, and that he witnessed this memorable event, is strengthened by an incident of that night, which is more or less detailed in an episode from his Oberlin romance. In both reports a woman accidentally nearly suffocates or drowns her lover beneath her weight in a watery mire while urgently attempting to reach its other side.


Vol. I.                              Pittsburgh, Thursday Evening, October 22, 1812.                             No. 10.

The  Honest  Man's  Almanack,


JUST published by PATTERSON & HOPKINS, at their book-store, corner of Fourth and Wood streets. This almanack is designed to inculcate good morals, and communicate useful intelligence, and therefore is called, The Honest Man's. The callender pages are calculated by the Rev. JOHN TAYLOR, who is celebrated for his success in foretelling the state of the weather.

Extract from the first page. "This almanack contains nothing to encourage the evil practices of liars, drunkards, rogues, lazy fellows, infidels, tories, cowards, bad husbands, and old bachelors." Besides many useful tables, lists of roads, &c, it gives a directory to find the chief merchants and manufacturers in Pittsburgh, with the residence of the lawyers, doctors and magistrates in it.

Note: The advertisement on the back cover of the 1813 almanac reads as follows: "PATTERSON AND HOPKINS Have for sale, at all times, a large assortment of valuable books, and recent publications from the eastern side of the mountains, with an extensive assortment of schoolbooks, pocket and family Bibles, at various prices, according to their quality. --- P. & H. have of their own publications for sale -- Mason's Remains, a small and excellent religious book - 25 Cents. -- Observations on the Two Sons of Oil, containing an able defence of religious liberty, and of the American laws and constitutions; also an excellent compendious review of Church history. - By Wm. Findley Esq. member of Congress - $1. -- Murrays small English Grammar, a book necessary to every young person, that wishes to speak and write correctly. 25 Cents. -- The New Token for children, or a sequeI to Janeway's Token, - being an authentic account of the conversion, lives, and happy deaths of twelve children, by the Rev. Wm. Mosely, - 18 3/4 Cents. -- Easy Lessons for children - 6 1/4 Cents. -- The Child's Instructor - 12 1/2 Cents. -- Gentle Shepherd, 25 cents. --- Patterson and Hopkins have novv in the press and will shortly publish Willison's Explanation of the Catechism, fine paper - 100 Cents. Watts' Psalms and Hymns, 75 Cts. A new collection of tunes, containing those that are used in the western country by the different Presbyterian denominations, and by some other chuiches. This collection embraces the plain excellent old Scotch tunes that have been but rarely published in this country; with others, very generally used. The design of the collection is to furnish the church with a cheap and useful set of tunes actually used in the western country. 50 Cents. A very liberal discount on the above prices is given to those who buy by the dozen, to sell again. --- P. & H. give 5 cents a pound for clean white linen and cotten rags; and if they are very coarse, dirty, or dark coloured, from 1 cent to 4 per lb. according to their quality. One cent per lb. for clean dry flax and hemp scutching tow, and for woollen and linsey rags. --- Some persons manifest a sort of shame on the subject of saving and selling rags, that ought not to be cherished, when it is considered how much money is retained in the country by saving them, and when it is known, which is a fact, that the most respectable and decent families in the country do now encourage domestic manufactories in this way."


Vol. ?                                     Pittsburgh, October 23, 1812.                                     No. ?

FOR  THE  YEAR  1813.

At the usual price, just published by PATTERSON & HOPKINS, at their Bookstore, corner of Fourth and Wood sts. This Almanac is designed to inculcate good morals, and communicate useful intelligence, and therefore is called the Honest Man's.

The calender pages are calculated by the Rev. JOHN TAYLOR, who is celebrated for his success in foretelling the weather.

Extract from the first page -- "This Almanac contains nothing to encourage the evil practices of Liars, Drunkards, Rogues, Lazy Fellows, Infidels, Tories, Cowards, Bad Husbands, and Old Bachelors," besides many useful Tables, Lists of Roads, &c, it gives a directory to find the chief Merchants and Manufacturers in Pittsburgh, with the residence of the Lawyers, Doctors and Magistrates in it.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I                                Pittsburgh, Thursday Evening, November 5, 1812.                               No. 18.

Dissolution  of  Partnership.

BY mutual consent, the partnership of PATTERSON and HOPKINS, Booksellers, is dissolved. All engagements entered into by the house of P. &. H. will be attended to and settled by R. &. J. Patterson, the present firm, who have on hand a very large and select assortment of Books and Stationary, which they will sell on the most reasonable terms.
                                        R. & J. PATTERSON.
Pittsburgh, November 5, 1812.

Note: The Rev. Robert Patterson, Sr. entered into the book and stationery selling business with John H. Hopkins in Pittsburgh in 1810. The firm published several small books and pamphlets between 1810 and 1812. The last notable business transacted by Patterson and Hopkins was their publication of the 1813 Honest Man's Extra Almanac. This booklet was probably run through the press during October of 1812 and offered for sale only a few days before the old partnership was dissolved.

Solomon Spalding arrived in Pittsburgh shortly before the firm of Patterson and Hopkins broke up. His timing was not particularly good, especially since he wished to interest the firm in publishing his manuscript book and because the departure of Hopkins no doubt left the new company of Robert and Joseph Patterson without sufficient capital to invest in uncertain publishing ventures. It is likely that, of the two brothers, it was Joseph Patterson who held personal funds adequate to pay for the printing and binding of Spalding's novel. Even so, Spalding was never able to convience either of the Patterson brothers to underwrite the publication of his intended book


Vol. I                            Pittsburgh, Thursday Evening, December 24, 1812.                           No. 25.

Worthy  of  Notice.

The subscriber is authorized and will sell one half of the.

Pittsburgh Steam Mill,

the property of Oliver Evans and son. This valuable property being well known, a description is thought unneccessary. Apply at the premises. The property will be shown, and all necessary information given.
                            GEO. EVANS.

Scutching Tow of Flax & Hemp

A LARGE quantity wanted immediately for use of the

Pittsburgh Steam Paper-Mill.

One cent and an half given by the subscribers, at their bookstore, for Scutching Tow, clean and well shaken.

                    R. & J. PATTERSON.

Note 1: George Evans advertisement began in the Mercury on Sep. 17, 1812 and ran through the end of the year. The mill referred to in the ad was used in the manufacture of paper and had probably served as the chief supplier of paper to stationers and book publishers Robert Patterson and B. B. Hopkins betwen 1810 and 1812. The Patterson bothers (Robert and Joseph, Jr.) seem to have bought out Evans' share in the mill late in 1812. See also the Pattersons' ad for "scutching tow" in the Pittsburgh Gazette of Dec. 25, 1812.

Note 2: It is assumed that the Pattersons began operating their paper-making plant near Pittsburgh, as early as 1811. The mill's first steam engine was evidently installed late in 1812. Such an engine, at that early date, would have merely supplied the power to break down rags, flax and hemp into paper pulp. In later years more of the process was automated and steam power ran entire paper-making machines. The finer grades of paper produced at the Pittsburgh Steam Paper-Mill bore watermarks, such as "R. Patterson & Lambdin," or "J. Patterson & Co." The former watermark evidently was applied to stationery and printing sheets supplied to Robert Patterson between 1818 and 1823. The latter watermark was in use as late as 1822. Riddle's 1815 Pittsburgh Almanac lists the mill's owner as "R. Patterson & Co." while later source say "R. & J. Patterson & Co." or merely "J. Patterson & Co." The final change in ownership appears to have occurred in September of 1823, a few years after Joseph married Jane McCrea and had amassed personal wealth sufficient for major business investments..


Vol. ?                                   Pittsburgh, December 25, 1812.                                   No. ?

Scutching Tow of Flax and Hemp, a large quantity wanted immediately for use of the Pittsburgh Steam Paper-Mill.

                    R. & J. PATTERSON.

Note 1: The scraping of flax, to remove its unwanted "boon," is called "scutching" or "swingling." Scutching "tow" is this same material once it has been removed from the flax. Tow is an ingedient used in the making of certain kinds of paper.

Note 2: It appears that Robert and Joseph Patterson were eager to produce a considerable quantity of paper at their newly acquired Steam Paper Mill. Ownership of this mill probably made the two brothers the major suppliers of paper in the Pittsburgh region. Robert P. Du Bois, a former employee of Robert and Joseph Patterson, recalled in 1882 that the Pattersons had under their "control" a "book-store on Fourth Street," as well as "a book-bindary," a "job-office" printing establishment "under the name of Butler & Lambdin" and "a steam paper-mill on the Allegheny (under the name of R. & J. Patterson)."


Vol. I                            Pittsburgh, Thursday Evening, March 11, 1813.                           No. 36.


THE 5th volume of Scott's Family Bible has been, for some time, ready for the subscribers in the western country.

The 1st volume on the New Testament, is ready for those subscribers that take the work only on the New Testament.

The Christian Researches in Asia, by Doctor Buchanan, author of the Star in the East, have been received, and are ready for the subscribers.

It is in contemplation shortly to put to press, the following works, if sufficient encouragement shall be given by subscribers, viz.

Solitude Sweetened, a valuable book of religious essays, by Doctor James Mickle (a Scotch author) containing about 200 pages, 18mo, in half binding, with leather back, and marble paper, price 75 cents.

The Force of Truth, a faithful narrative by the Rev. Thomas Scott, author of the commentary on the bible, to which will be added eight letters by the Rev. John Newton, addressed to Mr. Scott, during the season of his anxious and consciencious search for truth. This work will be highly gratifying and useful to the numerous subscribers for Scott's Family Bible, containing 300 pages, 18mo, in half binding, leather back, and marble paper, price 50 cents.

An edition of the Westminster Confession of Faith, entire and exactly as published in several editions at Edinburgh, containing four or 500 pages, large 8vo full bound in leather, price $1.75 cents.

This book is in great demand, and it is believed it will meet with liberal encouragement.

Any person procuring subscribers for any of these works, and becoming responsible for payment, or taking them on his own account to sell again, shall receive gratis copies in the following ratio, viz. one out of 10, -- three out of 20, -- seven out of 40, -- and twelve out of 60. --- And these will be the terms generally for all works, printed on subscription in Pittsburgh, by
                                    R. &. J. PATTERSON.

N. B. Any person, on the conditions of this advertisement, may proceed to take in subscriptions to any of the above works, and return said papers in all the summer of 1813.

Note 1: If Solomon Spalding was still soliciting the Patterson brothers to publish his fictional writings at this time, he must have come away from that promotional effort discouraged. The Pattersons were primarily interested in publishing reprints of known religious "best-sellers," and especially those written by Calvinist divines. Although Spalding had occasionally served as a Congrgational and Presbyterian minister and was, no doubt, well acquainted with Calvinist practices and theology, his Deist tendencies during the first years of the 19th century precluded his writing faith-promoting and devotional books like the Pattersons' favorite Solitude Sweetened.

Note 2: Although the Patterson brothers did issue several books in the first half of 1813 (see their advertisement of July 22), according to the above announcement, the brothers did not plan to publish their next selection of new books until after "the summer of 1813." This decision by the Pattersons probably meant that Solomon Spalding had no chance of getting them to publish his manuscript writings until near the end of that year -- and only then if sufficient financing became available. Given these policies and restrictions on the part of the Pattersons, Spalding's most reasonable course of action would have been to revamp his mansucript writings, to make them more interesting to contemporary Presbyterians, while, at the same time, attempting to locate the necessary funds to underwrite a publication of his writings sometime after the summer of 1813.


Vol. IX, No. 45.]                             Pittsburg, (Pa.) May 5, 1813.                             [Whole No. 455.


Remaining in the Post Office, at Pittsburgh, (Penn.) May 1, 1813,
not advertised before.

Solomon Spalding

Robert Sterrit
Mr. Smith
James Slater
Wm. Steward
Peter Strickland
Charles Sholl
Solomon Smith
John Sloan
John Sohn
Joseph Simpson ...

Note: In 1813 Solomon Spalding appears to have been living in downtown Pittsburgh and working as a sales clerk in a shop selling engraved prints. It is likely that he called for his mail at the Pittsburgh Post Office on a regular basis during this period. That fact probably accounts for why his name appears only infrequently on the published letter lists in that town. Sidney Rigdon's name does not appear at all on the lists during the years 1813-1815. Either he always picked up his mail at the Pittsburgh Post Office according to a regular schedule, or, perhaps a friend of his (such as Jonathan Harrison Lambdin) generally performed that task for him.


Vol. I                                Pittsburgh, Thursday Evening, May 27, 1813.                               No. 47.



Just received from Philadelphia and for sale by the subscribers, at their Bookstore, corner of Fourth and Wood streets, Pittsburgh.

ADAMS view (of different religions).
Afflicted Man's Companion,
Reign of Grace,
Fourfold State,
Pocket, school and family BIBLE, a great variety
Complete Duty of Man,
Collection of Religious Poems,
David's Psalms (small,)
Gospel Sonnets,
Fuller's Gospel, its own witness,
Josephus -- 4 vols.
Life of Christ,
Lyric Poems, by Dr. Watts,
Cases of Conscience,
Pilgrim's Progress,
Works of the rev'd Thomas Scott, author of the Family Bible, 5 vols.
Zion's Pilgrim,
American Nepos, containing the lives of the Illustrious heroes of the revolution,
Kingston's Biographical Dictionary,
Herries's Cavalry,
Charms of Literature,
Constitutions of all the states, and of the United States,
Dialogues of Devils,
Gass's Journal (with plates,)
Gordon's History of America -- 3 vols.
Humboldt's New Spain -- 2 vols.
Military Tutor,
Mavor's Plutarch,
Paley's Philosophy,
Steuben's Military Exercise,
Articles of War,
Ramsay's Life of Washington,
Steven's Wars -- 2 vols.
Shakespeare's Plays -- 8 vols.
Trumbull's History of the U. States, 1st ver.
Vocal Medley,
Young's Night Thoughts,
Charlotte Temple,
Coelebs in search of a wife,
Elizabeth, or the Exiles of Siberia,
American Preceptor,
Gulliver's Travels,
Sorrows of Werter,
Entick's Dictionary,
Johnson's Dictionary (small)
Jones's edition of Sheridan's Dictionary,
Visit for a week,
Walker's Dictionary, large and small,
Entick's Latin Tyronis,
Nugent's French Dictionary,
Simpson's Algebra,
Tousard's Tactics, 2 vols. and Atlas of plates,
Cheseldon's Anatomy,
Clarke's Travels in Europe, Asia and Africa, part I,
Dwight's Psalms and Hymns,
Clerk's Magazine,
Diamond Songster, 2 small vols.
Ferguson's Astronomy, with Atlas,
Guide to Prayer, by Dr. Watts,
M'Laurin's Essays,
Rollin's Ancient History, 3 vols.
Watts on the mind,
Darwin's Zoonomia, 2 vols.
Quincey's Medical Lexicon,
Edinburgh Dispensatory,
Buck's Miscellanies -- 2 vols.
Cann's Bible,
Buck on Experience,
Christian World,
Force of Truth (by Scott,)
Cowper's Poems,
Hervey's Works,
    Do.     Meditations,
Hieroglyphic Bible,
Cardiphonia -- 2 vols.
Weem's Life of Washington,
Morse's Geography -- large and small,
    Do.     Gazzetteer       do.         do.    
Military Menter -- 2 vols.
Song Books of all kinds,
Natural History,
Milton's Works -- 2 vols.
Jno. Bell's Surgery,
Bell's Anatomy -- vols.
Hey's Surgery,

Letters on Courtship, by Dr. Witherspoon and others,
Home -- a novel in two vols.
Geoffrey Gambado, or the art of riding burlesqued -- with caricatures,
Highlanders, and other Poems, by Mrs. Grant,
Rokeby, by Walter Scott,
Grant on education, addressed to mothers,
Ganith, on political economy, and means of national waelth,
Advice to officers in the army, an English burlesque work,
Influence of Literature,
Crabb's Tales, a Scotch work,
Literary Visitor,
Piety Promoted,
Knickerbocker's New York, 2 vols.
The Young Mother,
Maps of the Seat of War in Russia,
Bahtiar Namah (a Persion story,)
Rejected Addresses, an English work, reprinted in America.
Tales of Terror,
Ink-Powder, Wafers, Inkstands.
The Emporium of Arts and Sciences is now completed for the first year: subscribers are requested to call and pay off their accounts.
                                 R & J PATTERSON.

May 20, 1813.
N. B. Five Cents in Books, and Four Cents in Cash, given for clean linnen, and cotton RAGS per pound -- one Cent for woolen and linnen rags per pound -- and one Dollar and Fifty Cents for scutching tow per hundred pound. While woolen rags and scutching tow are nearly useless at home, they are of service at the paper-mill, to make course wrapping for the use of merchants, and ought to be saved from principles both of economy and encouragement to domestic manufactures.

Notes: (forthcoming)


"Tis pleasure, through the loop-holes of retreat, to peep at such a world"

Vol. V. No. 42.                 Washington, Pa., Monday, May 31, 1813.                 Whole No. 250.


The subscriber will sell the tavern stand he now occupies, in the town of Amity, together with thirty acres of good land. The tavern house is in a good situation for business, and there is a still house and two stills on the premises with pasture and woodland. If not sold against the last of February, the property will be rented for a term of time. For further particulars, apply to the owner.
LESLIE CARRON.            
Amity, Jan. 18, 1813.

Note 1: Beginning in January of 1813 Leslie Carrons attempted to sell the Amity tavern. It appears that he was unsuccessful, and so he modified his plan at the end of February, to simply rent out the building to another tavern-keeper (William Seaman, who obtained his license early in 1814). Carrons' ownership of the property ceased the following year, when the lot was seized and sold by the Washington County Sheriff -- evidently to help cover payment of debts Carrons owed to Henry Wick, the previous keeper of the Amity tavern -- see notes attached to the notice published in the Reporter of Oct. 24, 1814

Note 2: The Seaman family members, who began operating the tavern early in 1814, were evidently uninterested in dispensing liquor to their public house guests; thus the stills on the property probably went unused. When Solomon Spalding took over its day-to-day management for the Seamans, late in 1814, he ran the place as a "dry" temperance tavern. See also notes appended to the Reporter articles of June 24, 1811 and Apr. 1, 1955.


Vol. I                                Pittsburgh, Thursday Evening, July 22, 1813.                               No. 55.


At their Bookstore, corner of Wood and Fourth streets, have lately received from Philadelphia.

BUCHANAN'S Asiatic Researches,
Morses Universal Geography -- 2 vols.
    Do.         do.         do.         small,
    Do.         do.     Gazatteer,   large,
    Do.         do.         do.         small,
Ferguson's Astronomy, with Atlass,
Snowden's History of America,
Chesterfield's Letters to his son,
Buck's Theological Dictionary -- 2 vols.
Mill-wrights' Guide,
Confession of Faith, of the feneral assembly,
Coxe's American Dispensatory,
Faber on the Prophecies,
Rokeby -- a poem by Walter Scott,
Walter Scott's Poems in setts.

R. & J. P. have still on hand, of their own publication, a handsome edition of Watt's Psalms and Hymns, on good type and fine paper, with substantial binding, price 75 cents; where a congregation takes them by the dozen, 62 1/2 cents, and to merchants with a larger discount.

R. & J. have just published a Treatise, by the rev. James Duncan, on the covenant of works, man's fall, and his recovery through Jesus Christ.


A Treatise on civil government, and the extent of the civil power respecting religion; to which are added, some Strictures on a late publication, entitled, "The two Sons of Oil." The subscribers for this original work are requested to call for their copies.

R. & J. P. keep on hand for sale, a considerable assortment of Bibles, School Books, and Catechisms, almost of all kinds. They have lately published Willison's Explanation of the Shorter Catechism, and have it in the hands of the binder.

The numerous subscribers to Scott's Family Bible, are hereby informed, that the last volume will be ready for them in a few days.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I                                Pittsburgh, Thursday Evening, October 28, 1813.                               No. 69.



Corner of Wood and Fourth streets, Pittsburgh.

For Rogues and Honest Folks,
A. D. 1814.

CONTAINING besides the usual astronomical and calender pages, an account of two marriages, one of them, capt. Lefebre to capt. Thoreau; achronological table of remarkable events; the history of making a pon; directions for farmers every month in the year; reasons for enlarging the title of the Almanac for 1814, so as to suit more than honest men, in a letter from "The Rogues Club," giving some account of their manoevres in politics, religion, fashion, and trade; in trade they advise collecting constables, lawyers and others, to keep money when they receive it, till they take a turn out of it, if it should never be paid. Improvements in Pittsburgh, during one year; trade and commerce same time; prospect of improvement for a year to come; hints on complaining; how to be cured; Indian mummies, found in Tennessee; advice to a female friend, on the choice of a husband; culture of wheat upon clover; important experiment in raising wheat; method of destroying catterpillars; benefit of harrowing clover, corm potatoes, &c. -- new way of raising potatoes; infallible cure for the bite of a mad dog; courts of law in Pennsylvania and Ohio; navy of the U. S. in August 1813; sundry tables, roads, &c.

Price, 6 1/4 cents single, 50 per dozen, and $5.50 per gross.

German Almanacs for sale for 1814. -- And a Magazine Almanac, will shrtly be published, containing a very interesting account of the north-western boundaries of the United States, along the Canadas, the seat of war.

Pittsburgh, October 28, 1813.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IX, No. 45.]                         Pittsburg (Pa.), November 10, 1813.                         [Whole No. 455.


Remaining in the post office, at Pittsburgh, (Pa.) Nov. 10, 1813,
not advertised before.

Abraham Stoper
David Simon
John Sterrit
John Sesman
Robert Smith
Robert Stuart
Robert Sinkler
Solomon Spalding
Samuel Swayne
S. C. Stevens
Wm. Shannon
Wm. Smith
Wm. Sterling
Jane Stevenson
Margaret Stuart

Note: Why was Mr. Spalding tardy in picking up his mail at the Pittsburgh post office in 1813? One possibility is that, during the winter of 1813-14, Solomon Spalding left his wife and daughter in Pittsburgh and devoted him time to rewriting his manuscript story at the home of Hugh Wilson in nearby Washington, Pennsylvania. If this is indeed what he was doing that winter, it is likely that Mrs. Spalding picked up her husband's mail for him at the Pittsburgh post office occasionally, and forwarded it to him at Washington. Another possibility is that Solomon, whose health was bad during these years, simply neglected to go to the post office now and then. In that case, Spalding's reported lodging with the Wilsons at their Locust Hill estate may have instead occurred during the winter of 1815-16 -- see notes attached to the Examiner clipping of March 18, 1816.


The Crawford Weekly Messenger.

Vol. VIII.                         Meadville, Pa., Wednesday, November 10, 1813.                         No. ?


In the name of the Indian Chiefs and Warriors, to maj. general [Henry A.] Proctor, as the representative of their great father, the king,” a short time before the Battle of the Thames in Canada, which occurred on October 5, 1813. Proctor, totally defeated by Gen. William Henry Harrison, was court-martialed and suspended from his rank and pay, but reinstated afterward and rose to be a lieutenant-general.

This speech was first published in 1813 in the National Intelligencer of Washington, with a note saying it was “found among General Proctor’s papers after his flight.”
Father, listen to your children! you have them now all before you.

The war before this, our British father gave the hatchet to his red children when old chiefs were alive. They are now dead. In that war, our father was thrown on his back by the Americans, and our father took them by the hand without our knowledge; and we are afraid that our father will do so again at this time.

Summer before last, when I came forward with my brethren and was ready to take up the hatchet in favor of our British father, we were told not to be in a hurry, that he had not yet determined to fight the. Americans.

Listen! When war was declared, our father stood up and gave us the tomahawk, and told us that he was ready to strike the Americans; that he wanted our assistance, and that he would certainly get us our lands back, which the Americans had taken from us.

Listen! You told us, at that time, to bring forward our families to this place; and we did so; and you promised to take care of them, and that they should want for nothing, while the men would go and fight the enemy. That we need not trouble ourselves about the enemy’s garrisons; that we knew nothing about them, and that our father would attend to that part of the business. You also told your red children that you would take good care of your garrison here, which made our hearts glad.

Listen! When we were last at the Rapids, it is true, we gave you little assistance. It is hard to fight people who live like ground hogs.

Father, listen! Our fleet has gone out; we know they have fought; we have heard the great guns, but know nothing of what has happened to our father with one arm. Our ships have gone one way, and we are much astonished to see our father tying up everything and preparing to run away the other, without letting his red children know what his intentions are. You always told us to remain here and take care of our lands. It made our hearts glad to hear that was your wish. Our great father, the king, is the head, and you represent him. You always told us that you would never draw your foot off British ground: but now, father, we see you are drawing back, and we are sorry to see our father doing so without seeing the enemy. We must compare our father’s conduct to a fat animal that carries its tail upon its back, but when affrighted it drops it between its legs and runs off.

Listen Father! The Americans have not yet defeated us by land; neither are we sure that they have done so by water: we, therefore, wish to remain here, and fight our enemy, should they make their appearance. If they defeat us, we will then retreat with our father.

At the battle of the Rapids, last war, the Americans certainly defeated us; and when we retreated to our father's fort in that place, the gates were shut against us. -- We were afraid that it would now be the case; but instead of that we now see our British father preparing to march out of his garrison.

Father! You have got the arms and ammunition which our great father sent for his red children. -- If you have an idea of going away, give them to us, and you may go and welcome, for us. Our lives are in the hands of the Great Spirit. We are determined to defend our lands, and if it is his will we wish to leave our bones upon them.

Amherstburg, Sept. 18, 1813.

Note: According to the Washington, D. C., National Intelligencer, the above letter was found among the papers of British Major General Henry A. Proctor, after he abandoned his Indian allies. It seems likely that contemporary readers, like Solomon Spalding, would have followed the news reports on Tecumseh (and his brother Tenskwatawa, "The Prophet") with considerable interest.


Vol. II.                                  Pittsburgh, Thursday, December 9, 1813.                                  No. 75.

Pittsburgh, November 25th, 1813

Cramer, Spear and Eichbaum

Have in Press, a New Periodical Publication,
"The Western Gleaner;
Repository for Arts, Sciences, and

CONTENTS of No. I -- Prospectus -- On Bleaching -- Fragments of a history of agriculture, gardening, and table luxuries -- Aphorisms of Political Economy -- Letter written from the baths of St. George, in the south of France -- Reviews of H. M. Brackenridge's "Views of Louisiana" -- Miscellanies -- Poetry -- Literary Intelligence.


The Gleaner will appear in numbers of 64 pages octavo, each, and be published once a month, the first Number in December 1813.

The subscription, Four Dollars per annum, payable on the first day of May, for each year.

No subscriptions will be taken for less than a year.

A liberal discount allowed to gentlemen who undertake to aid us in the publication of the Western Gleaner.

Note: With the demise of The Pioneer after October 1812, Pittsburgh was left without a literary magazine of its own. Cramer, Spear and Eichbaum were rivals of Silas Engles in the local printing business and rivals of the Patterson brothers in local publishing and book sales. When they initiated their Western Gleaner the trio attempted to broaden the new magazine's readership base by appealing to other tastes than those purely literary. The Dec. 1813 and Aug. 1814 issues of the Gleaner published articles featuring the topic of mysterious American antiquities, a subject which no doubt was of interest to Pittsburgh area readers like Solomon Spalding and Sidney Rigdon. William Eichbaum, the third partner in the firm publishing the Gleaner, would later (on Oct. 12, 1815) marry Rebecca Johnston, the daughter of the Pittsburgh Post Master and a lady who knew both Solomon Spalding and Sidney Rigdon.


Vol. II                                Pittsburgh, Wednesday, February 23, 1814.                                No. 87.


The Partnership of S. Engles & Co.

IS dissolved by mutual consent. All persons indebted to said firm are requested to make immediate payment, and those having any demands against the firm, are desired to present them for settlement.

The business will in future be consucted by SILAS ENGLES who will execute any orders in the business, with neatness and promptitude.

N. B. One or two smart Lads wanted to the printing business.

Note 1: By 1811 the printer Silas Engles (c. 1781-1827) was living and working in Pittsburgh. Early the following year he began The Pioneer as the first literary magazine published in the town. Engles and his unnamed partner(s) first operated their printing business on the west side of Wood street, between Third and Fourth streets (as listed in the 1813 city directory). This location apparently placed him adjacent to the book and stationery store of Robert Patterson and B. B. Hopkins, then located on the southwest corner of Wood and Fourth streets.

Note 2: According to Rev. Samuel Williams, (in a communication to James T. Cobb late in 1878) "Silas Engles the foreman in the printing office was a cousin of the Rev. P[atterson].'s and entrusted with the management of the business." This identification of Silas, as a "cousin" of Robert Patterson, Sr. is correct, and helps explain why Silas was contracted to do the press work for the occasional publishing efforts of Patterson & Hopkins, as well as for their successors, R. &. J. Patterson. --- Silas' parents were the Captain Silas Engles, Sr. (c. 1731-1805) and Ann ("Anna") Patterson (1756-1833) who were married Dec. 8, 1780 at the First Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia. Silas, Sr.'s name appears in the 1782 Philadelphia Census and the 1790 USA Census for the Southwark district of Philadelphia. In both records he is listed as being a carpenter. At one point in his life he served as Philadelphia's City Surveyer. Silas, Sr.'s will was "proved" on Apr. 2, 1805, at Southwark, Philadelphia, with his wife Ann Patterson Engles acting as sole executor. Her children are listed as: Silas, Mary, Ann, Martha, Joseph and William. Ann ("Anna") Patterson was the sister of the Rev. Joseph Patterson, Sr., and thus the aunt of Joseph's son, Robert Patterson, Sr.

Note 3: In 1804 the Philadelphia firm of "Engles & Stiles" published the first American edition of Alexander Gerard's An Essay on Taste. The following year "Silas Engles and Samuel Wood" published the first edition of Thomas Branagan's Avenia: or, A Tragical Poem in Philadelphia. In 1806 Silas became a partner in the Fredericktown firm of Craig, Engles & Co., Printers, which evolved into S. Engles & Co. at Fredericktown, between 1806 and 1808. Silas Engles took over the publication of the Fredericktown, Maryland, Republican Advocate, from John B. Colvin in 1807, but left that position the following year. Silas married Ann Maria Hauer at Fredericktown on Dec. 14, 1809. There was a another "Silas Engles" listed as living in Baltimore, Maryland in the 1810 Census -- his name is also appears in the 1796, 1802, 1804, and 1817 Baltimore City Directories. He was evidently a relative of the Philadelphia Engles family. He was probably also the same Private Silas Engles who served aboard the U.S. frigate Congress during the War of 1812.

Note 4: Silas Engles, Jr., the printer first placed his name on the title-page of a Pittsburgh imprint in the year 1811, so it is safe to say that he had arrived in that city and set up his firm of "S. Engles & Co." by the end of 1810 or very early in 1811. Engles went to work as the printer for the publishing firm of Patterson & Hopkins. He printed the 1811 Catalogue of Books & Stationary for Sale by Patterson & Hopkins, Pittsburgh, During the year 1812 Engles printed at least four books and one booklet for Benjamin B. Hopkins and Robert Patterson (before they dissolved their partnership on Nov. 5, 1812. Engles continued on as the printer for that partnership's successor, R. & J. Patterson. A few months after the dissolution of Engles' own partnership in February of 1814, he apparently moved his press into a room at the rear of the R. & J. Patterson store. An alternative possibility is that his press remained at its old location, and that a doorway between Engles' printing office and the Pattersons' bookstore was opened up. The location of Silas Engles' press in the same building (along with Engles' printing operations for the Patterson brothers) gave rise to the notion that Robert Patterson, Sr. operated a "printing office" or a "newspaper." In fact, Robert was neither a printer nor a press owner; he was bookseller and an occasional publisher who had his printing done by S. Engles & Co., as well as by other local press operators.


Vol. II                                  Pittsburgh, Wednesday, March 16, 1814.                                  No. 90.

Scraps, Pelts, and Rags!

R. & J. PATTERSON give from three to five cents per pound, according to the quality, for SCRAPS or LIME PIECES; and three cents per pound for hatters' PELTS, well preserved; one dollar and an half per 100 pounds for scutching TOW; and for clean linen and cotton RAGS, four cents per pound in cash, or five cents in books and paper.

To merchants, for large quantities of RAGS, they give the usual established price, either in cash or paper, school books and blank stationery, of which they always keep on hand an extensive assortment, suited to the western country.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. II                                  Pittsburgh, Wednesday, May 25, 1814.                                  No. 99.

Just Published, by R. & J. Patterson,

SOLITUDE SWEETENED, an excellect work of religious essays, by doctor J. Meikle.

In boards, with leather backs,     75 cents.
In giid binding,               87 1/2.

Subscribers are requested to call for their copies.

Note: This reprint of a Scotish divine's devotional book is typical of the Patterson brothers' publishing efforts in 1813 and 1814. Has Solomon Spalding been able to furnish the publishers with a similar work of his own, accompanied by a lengthy subscription list, it is entirely possible that the Pattersons would have ventured to publish the writings of a "local talent." As it turned out, they stuck to their policy of primarily reprinting known good sellers written by Calvinist ministers. Robert Patterson would later reprint other books by Meikle. One locally written volume, Robert Patterson's own book of poetry, The Art of Domestick Happiness, was published by himself at Pittsburgh in 1817, a year after Solomon Spalding died.


Vol. II                                  Pittsburgh, Wednesday, June 1, 1814.                                  No. 100.


[A] few copies common and hot-pressed of this valuable selection.

HAVE just been received from New York, by R. & J. PATTERSON. The editors have [hand on] both kinds, allowing the subscribers to [avail] themselves, by selecting the quality (plain and hot-pressed) which they may like best.

But few entire sets, as far as published, have been received, viz. from vol. 1 to vol. 58, and those will be delivered to the first applicants; the remainder shall be ordered as soon as the subscribers to the work determine which sort they will prefer.

It is sincerely wished that they would soon make their choice, and enable the agents in Pittsburgh, to order the balance needed for the western country.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. II                             Pittsburgh, Wednesday, June 22, 1814.                             No. 103.


S. ENGLES, Wood street, Pittsburgh, proposes publishing by subscription, an essay towards an easy, plain, practical and extensive explication of the Assembly's Shorter Catechism, By John Brown, minister of the Gpspel at Haddington.

This work has been so long known and approved, that any commendation of it at this time, would be unnecessary. It will contain about 350 pages, duodecimo, on a good type and paper, and will be delivered to subscribers at One Dollar, neatly bound and lettered. Gentlemen desirous of promoting the circulation of this valuable work, may either be supplied with subscription papers at the printing office of the publisher, or receive subscriptions on this notice. A liberal allowance will be made to those who exert themselves in aid of the publication.


Persons holding subscription papers for the "HIVE," a monthly magazine, will please return the to the publisher, in order that he may ascertain whether the encouragement offered will justify proceeding with the publication.

Note: Silas Engles was operating as a job printer at this time. His Pioneer magazine had failed in the fall of 1812 and he was never able to get its successor, The Hive, into publication. Engles' limited financial situation in 1814 is demonstrated by the fact that he was unable to publish on his own even such a potentially lucrative book as "Brown's Catachism." His advertisement in The Mercury does not mention his close association with the firm of R. & J. Patterson. He was apparently not an employee of the Pattersons in the usual sense of the term, but he and his press were employed by them for their occasional publication projects.


Vol. III                               Pittsburgh, Wednesday, August 10, 1814.                                No. 110.

To Journeymen Book Binders.

WE will give constant employment to five or six JOURNEYMEN BOOK BINDERS, and nine dollars per week wages, with boarding and washing.
                                       WM. ESSEX & SON.

Apply to R. & J. PATTERSON, Pittsburgh.
Lexington, Ky. Aug. 3, 1814.

Note 1: This advertisement indicates the close relationship the Patterson brothers maintained with book binders and other tradesmen whose work was related to the book production and sales business. The Pattersons evidently operated their own book-bindary in Pittsburgh. Robert P. Du Bois, a former employee of Robert and Joseph Patterson, recalled in 1882 that the Pattersons had under their "control" a "book-store on Fourth Street," as well as "a book-bindery," a "job-office" printing establishment "under the name of Butler & Lambdin" and "a steam paper-mill on the Allegheny (under the name of R. & J. Patterson)."

Note 2: Some researchers have speculated that Sidney Rigdon, who later became a journeyman tanner, also had some personal acquaintance with the leather book-binding industry in Pittsburgh. See, for example, the letter published in 1879 in which old Pittsburgh resident recalled, "So far back as 1822 the firm of Patterson & Lambdin... did business as Publishers... [in Pittsburgh] At the same time Sidney Rigdon, tanner and currier, had his tan-yard... it is likely that, in the business transactions between book-binder and tanner, Sidney Rigdon took the Spaulding manuscript." This information agrees with the findings of Isaac Craig, who researched Sidney Rigdon's early years and reported that Rigdon once "had a small tannery... [in Pittsburgh] for the manufacture of book-binders sheep-skins." Later in life, Sidney Rigdon worked for a while as a cloth dresser, yet another occupation which contributes directly to the manufacture of certain kinds of book bindings.


Vol. 29.                            Pittsburgh, Friday, August 19, 1814.                            No. 1.


THE subscriber offers FOR SALE, on reasonable terms, all that valuable property at the corner of Wood & Fourth streets, in the borough of Pittsburgh, now occupied by R. & J. Patterson, booksellers. The buildings are commodious for a private family, and the situation for business, excelled by few in the place.

For terms, apply to the subscriber, at Wm. M'Cullough's tavern, or to DAVID EVANS, Liberty street.
                  M. EVANS.

Note: Mr. Evans (Mathias Evans?) was apparently the landlord of the property located on the southwest corner of Wood and Fourth Streets in Pittsburgh. Robert Patterson's business occupied this location at least as early as 1811. The Patterson brothers did not vacate these premises until after the destruction of the buildings there by fire on Oct. 27, 1815. Following that fire, the Pattersons took up a brief residence in the home of Thomas Baird on Third street; early in 1816 they moved into their long-term occupation of a store on Fourth street near Market street. The book and stationery store remained at this address throughout the subsequent partnership of Patterson & Lambdin. Just prior to the bankruptcy of that partnership, it appears that the store was moved once again, to the northwest corner of Wood and Third streets.


Vol. III.                             Pittsburgh, Wednesday, August 31, 1814.                              No. 113.

ALMANACKS for 1815.


The Town and Country


For 1815,

CONTAINING the usual matter of the callender pages, list of roads, sundry tables, receipts, &c. and a description, by the pair, of honest men and rogues, viz. the Two Fathers, Two Husbands, Two Masters, Two Western Families, and Two Yankies. -- Sold at the corner of Wood and Fourth streets, Pittsburgh, by
                                              R. & J. PATTERSON.

Note: This must have been one of the last newspaper advertisements subscribed "R. &. J. Patterson." Throughout the following year the name given for the business was "R. Patterson." The name "R. & J. Patterson" continued to appear on books published by the firm -- and the same name is found in some notices published through the end of 1814. Other than a passing mention of his name in the Nov. 15, 1814 Gazette, Joseph Patterson appears to have largely disappeared from the Pittsburgh scene, for several months. Joseph's association with the Pittsburgh Steam Paper Mill appears to have continued, however, for there is mention of the "Messrs. Pattersons' Paper Mill," to be found in the Gazette of June 1, 1816. His name again appears in the Gazette of Jan. 1, 1819, as President of the Pittsburgh Sabbath School Association, and his wedding notice was printed in its columns of May 4, 1819.


Vol. X. No. 36.                         Pittsburg, Pa., September 7, 1814.                         Whole No. 495.


Remaining in the post office, at Pittsburgh, Penn. September 4, 1814,
not advertised before.

Andrew Sloan
Clark W. Springer
Danl. F. Steinbeck
Frances Scott
Jacob Sours
James Stevenson
Jas. Shepherd
Jeptha Sweet
John Sanders
John Sinclear
John P. Storm
John Sloan
John Straus
Robert Strain
Saml. B. Smith
Solomon Spalding
Saml. Smith
Seth Shepardson
Eliza Scott
Jane Steward
Susana Shupe
Sarah South
Margaret Steuart

Note: By September of 1814 Solomon Spalding had no doubt moved his family out to Pittsburgh and resettled them at Amity in the adjoining county of Washington. Considering his generally poor health during that period, it is not likely that he traveled to Pittsburgh very often. Most likely he depended upon friends and neighbors to pick up his mail for him.

Solomon's name also appears on the letter lists published in The Commonwealth between Feb. 4 and Feb. 25, 1815, along with that of "John Spalding." It is possible that this John was Solomon's younger brother and that he was visiting Allegheny and Washington counties at the time.


"Tis pleasure, through the loop-holes of retreat, to peep at such a world"

Vol. VII. No. 11.                 Washington, Pa., Monday, October 24, 1814.                 Whole No. 323.


By virtue of sundry writs of venditioni exponas, issued out of the court of common pleas of Washington county, and to me directed, there will be exposed to public sale, at the court house in the borough of Washington, on Monday the 31st inst. the following described parcels pf property, viz: --

... all the right, title, claim and interest of Leslie Carrons, to a lot of ground situate in the town of Amity adjoining the lot of the Presbyterian meeting house on the south, containing one fourth of an acre, more or less; on which are erected a two story dwelling house and kitchen. Also, a lot of ground adjoining the town of Amity, and lands of John Carmichael and Ziba Cook, esq. containing thirty acres, more or less; about fifteen acres of which are cleared, and on which is erected a still house.   Taken in execution as the property of the said L. Carrons, at the suit of H. Wick....
GEORGE BAIRD, Sh'ff.           
October 10, 1814.


John Sample, respectfully informs the public, that he has commenced the TANNING business in the borough of Canonsburgh, in the tan-yard lately occupied by Mr. Benjamin Fulton. He has for sale Leather, sorted, of the best quality, of every description, for which he will take Hides or Cash. Tanner's bark will now be received, and paid for, in leather or cash. He solicits the neighbors to call and examine for themselves...

Note 1: Henry Wick built the old Amity tavern in 1796 and apparently sold it to Leslie Carrons in about 1803. At the end of October, 1814, ownership of the property seems to have passed into the hands of the Seaman family, who had been managing the public house for Carrons during that year. See notes appended to the Reporter of Apr. 1, 1955, as well as those for Feb. 21, 1825.

Note 2: See also notes appended to the Reporter of June 24, 1811, May 31, 1813 and the Examiner of March 2, 1818.

Note 3: John Sample's 1814 advertisement for a tanning business in Washington County should be compared to Thomas M. Henry's ad, published in the Pittsburgh Mercury of Nov. 20, 1822. Although Henry's tan-yard was located very close to Sidney Rigdon's boyhood home at Library, the Sample tannery was situated within walking distance of the Rigdon farm, and was operated during a period in which the young Sidney Rigdon was probably serving his tanner's apprenticeship.


Vol. III.                        Pittsburgh, Pa., Wednesday, November 2, 1814.                        No. 122.

The Town of Harmony,

AND lands adjacent, not having been sold entire, the subscriber has laid it out in town lots, and small farms, of a size to suit farmers, mechanics, and manufacturers, which will be sold separate, or in such parcels and quantities, as will accommodate all persons who may make application before the first day of December next, when, if not previously sold or applied for, the subscriber will proceed to a public sale in the town of Harmony, of the premises, in lots and small farms.

A plan for the whole property, and a particular description of the buildings and establishments, may be seen at the store of ISAAC BEAN, in Pittsburgh, at any time after the first day of November next.

The terms of payment will be one fourth in hand, the remainder in three equal annual payments.   FREDK. RAPP,

Attorney in fact for Geo. Rapp, &c.,
Harmony, October 26 --

Note 1: George Rapp's Harmony Society members built their first communal town on Conoquenessing Creek, Butler County, Pennsylvania (20 miles north of Pittsburgh), between 1804 and 1815. In the latter year the community there was disestablished and the property offered for sale to local buyers in mid-June, 1814 (see sales ads placed by George Rapp in the Pittsburgh Mercury between June 15 and Aug. 10).

Note 2: Sidney Rigdon was 22 years of age and living 30 miles south of Harmony when Rapp's followers abandoned the community. Two years later, while studying for the Baptist ministry, Rigdon temporarily resided in North Sewickley, just 5 miles west of the old Harmony townsite. Rigdon almost certainly heard many stories about Rapp's Harmonists and he probably encountered a few former members of the society in person. In 1824, before Rigdon left the Pittsburgh area for good, some members of Rapp's communal group began moving back to the Harmony area, and in the following months established a second Pennsylvania colony (called Economy) near the abandoned site of Harmony. The Rev. Sidney Rigdon was almost certainly fascinated with Rapp's communal group (as he was with the communal Shakers, whom he visited with in Ohio) and he probably developed communal religious ideas of his own from what he learned of the "Harmonists" and "Economists."

Note 3: For more information on the probable effect of George Rapp's ideas upon Sidney Rigdon and the early latter Day Saints, see Karl J. Arndt, "The Harmonists and the Mormons," in The American-German Review, X:5 (June 1944) pp. 6-9 and James H. Kennedy's Early Days of Mormonism, (NYC: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1888) p. 68, n. 1. See also various accounts of use of the divining rod, or "mineral rod," among both the Harmonists and the early Mormons (as well as the articles "The Divining Rod" in the Pittsburgh Mercury of Feb. 1, 1815 and in the Woodstock Observer of Apr. 16, 1822). On pages 110-113, in Dolores Hayden's 1976 book, Seven American Utopias, the author compares Rapp's 1805 city plat for Harmony and the Mormon's 1833 plat for their "City of Zion." Among other things, she says: "Rigdon's knowledge of town building undertaken by the members of the Harmony Society can only be surmised from circumstantial evidence..." She might have also added a similar line regarding Rigdon's knowledge of seers, seer stones, mineral rods, etc., all of which were current among the Pennsylvania Rappites. Finally, James McFarland, a local historian from the Pittsburgh area, stated a presumed association between Rapp's Harmonist ideas, Sidney Rigdon, and the early Mormons in a lecture delivered in 1922. See the notes attached to that article for speculation regarding the Harmonists' possible influence upon both Solomon Spalding and Sidney Rigdon.


Vol. III.                          Pittsburgh, (Penn.) Wednesday, November 16, 1814.                          No. 124.


And for sale at ROBERT PATTERSON'S
BOOKSTORE, Wood street, Pittsburgh,

A NEW Juvenile Atlas -- by John Mellish   Price $5.00

A military and Topographical Atlas of the United States --
By the same   5.00

A new map and statistical account of the United States,
in pocket form, neatly bound -- By the same.   2.00

A new map of the state of Ohio -- By the same   .50

A new description of the seat of war -- By the same   .50

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. III.                        Pittsburgh, (Penn.) Wednesday, January 18, 1815.                         No. 133.




HAS now on hand, a quantity of FULLERS BOARDS, of the best quality.


WAS found, a small bundle of NOTES. The owner may have them by proving property and paying for this advertising, Enquire at.

R.  PATTERSON's  Book-store,

Note 1: During the early winter of 1814-15, Joseph Patterson, Jr.'s name disappears from the from the advertising of R. and J. Patterson. After January, 1815, the business is designated simply as "R. Patterson's, Book-store." The last known book published by "R. and J. Patterson" was the New Testament volume of Thomas Scott's Bible, and edition of which was printed by the brothers late in 1815. However, prior to that publication, other books were printed in 1815, by Robert, without the inclusion of his brother's initial on the title-page.

Note 2: The War of 1812 was ended by the signing of a peace treaty at Ghent, Belgium on Dec. 24, 1814. News of the treaty signing did not reach Pittsburgh until February of 1815. Then, according to an entry in James Reid Lambdin's Journal: "At the news of peace there was a grand illumination of the houses in Pittsburg and many transparencies with emblematic devices were exhibited. At the book-store of the Messrs. Patterson, where my brother Harrison was employed, they had one respresenting the figures of the two nations, with the motto 'Enemies in war, in peace friends.'"


Vol. IV.                          Pittsburgh, (Penn.) Saturday, February 1, 1815.                          No. 135.

From the Petersburg Courier.

The Divining Rod.

The art of the divining rod or magic wand, has been in practice for several centuries. It had its origin in Germany, but by whom is uncertain. It was used at first in Europe for the purpose of finding metals and minerals, and afterwards inFrance was even employed by impostors for the discovery of stolen property, and to identify characters guilty of crimes. Until within these few years it was always considered as an art similar to that of animal magnetism, founded on error and deception -- but from a series of experiments which have been made and reported by some of the first experimental philosophers in Europe, the art of the divining rod now begins to assume a scientific form, and the laws by which it is directed are ascertained with nearly the same accuracy as those of electricity and galvanism. The uses to which it may be applyed are perhaps even more extensive than those of t[wo] other sciences, and in this country particularly, it is capable of being rendered extremely advantageous.

The following are the results of experiments which have been made:

1st. A single twig of any tree, whatever, when newly cut will diverge a certain number of minutes or degrees from its proper position when brought directly over or in the immediate vicinity of any conducting substance, such as metals or water. But the best conductors for electricity and galvanism are not the best for the divining rod. Water is found to be more powerful than any of the metals, and salt water still more powerful than fresh. The degree of attraction also depends considerably upon the substance interposed between the conductor and the divining rod.

2d. Although a twig from any tree will prove the experiment -- yet some trees are found to answer much better than others -- the branch of the peach and the cherry tree are said to be superior in this respect. A forked twig will also diverge more powerfully than a single twig.

3dly. If the twig be suspended by an electric, or in immediate contact with an electric, no divergence will take place.

4thly. The angle of divergency depends in a great measure upon the nature of the conductor which is used. -- The human body is found to produce a greater degree of divergency than any other substance -- and the bodies of some individuals produce the effect in a most surprising degree, while in other individuals the action is scarcely perceptible. The effect is also found to vary with the state of the system. What appears most surprising is, that in the same individual the greater the state of debility, the greater the effect produced. If the skin of the human body be moistened, particularly those parts in immediate contact with the divining rod, the effect is much increased. Salt water or a weak solution of muriatic acid, has been found to be the best fluid for this purpose.

5thly. The most effectual mode of using the divining rod, is as follows:

The operator to be bare footed in making the experiment -- and to have the soles of his feet and his hands well moistened with salt water, or such a solution of the muriatic acid, as will not prove disagreeable. The divining rod to be a forked twig of peach, cherry or hazel tree. He holds the extremity of each fork by one hand, in such a manner that the twig may rest in a direction nearly perpendicular to the horizon, having the cut extremity upwards. The operator holding the twig carefully in this position, walks slowly forwards, and so soon as he approaches any subterraneous water or metal, not more than twenty feet below the surface of the earth, the twig begins to turn or bend forwards. If the metal or water be but a few feet below the surface of the earth, the twig turns entirely over with the extremity pointing towards the earth.

The same effect will take place with many individuals without being barefotted -- but if the above precautions be taken, the experiment will succeed with every person.

6thly. If the operator in making the experiment, has silk stockings, or uses silk gloves, no effect will be procured.

The divining rod has been practised in the western country for many years with the greatest success in the finding of water; and there are several gentlemen of the first respect in Kentucky, and whose veracity is unquestionable, with whom the experiment invariably succeeds. There are also two gentlemen in Richmond, who are well known, would never attempt to impose upon the public, equally dexterious in the use of it. Those are the Reverend John D. Blair, and Mr. John Foster. The latter I have seen myself make the experiment.

The European theory to explain the phenomena of the divining rod, is chiefly this. The conductor, whether water or metal, is supposed to form with the superincumbent earth and the fluids of the human body, a galvanic circle, and the more perfect this circle is, so much the more powerful will be the action of the divining rod.

Thus what was regarded only a few years ago as a deception practised by impostors and the credulous, is now cultivated, improved, and made the study of men of science.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                                  Pittsburgh, Saturday, February 4, 1815.                                  No. 19.


Remaining in the Post Office at Pittsburg,
(PA.) Feb 1, 1815, not advertised before.

Chls. Simpson
Daniel Stotler
Henry Steward
Isaac Sheldon
James Sharp
James Stanley
James Stevenson
James Smith
Joseph Sweney
John Spalding
John Smith
John P. Storm
John Scanlin
Martin Simpson
Michael Simmonds
Solm. Spalding
Samuel Spencer
White M. Snyder
Wm. Shannon
Jane Steward
Susannah Swartz
Sarah South

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                                  Pittsburgh, Saturday, February 11, 1815.                                  No. 20.


Remaining in the Post Office at Pittsburg,
(PA.) Feb 1, 1815, not advertised before.

Chls. Simpson
Daniel Stotler
Henry Steward
Isaac Sheldon
James Sharp
James Stanley
James Stevenson
James Smith
Joseph Sweney
John Spalding
John Smith
John P. Storm
John Scanlin
Martin Simpson
Michael Simmonds
Solm. Spalding
Samuel Spencer
White M. Snyder
Wm. Shannon
Jane Steward
Susannah Swartz
Sarah South

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                                Pittsburgh, Saturday, February 25, 1815.                                No. 22.


Remaining in the Post Office at Pittsburg,
(PA.) Feb 1, 1815, not advertised before.

Chls. Simpson
Daniel Stotler
Henry Steward
Isaac Sheldon
James Sharp
James Stanley
James Stevenson
James Smith
Joseph Sweney
John Spalding
John Smith
John P. Storm
John Scanlin
Martin Simpson
Michael Simmonds
Solm. Spalding
Samuel Spencer
White M. Snyder
Wm. Shannon
Jane Steward
Susannah Swartz
Sarah South

Note: It is possible that the "John Spalding" whose name appears in the list above was Solomon's brother, John, who lived three counties north of Pittsburgh, near Lake Conneaut. Taking that speculation one step further, it is also possible that John came to visit Solomon, (or even came to help him relocate from Pittsburgh to Amity) and that both brothers were no longer in Pittsburgh when this letter list was published.


Vol. III.                          Pittsburgh, (Penn.) Wednesday, March 1, 1815.                          No. 139.

A  Sermon.

JUST published, and for sale by S. Engles, printer, Wood street, Pittsburgh, and at the Bookstores, price 18 3/4 cents.


delivered at a meeting of the Ohio Presbytery, at the Forks of Wheeling, April 20th, 1814, by a member of said Presbytery.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. III.                              Pittsburgh, (Penn.) Tuesday, March 28, 1815.                              No. 143.

Military Atlas -- By John Melish,

JUST received, and for sale by the subscriber, price $5.00, and with [nice] extra maps $7.00.

                              ROBERT PATTERSON.
Pittsburgh, March 14

N. B. Lost, lent, taken, or delivered in mistake, the sixth half volume of the American edition of the Edinburgh Encyclopedia, published by Edwards Parker, Philadelphia.

There are twenty two subscribers to this work, in Pittsburgh and its distant vicinity, and a duplicate copy may by mistake have been delivered to a subscriber; it may have been lent, and the name of the person, to whom lent, forgotten; or it may have been otherwise taken. Any person giving satisfactory intelligence, respecting this literary stray, will confer a particular favor.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. III.                          Pittsburgh, (Penn.) Tuesday, May 13, 1815.                          No. 150.


(Price One Dollar)


(by Meikle, Author of Solitude Sweetened)

ANY person who has a relish for reading religious books, and who has read any one of those written by James Meikle, of Cornwath, will not need a recommendation to purchase any of the rest of his works. It may safely be said that the volume now offered to the public is equally as valuable as Solicitude Sweetened; and will probably be more gratifying to pious readers, as it contains the Life of the author. As the first Pittsburgh edition of Solicitude Sweetened has been sold off in less than a year, it is probable that a second edition will shortly go to press.

Conditions on which books published by the subscriber are sold, viz. one copy gratis out of ten -- three out of twenty -- seven out of forty -- twelve out of sixty.

The subscriber will shortly put to press a volume of Ralph Erskine's Sermons, to contain 300 pages, at one dollar.
                RT. PATTERSON.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. III.                          Pittsburgh, (Penn.) Tuesday, May 20, 1815.                          No. 151.

One Dollar Reward.

STRAYED away from the subscriber, a large BLACK COW. Having the tops of her horns cut off, and a five cut out of her left ear; has two white spots on her left shoulder, and some white on her belly -- The above reward and reasonable charges, will be paid on delivery of said cow to the subscriber, in Diamond Alley, between Market and Wood streets.   PRUDENCE  LAMBDIN.

Note 1: Prudence Harrison Lambdin (1772-1846) was the mother of Jonathan H. Lambdin. Jonathan (usually called "Harrison") was the purported Pittsburgh friend of Sidney Rigdon. Prudence was married to James Lambdin, in Talbot Co., Maryland, on Sept. 1, 1795. According to the "Journal" of their son, J. R. Lambdin, the couple decided to move from Baltimore to "the great west" in 1805. They ended up at Pittsburgh, that winter, having traveled there with James' cousins, William and John Lambdin.

Note 2: The couple's children were J. Harrison Lambdin (Sept. 1, 1798- Aug. 25, 1825), James Reid Lambdin (1807-1889), and Samuel Hopkins Lambdin (1812-1902). Some genealogical records also attach the following siblings to this list: Margaret, Prudence, and Elizabeth (all born in Maryland before 1806) as well as Charles Spencer, Sylvanus James, and Marie (all born at Pittsburgh after 1806). Prudence's husband, James Lambdin, (b. Apr. 7, 1773) died at Pittsburgh in 1812. His son's "Journal" says James died of "pleurisy" on Sept. 12, 1812, but other records say he died on Nov. 12th See the Pittsburgh Gazette of Mar. 9, 1816 for a mention of Prudence then being the "administratrix of James Lambdin, deceased."


Vol. III.                          Pittsburgh, (Penn.) Saturday, June 3, 1815.                          No. 153.


The Following  New  Works:

PORTER's JOURNAL, of a cruise to the Pacific ocean, in the years 1812--13 & 14,
Life of Wellington,
Life of General Lee,
Life of General Eaton,
Recuse of Norway, 2 vols
Waverly, or "Tis sixty years since," 2 vols.
Olive Branch, furth edition, improved and enlarged.
Porter's narrative of the campaign in Russia.
            -- Also --
A supply of Carey's elegant Bibles, with seventy engravings. Price -- in sheep, $12.25 -- morocco, $16.00 -- calf extra, $16.00
                          R. PATTERSON.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. III.                          Pittsburgh, (Penn.) Saturday, June 10, 1815.                          No. 154.


JUST received from Boston, a large supply of Benjamin's Architecture, price $7.00.
            -- Also --
The Rudiments of Architecture, an abridgement of the above, by the same,   3.00
And for sale, by
                          R. PATTERSON.

==> DR.  HORWITZ will deliver his introductory lecture on the HEBREW LANGUAGE, on Monday the 12th inst. in the Academy, at 7 o'clock, P. M. For further information, [apply] at the bookstore of the rev. R. PATTERSON.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. III.                          Pittsburgh, (Penn.) Saturday, June 17, 1815.                          No. 155.


Third edition of the Rev. Dr. Thos Scott's


... R. PATTERSON, bookseller, Pittsburgh, will receive supscriptions to this edition of Scott, until the first day of January, 1815 and will deliver the work in Pittsburgh, without charge for carriage from Philadelphia, to those subscribers who return their names to him.

It is yet uncertain when the first volume will be published, probably in the winter of 1815-16....

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. IV.                         Pittsburgh, (Penn.) Saturday, September 23, 1815.                         No. 169.

ONONDAGA, Aug. 23.

Death of the Indian Prophet.

DIED at the Onondaga Castle, on Sunday last, one of the chiefs of the Alleganies, well known through this country as the Indian Prophet.

Those who have been acquainted with the influence which this man's preaching has had upon the conduct of the Six Nations, (the Oneidas excepted,) cannot but look upon his death as a severe dispensation of Divine Providence. We think that a short biographical sketch of this extraordinary man cannot be unacceptable to the public.

During the first fifty years of his life, he was remarkable only for his stupidity and beastly drunkenness. About 13 years ago, while lighting his pipe, he suddenly fell back upon his bunk, upon which he was then sitting, and continued in a state of insensibility for six or eight hours; his family supposing him dead, had made preparations for laying him out, and while in the act of removing him from his bunk, he revived. His first words were "don't be alarmed, I have seen Heaven; call the nation together that I may tell them what I have seen and heard." The nation having assembled, he informed them he had seen four beautiful young men who had been sent from Heaven by the Great Spirit, and who thus addressed him -- "The Great Spirit is angry with you and all the red men and unless you immediately refrain from drunkenness, lying, stealing, &c. you shall never enter that beautiful place which we will now shew you." He stated that he was then conducted by these young men to the gate of Heaven, which was opened, but he was not allowed to enter; that it was more beautiful than any thing they could conceive of, or he describe; and that the inhabitants appeared to be prefectly happy; that he was suffered to remain there three or four hours and was then conducted by the same young men, who on taking their leave, said they would visit him yearly, and commanded him to inform all other Indians what he had seen and heard. He immediately visited the different tribes of Indians in the west part of the states, Oneidas excepted. They all put the most implicit faith in what he told them, and revered him as a Prophet. The consequence has been that from a filthy, lazy, drunken, wretched set of beings, they have become a cleanly, industrious, sober and happy people. The Prophet has continued, as he says, to receive regular annual visits, from these heavenly messengers, immediately after which, he, in his turn, visited the different tribes. He was on one of his annual visits at the time of his decease.

It will be proper to observe, that he was called the peace prophet, in contradistinction to their brother Tecumseh, who was called the war prophet.

Note: Joseph Smith, Jr., in 1834, claimed to have viewed the remains of a White Lamanite, named Zelph, who was a warrior under the ancient rule of the Prophet Onondagus in North America.


Vol. IV.                          Pittsburgh, (Penn.) Saturday, October 7, 1815.                          No. 171.



THE subscribers, having laid out the town of GRANGER, will offer the lots for sale on the premises, at public vendue, on Thursday, the second day of November next

The town of Granger is delightfully situated upon an elevated tract of land, on the shore of Lake Erie, and west bank of Rocky river, in the county of Cuyahoga, and state of Ohio, surrounded by a rich and fertile country which is rapidly settling. Its situation for healthiness, salubrity of air, purity and conveniency of water and fertility of soil, is not surpassed, if qgualled, by any situation upon lake Erie.

Rocky river is a stream of pure water, affording excellent mill seats, a fine fishery, an inexhaustible quantity of building stone. Stone coal has been discovered in its banks. The bay is one of the safest and most commodious harbors on the lake; the course and depth of the channel being never affected by the drifting of sand, a circumstance very uncommon with the mouths of the lake rivers. An island in the river near the mouth, around which the ice and drift wood are forced by a bend in the river, forms an excellent harbor for shipping secure from storm and floods. The facility of erecting warfs at trifling expense, will considerably add to the many advantages Granger possesses.

The prospect of opening a communication to the navigable waters of the Muskingum and Sciota, being 45 miles north of Wooster, 55 miles northwesterly of Canton, 65 miles northeasterly of Mansfield, and 35 miles from the navigable waters of the Ohio; the immediate prospect of good roads in those directions, must within a few years, bring the commerce of the southern parts of Ohio and the adjacent states, to lake Erie.

The situation of the town of Granger, in point of commercial advantages, will give it a decided preference, and bids fair to be a place of considerable importance, worth the attention of the enterprising merchant, manufacturer and mechanic.

Liberal encouragement will be given to those who make early improvements in the town.

Terms of sale, a small portion in hand, and a liberal credit on the residue.

Note: The still undeveloped township of Granger lies about midway between Akron and Cleveland in modern Medina County, Ohio. If Solomon Spalding read this notice in the newspaper, he must have felt some pangs of regret over his own failed land sales efforts along the Erie shore, only a few short years before. The advent of the War of 1812 ended his hopes of making a fortune in land speculation in Ohio. The financial investments of his former associates (Gideon Granger, Calvin Pease, etc.) appear to have weathered the martial storm far better than did Spalding's own star-crossed schemes.


"Tis pleasure, through the loop-holes of retreat, to peep at such a world"

Vol. VIII. No. 10.                 Washington, Pa., Monday, October 9, 1815.                 Whole No. 374.

From the Niagara Journal of Sept. 12.

A Council was held in this village last week, with the Indians, by Messrs. Parish and Granger, for the purpose of purchasing for the state, their title to the islands in the Niagara. The Indians we understand, consented to the sale, and the bargain requires only the ratification of the governor to be completed.

His Excellency Gov. Tompkins has arrived in this village yesterday evening, on his route to visit the Falls.

Note: The relationship of the Mr. "Granger" mentioned in this news report, to Gideon Granger, a one-time partner of Solomon Spalding in land speculation, remains undetermined. The islands of the Niagara River included Grand Island, where, in 1825, Mordecai M. Noah planned a city of refuge for the gathering of scattered Israel (including the Indians, whom he felt were descended from Israelites). Some students of Book of Mormon geography identify the Niagara River with the "River Sidon" of that book. See also the Oct. 30 issue of The Reporter.


Vol. IV.                          Pittsburgh, Pa., Saturday, October 28, 1815.                          No. 174.

Destructive  Fire!

About two o'clock on Friday morning, the citizens of this borough were alarmed with the cry of FIRE. It proved to be in Mr. Church's hatter's shop, in Wood street, about the centre between Third and Fourth streets. The wind was unusually high and stormy; and at one time it seemed almost impossible to stop the ravages of the flames. After raging with great violence for better than two hours, the citizens happily succeeded in stopping their further progress. The whole front of the aquare from Mr. Patterson's book store, on the corner of Fourth, and along Wood street, to John M.Donnell, esq,'s at the corner of Third, including both corners, is entirely consumed, together with a number of back buildings. The loss of property cannot be estimated at less than from 40 to 50,000 dollars. -- We sincerely sympathise with the suffers.
Note 1: The Pittsburgh Gazette for Oct. 28th also carried this news story: "Yesterday morning, about half past one o'clock, a most alarming fire broke out in the hatter's shop of Mr. Church, on the East side of Wood, between Third and Fourth Streets, which before it was extinguished destroyed the whole range of fine brick houses between the two Streets, besides a number of frame and [back] buildings. The fire had made great progress before a sufficient number of citizens were collected to arrest its course. Fortunately a rain had fallen a few hours before, or otherwise, the wind being high, its ravages might have spread destruction to a much greater extent. The principle sufferers are the Rev. Mr. Patterson, Mr. M'Kown, Mr. Thaw, Doctor Dawson, and John M'Donald, Esq. The damage sustained, may perhaps be estimated at $35,000."

Note 2: The Raleigh Register of Nov. 17, 1815 reprinted a similar report from Pittsburgh: "About 2 o'clock on Friday morning, the citizens of this borough were alarmed by the dreadful cry of Fire! It was found to proceed from a hatchet [sic hatter's] shop, occupied by a Mr. Church, on Wood str. near the centre, between Third and Fourth streets. The whole front of the square, from Mr. Patterson's book store, on the corner of Fourth, and along Wood street to John M'Donald, esquire's, at the corner of Third, including both corners, is entirely consumed; together with a number of back buildings. -- The principal sufferers are S. M'Donald, esq., John Thaw, G. M'Kown, Mr. Church, Wiley, Virtin, Spear, Dr. Dawson, Edgar, Engles printer, Patterson bookseller, M'Elhenny, and Alexander and Hyslop. The property destroyed will amount, most probably, to 50 or $60,000." See also the post-fire advertisement of Silas Engles, published in the Mercury of Nov. 4th and the Patterson's "Subscriber" in the issue for Nov. 25th.


Vol. ?                                  Pittsburgh, Saturday, October 28, 1815.                                    No. ?


MARRIED. -- On the 12th Inst. by the Rev. Joseph Stockton, Mr. William Eichbaum to the amiable Miss Rebecca Johnston, daughter of John Johnston, P. M., in this place.

Note 1: Practically the same notice appeared in the Gazette on Oct. 14th. According to his daughter Rebecca, John Johnston remained in the position of Postmaster in Pittsburgh until 1822. In that year the U. S. Postmaster General officially transferred the position to Johnston's son-in-law, William Eichbaum, Jr. The scanty post office furniture and equipment apparently remained in Johnston's home until Jan. 1824, when Eichbaum moved the post office to his own house on Second street.

Note 2: Rebecca Johnston Eichbaum was the clerk of the Pittsburgh Post Office from 1811 to 1816. Between 1822 and 1833 she occasionally filled in for her husband in his duties when he was away from the office. In her work at the office she recalled both Solomon Spalding and Sidney Rigdon calling for their letters at her father's house (see note for advertisement of July 1816). See also her death notice in the Gazette of May 6, 1882.


"Tis pleasure, through the loop-holes of retreat, to peep at such a world"

Vol. VIII No. 12]                     Washington, (Pa.) Monday, Oct. 30, 1815.                     [Whole No. 376.


A treaty entered into this 12th day of September, 1815, at Buffalo in the county of Niagara and state of New York, between the chiefs, sachems, and warriors of the Seneca nation of Indians, of the first part and the people of the state of NewYork, on the second part, witnessed as follows:

First. The said chiefs, sachems and warriors of the Seneca nation, in consideration of the sum of one thousand dollars in hand paid by Daniel D. Tompkins, governor of the state of New York, and the covenants and agreements hereinafter contained, do hereby sell grant, convey and confirm, to the people of the state of New York, all the islands in the Niagara river, between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, and within the jurisdiction of the United States; to have and to hold the same, with the appurtenances unto the said people of the state of New York in free and pure allodium forever -- reserving, however to the said chiefs, sachems and warriors of the Seneca nation of Indians, equal rights and privileges with the citizens of the U. States, in hunting fishing and fowling, in and upon the waters of the Niagara river, and of encamping on any of the said islands for that purpose, whilst the same shall continue to belong to the people of the state of New York.

Secondly. The people of the state of New York, in addition to the sum of one thousand dollars already paid to the said chiefs, sachems and warriors of the Seneca nation, covenant to pay them annually forever, an annuity of five hundred dollars to be paid on or before the first day of June in each year forever hereafter, at Canandaigua, in the county of Ontario, the first payment to be made on the first day of June 1816. In testimony whereof, the aforesaid chiefs, sachems and warriors of the one part, and Daniel D. Tompkins, governor of te state of New York, Peter B. Porter, Henry Crocheron, Samuel Young, Roger Skinner, Esex Cowan, Robert Tillotson, and Lewis Livingston, commisioners in behalf of said state, have hereunto set their hands and seals, at Buffalo in the county of Niagara, the day & year first above written.

(Here follows the signatures of both parties.)

The islands ceded, are Squaw island, opposite the mouth of Conjickety Creek. 3/4ths of a mile in breadth, containing some excellent meadow & but few trees: Strawberry Island, about a mile below. containing wild meadow, and about the size of Squaw Island: -- Grand Island, commences three miles below Black Rock and extends to within a mile of Schlosser 12 miles long and from 2 to 7 broad, well timbered level and said to contain an excellent soil; there is, however, on thr Island a large cranberry marsh, no improvements of any consequence: Navy Island lies partly between the lower wnd of Grand Island and the British shore, is supposed to be within the boundary of Upper Canada, because the branch which passes between Grand island and our shores, united to that which passes between Grand and Navy Islands, are superior to the third branch of the river which passes between the island and the Canada shore -- the questions of territory will doubtless be settled by the commissioners of both governments -- this island is about 3/4ths of a mile long and 100 rods broad, and has been somewhat cultivated: Goat Island, divides [the] Fall of Niagara half a mile long and some 60 or 80 rods broad, it is rocky and covered with very shabby timber & accessible only at a single point.

Note: It was the remnant of these same Seneca Indians to whom Oliver Cowdery and Parley P. Pratt first brought the Book of Mormon, at the commencement of their 1830 "mission to the Lamanites." By that time the Indians were mostly living on the the Cattaraugus Reservation, south of Angola, in Erie County. Although Solomon Spalding does not mention Grand Island nor the Seneca Indians in his extant writings, he does speak of the Cattaraugus region and Indians living there -- who were most likely Senecas.


Vol. IV.                           Pittsburgh, Pa., Saturday, November 4, 1815.                        No. 175

S. Engles,  Printer,

INFORMS the public, that he has recommenced his business in Wood street, four doors above Diamond alley, opposite Mr. Sturgeon's tavern, where he solicits a continuance of public patronage.

Cards, Blanks, and Job Work


Neatly executed, at the shortest notice.

He takes this method of expressing his gratitude to his fellow-citizens, for their unparalelled exertions in saving the principal part of his materials from the destructive Fire on Friday morning, the 27th ultimo and sincerely hopes they may never need a reciprocation of the favour.

He earnestly calls on those indebted to him, to settle their accounts without delay.

Note 1: Engles placed essentially the same notice in the Gazette for Nov. 4, 1815. On Dec. 2, 1815 he placed another notice in the Mercury and the Gazette, proposing to publish a new paper, to be called the Republican Advocate. This newspaper never was never commenced, however. --- A few months later Engles moved his press to a new location on Liberty Street, "nearly opposite Fifth Street" (Gazette, Mar, 30, 1816). At this address he entered into partnership with Ephraim Pentland to print The Statesman, beginning on May 9, 1818. Finally, in April of 1819, Engles moved for the last time -- to the "Diamond," behind the Allegheny County Court House.

Note 2: Luckily for Solomon Spalding, his manuscript story was either not on the premises when the fire began, or it was rescued from Patterson's office or Silas Engles' print shop before they were consumed by the fire. -- At least that seems to be a reasonable conclusion, based upon a report that Spalding's widow tried for a second time to market the unpublished manuscript, in late 1816 or early 1817. On the other hand, it is possible that Spalding's story was temporarily mislaid in the confusion of the night's fire. Mr. Engles mentions the "exertions in saving the principal part of his materials from the destructive fire" which were made by his neighbors. His business associates, R. & J. Patterson (then operated solely by Robert Patterson, it seems) also reported that "friends" in the neighborhood made "prompt exertions to rescue his property, and guard it from plunder when it lay exposed on the street."


Vol. IV.                          Pittsburgh, Pa., Saturday, November 25, 1815.                          No. 178.

The Subscriber,

THOUGH ejected by fire and flame, from house or home, in the late calamity in Wood street, has under the kind hand of Providence, sustained very little loss, probably not exceeding three or four hundred dollars, the least it is supposed of any of the sufferers on that occasion. He is much indebted to his friends for their prompt exertions to rescue his property, and guard it from plunder when it lay exposed on the street. Immediately after the fire he recommenced business, WHOLESALE and RETAIL, as usual, in the house of Thomas Baird, esq. in Fourth street, thirty yards from Wood street, directly opposite a new, large, three story brick house. Customers and friends by calling for a book now and then, and especially by bringing rags and scutching tow, for the use of the paper mill, will soon refund all loss sustained by the fire.
                ROBERT PATTERSON.

N. B. The subscribers to Erskine's Sermons, are hereby informed, that the first sheet of that work, lying in the printing office, was consumed in the late fire, and that the derangement of business in the office, will unaviodably delay the publication for some time.

Note: If Solomon Spalding was still depending upon the firm of R. &. J. Patterson to publish his historical novel as late as 1815, the effects of the fire on Wood street must have been particularly devestating to his hopes. Robert and Joseph Patterson never were able to secure the resources to do much publishing on their own. The brothers' intended publication of "Erskine's Sermons" was financed by pre-paid or pledged-payment subscriptions, and even this project was delayed and endangered by the destruction of the Silas Engles printing office in the same 1815 fire.

No mention of the October 1815 Pittsburgh fire occurs in the Spalding family traditions and it is likely that his writings were not then in the possession of the Pattersons or Silas Engles.


Vol. IV.                          Pittsburgh, (Penn.) Saturday, December 2, 1815.                          No. 179.


Proposes publishing a weekly Democratic Newspaper,


Terms of Publication.

1. THE ADVOCATE will be printed on a good type, and super-royal paper, on such day of each week as may be found most convenient for the mails.

2. The subscription price will be two dollars per annum, payable half yearly in advance; or three dollars payable at the end of the year.

3. Advertisements inserted at the usual rates.

Note: As in the case of his failed Pioneer and aborted Hive, Engles was unsuccessful in his effort to publish the Republican Advocate. A few issues may have actually been printed early in 1816, but, if so, they have not survived. Silas Engles appears to have sustained a professional connection with another Pittsburgh newspaper, The Commonwealth. When that paper was discontinued in 1818, Engles became the publisher of its successor, The Statesman.


Vol. IV.                           Pittsburgh, (Penn.) Saturday, December 23, 1815.                           No. 182


Wholesale & Retail

  Book  and  Stationery  Store,



Fourth, near Wood-street,



R. PATTERSON of Pittsburgh, and JOHN MELISH of Philadelphia, will publish as soon as it can be executed, probably in February or March next, a large and accurate MAP OF PITTSBURGH, including the new garrisonBirmingham, Coal Hill, and town of Allegheny, with all the near vivinity, and such part of the rivers Monongahela, Allegheny and Ohio as is contained within these limits. All from actual survey, by Wm. Darby, esq.

The map will be engraved by the best artists that can be employed in Philadelphia, and printed and furnished in the best style. With it, will be presented, by the publishers, a pamphlet, containing a geographical and historical account of Pittsburgh and its vicinity, with a statistical exhibition of its commerce and manufactures, and an estimation of the transmission of goods, by waggon, from the sea-board cities, through Pittsburgh to the westward -- and of produce, ascending the Ohio, and sold in Pittsburgh, or transported over the mountains to the eastern parts of the United States.

Much labor and attention have already been employed in this business, by Mr. Darby and the publisher, resident in Pittsburgh, to collect proper data, and correct information; and it is acknowledged with pleasure that nearly all the citizens, who have ben consulted, have cheerfully communicated whatever lay within their knowledge and business; and as it is possible that there may be owners of warehouses, and manufactories, now in operation, or shortly to commence, who through inadvertency, may not have been called on, and who may possess useful and interesting intelligence, any valuable communication from such persons, or any other gentlemen, relative to the general design, will be thankfully received any time before the1st of January 1816, by the subscriber, living in Pittsburgh.
                    R. PATTERSON.

N. B. Some brief accounts will be given of the Colleges in [Washington and Cannonsburgh] (Washington county, Pa.) and of the business and manufactures of the flourishing towns of Brownsville and Steubenville, if gentlemen, feeling interested in the same, will furnish proper communication, for that purpose.

Scutching  Tow.

THE Subscriber, agent for the Pittsburgh Steam Paper Mill, situate half a mile out of town, between the new turnpike road and the Allegheny River, will give for good clean scutching tow, per pound, viz. -- for any quantity delivered to George Hirst, foreman at the Mill, three cents in money, and for any quantity delivered at the book-store, in Fourth street, two and a half cents in money, or three in books and paper.

When the tow is much mixed with shows or dirt, little or nothing will be given for it.

It is requested that those who bring in tow, in consequence of this advertisement, would be particularly attentive to the conditions.
                            RT. PATTERSON.
Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXX.                                  Saturday, December 30, 1815.                                  No. 20.

Scutching Tow.

The Subscriber, Agent for the Pittsburgh Steam Paper Mill, situate half a mile out of town, between the new Turnpike Road and the Allegheny River, will give for good clean scutching tow, per pound, viz. -- for any quantity delivered to George Hirst, foreman at the Mill, Three Cents in Money, and for any quantity delivered at the Bookstore, in 4th St., Two and an Half Cents in Money, or Three in Books and Paper.
                   R. PATTERSON.

Note 1: The same notice appeared in Washington's The Reporter on Jan. 1st. Since Robert merely lists himself as the "agent for the Pittsburgh Steam Paper Mill," it is possible that the management of that business was left to the hands of his younger brother Joseph. The mill was an extensive operation for its time -- see the notice in the Carlisle Gazette of April 17th

Note 2: George Hirst, Sr. (1773-1832) worked as the foreman at the Pattersons' mill, before constructing his own paper-making plant in 1825. The industry slowly declined in that region -- perhaps due to competition from wood pulp paper -- and within a decade practically all the rag paper mills in Pittsburgh had ceased production.

Note 3: This issue of the Gazette also carried a Patterson ad (first run the week before) which supplies details for the kinds of stationery sold in the brothers' book shop, as well as lists of maps and various "new books" offered for sale.


Vol. XXX.                            Pittsburgh, Saturday, February 10, 1816.                            No. 26.

Republican  Advocate.

Gentlemen holding subscription papers for the "Republican Advocate" (a new weekly paper about to be published in the Borough of Pittsburgh) are requested to return a list of the Subscribers as soon as possible, as the publication will be commenced without delay.

Those persons who are disposed to encourage the publication, will please leave their names with the Editor, any time during the present month.   S. ENGLES.


A few Therometers,

Fourth Street.

Note: Silas Engles Republican Advocate publishing venture never got off the ground. He had better luck a few laters with the Pittsburgh Statesman.


Vol. XXX.                                  Pittsburgh, Saturday, March 9, 1816.                                  No. 33.

Notice is hereby given, to all Legatees, and others whom it may concern, that... Prudence Lambdin, administratrix of James Lambdin deceased... [and others] have filed their administration accounts in the Register's Office at Pittsburgh, and that the same will be presented to the Orphan's Court for confirmation and allowance, the first Monday in April next. All those concerned are desired to attend.
Pittsburgh, March 1, 1816.

Note 1: According to the "Journal" of her son, James Reid Lambdin, the Widow Prudence Lambdin lived in Pittsburgh after the death of her husband. There she took in boarders and struggled to complete construction of the unfinished house left to her upon the death of Mr. Lambdin. Prior to 1816, her son "Harrison" (Jonathan H. Lambdin) received employment with the business firm of Robert and Joseph Patterson, book-sellers and stationers in the town of Pittsburgh. According to the "Journal," Harrison received "a small salary" which, along with the boarders' rent, enabled the family to "get along."

Note 2: The exact nature of the legal proceedings documented in the Mar. 9, 1816 Gazette remains unclear, but they seem to have marked the beginning of an effort to sell the late James Lambdin's farm (located about four miles west of Pittsburgh) and then allocate the money received, according to the direction of James' will. It is recorded in her son's "Journal," that the financial circumstances of the family changed "about 1817" and they moved to a new residence, without their previous boarders. J. Harrison Lambdin was reportedly then a legal ward of the Rev. Robert Patterson (see the Nov. 22, 1816 issue of the Gazette). This legal guardian relationship may help explain the need to present James' will to the local "orphan's court." J. Harrison Lambdin was either a legal or informal apprentice in the business of Robert and Joseph Patterson. He may have also served as a printer's apprentice in the associated operations of their cousin, the notable Pittsburgh printer, Silas Engles.

Note 3: One of the renters in the Prudence Engles home was John B. Butler, who talked the lady into having her son, J. Harrison, join him in the printing business. James Reid Lambdin later recalled that, "in order to obtain capital sufficient for this purpose, the [Lambdin] farm was by order of the orphan's court, sold. A house for the printing office was built on the rear of the lot on Diamond Alley." Butler had worked for Silas Engles and was evidently a journeyman printer by 1816. J. Harrison Lambdin was probably taken into the partnership as its office manager and salesman. The firm survived about five years -- one of its last published titles was Patterson's Pittsburgh Town and Country Almanac, for 1821. In later years Butler ran his own printing establishment in Pittsburgh.

Note 4: Robert Patterson's son, in 1882, shared this excerpt from a letter he had recently received: "Rev. Robert P. Du Bois, of New London, Pa., under date of Jan. 9, 1879, writes: 'I entered the book-store of R. Patterson & Lambdin in March, 1818, when about twelve years old, and remained there until the summer of 1820, The firm had under its control. the book-store on Fourth Street, a book-bindary, a printing office (not newspaper, but job-office, under the name of Butler & Lambdin), entrance on Diamond Alley, and a steam paper-mill on the Allegheny (under the name of R. & J. Patterson)."


"Tis pleasure, through the loop-holes of retreat, to peep at such a world"

Vol. VIII. No. 32.                 Washington, Pa., Monday, March 18, 1816.                 Whole No. 396.


HUGH WILSON, has for Rent a large convenient House, well calculated for a TAVERN STAND, on Market, near the corner of Maiden street three doors below Mr. Morri's tavern.

Also, several other smaller houses for rent. Possession may be had, on the 1st day of April next.
         Washington, (Pa.) March 11th, 1816.

Note 1: This is the same Hugh Wilson who wrote letters to Rev. Isaac McCoy, donated scholarships to Alexander Campbell's Buffalo Academy, helped expel Sidney Rigdon from his Pittsburgh Baptist pastorate and hosted Solomon Spalding. See notes appended to the Reporter article of Nov. 10, 1823.

Note 2: Deacon Wilson's possession of several domiciles in Washington County may help explain his family's ability to extend charity to homeless people, as mentioned by his granddaughter: "While she lived [grandmother's] house was a refuge for poor folk, especially needy Baptist ministers, our grandfather being a zealous member of that sect. It was while one of those ministers, a Mr. Spaulding was spending the winter at Locust Hill, being too ill to preach, that he wrote a fictitious story which Joseph Smith published afterwards as the Book of Mormon. My mother who was a child of seven, then, remembered afterwards how she used to listen to the pale young man as he read aloud in the evenings what he had written during the day." Given the fact that Solomon Spalding and his wife were engaged in a legal dispute with their landlady, shortly before his death in 1816, it is not unreasonable to suppose that Solomon traveled to see Hugh Wilson in the nearby borough of Washington, seeking a position as a tavern-keeper in one of Wilson's rental properties. If so, then the winter of 1815-16 may have been the "winter" he reportedly spent at Wilson's Locust Hill estate.


Vol. XXX.                              Pittsburgh, Saturday, March 30, 1816.                              No. 36.

Printing Office

To Liberty Street, nearly opposite Fifth Street, where he will execute orders with neatness and despatch.

==> Job Printing, of every description, done at the shortest notice.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Kline's Weekly Carlisle Gazette.
Vol.XXXI.                          Carlisle, Pa., Wednesday, April 17, 1816.                          No. 1630.

Pittsburgh  Steam  Paper-Mill.

6 horse power on the principles of Oliver Evans -- employs on an average, 40 persons, viz. 12 men, 10 boys, and 18 women and girls -- consumes about 10,000 bushels coal -- and 120,000 lb. rags and tow per annum -- manufactures 20 to 25 thousand dollars worth of paper annually.

Note 1: The 1813 Pittsburgh Almanac (published by the Patterson brothers) listed a business called the "Patterson &. Co. Steam Paper-mill" as being located on the "bank of Allegheny, above Pittsburgh." No claim was then made that the mill had yet begun producing paper with steam power: steam engines were relatively new machinery in the town at that early date. The Patterson's engine must have been imported during the year 1812, for none were being manufactured in Pittsburgh prior to 1814.

Note 2: The 1816 Pittsburgh Almanac (published by the Patterson brothers), reported the following information: "This great manufacturing town contains from eight to ten thousand inhabitants; besides, at all times, a great influx of strangers, from various parts of the United States. Among its manufactories are the following: -- ... A steam paper mill, of twenty four horse power, on Evans's plan -- in which the consumption of rags is about 120,000 pounds yearly." No mention is made of any competitors, although Henry Holdship, Sr.'s Anchor Steam Paper Mill had also begun producing local paper early in 1815.


Vol. IV.                          Pittsburgh, (Penn.) Saturday, May 4, 1816.                          No. 201.


This phenomenon has, during the past week, been distinctly observed, by most of our citizens, and has excited general conversation. Altho these appearances are not common, still they are not new. The atmosphere being with us very smokey, these spots were, in the morning and evening, quite visible to the naked eye. We do not recollect of a similar circumstance on record...

Note: The smoky sky mentioned in the news report was due to the accumulation of atmospheric dust, world-wide, following the April 5, 1815 volcanic erpution of Mount Tambora on the Indonesian island of Sumbawa. Some early Mormons attributed the remarkable 1816 sun spots as being an element of divine revelation (see Charles B. Thompson's 1841 book). A similar article appeared in the Washington Reporter of May 27, 1816.


[New Series, No. 15.                                       Pittsburg, July 9, 1816.                                       Vol. 1.]


Remaining in the Post Office, at Pittsburgh, June 30, 1816.

David Robb
G. C. Russel
Henry Richardson
Jacob Rudolf
John Robinson
John Richa
Joseph Richardson
Joseph Rieldy
Rulif Rinyan
Samuel Robinson
Sidney Rigdon
Wm. C. Roberts
Wm. Reed
Wm. Robinson jun.
Benja. Summerton 2
Daniel Stotler
Dandridge Spotswood
Geo. Slacket Esq.
Jacob Sangree
Jacob Smyth
Jacob Steally
James Snodgrass 2
James Steel
John Smith
John Stotler
Capt. John Srodel
Roswell Sturdevant
Joel Smith
Robert Sibbit
Samuel Still
Solomon Spalding
Wm. Skillen
Wm. Sinclair
Wm. Simpson 2
Wm. Smith
Wm. Steward
Miss Mary Snyder
Mary Stuard

Note: The same letter list was republished in The Commomwealth on July 16 and July 23, 1816, and again contained the names of Solomon Spalding and Sidney Rigdon. Solomon Spalding died at Amity, Washington Co., Pennsylvania on Oct. 20, 1816 (apparently of dysentery) after suffering an illness of "six or eight weeks." It is possible that as late as the mid-summer of 1816 he was still calling for his letters at the Pittsburgh Post Office. Given Spalding's poor health in his later years, it is also probable that while living at Amity, he generally depended upon friends and neighbors to retrieve his mail from Pittsburgh.

The first appearance of Spalding's name in the Commomwealth's letter lists was on May 5, 1813. His name appeared again on Nov. 10, 1813 and Sep. 7, 1814. A list published on Nov. 30, 1814 shows a "Tolomon" Spalding; a list published in Feb. 1815 has a "Solm. Spalding, and one published in Sept. 1815 shows a "Sol." Spalding. His full name reappears on the July 9, 1816 notice and the two subsequent reprintings, with the July 16th version showing his name as "Spaldin." Sidney Rigdon's name first appears on the July 9, 1816 list.


Vol. ?                                  Saturday, November 22, 1816.                                  No. ?

Public Sale.

In pursuance of an order of the Orphan's Court of the county of Allegheny, will be sold at public sale, at the house of Wm. Goorly, on the premises, in Pine twp., on Monday the 2d day of December next, at 12 o'clock, noon, a certain messuage and tract of land, situate in Pine twp., Allegheny co., containing about 100 acres, and allowances of 6% for roads, being part of the real estate of James LAMBDIN, deceased. By order of the Court.
                  E. PENTLAND, Clk. O. C. A. C., Clerk's Office, Pittsburgh.

N. B. Due attendance will be given, and the terms be made known at the time and place of sale by Robert PATTERSON, Guardian of the heirs of James LAMBDIN. dec'd.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                                  Saturday, December 27, 1816.                                  No. ?

This day is published by Robert Patterson, and for sale at his Bookstore in Market and 4th Streets., A map of the city of Pittsburgh, and surrounding country, including Birmingham, Allegheny and Lawrenceville villages, from actual survey by W. Darby. Also just received Tanner's prints of McDonough's Victory on Lake Champlain.

Note: Two years earlier numbers of such products might have found their way to Solomon Spalding's little shop in Pittsburgh, for sale to the pubic. However, by this time Spalding had passed away and his store (if it survived his departure from the city two years before) was in the hands of some other manager.


Vol. XXXII.                              Pittsburgh, Friday, January 17, 1817.                            No. 45.

Pittsburgh Permanent Library.

At a meeting of the Shareholders of the Pittsburgh Permanent Library held at their new room in Second st., on Monday 30th December... The following gentlemen were elected by ballot to serve as a board of Directors for the ensuing three years, viz.

Geo. Poe, President,
Aquila M. Bolton, Secretary,
Lewis Bollman, Treasurer

James Lee, Benjamin Bakewell, Robert Patterson, Walter Forward, Alexander Johnston, Jr., Wm. Eichbaum, Jr., Benjamin Page, Alexander McClurg, J.P. Skelton, Ephraim Pentland, Charles Avery, J. H. Lamdin [sic -- Lambdin?], Directors...

Note 1: It may be significant that J. Harrison Lambdin had an interest in making books available to Pittsburgh area readers. He worked in the book shop of Robert Patterson (also a library director) and later entered into partnerships to print and publish books for patrons in that region. Art Vanick et al., in their 2005 book offer this speculation: "In the summer of 1816 the library is variously reported to have had between 500 and 2,000 volumes. Rigdon's friendship with Lambdin may well have enabled him to borrow just about anything he wanted without the necessity of paying the requisite fee in the case of the library, or in the case of the Pattersons' shop, without anyone being the wiser. Under such circumstances, Lambdin could have 'loaned' A Manuscript Found to Rigdon, and Rigdon could have copied it before returning it."

Note 2: The claim that J. H. Lambdin, in fact, supplied a young Sidney Rigdon with Solomon Spalding's writings can be traced back to 1841, at least, when a writer on Mormonism said: "The manuscript was prepared for press, and in 1812 Spaulding took it to a printer named Lambdin, residing in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: before any arrangements could be concluded, the author died; and as the MS. was of great extent, Lambdin was unwilling to risk his money on the speculation. He lent the MS. to Sidney Rigdon, who, on the death of Lambdin in 1826, joined with Smith in palming it on the world as a new revelation." This bold assertion is something of an overstatement of E. D. Howe's 1834 deduction: "We are, then, irresistibly led to this conclusion: -- that Lambdin, after having failed in business, had recourse to the old manuscripts then in his possession, in order to raise the wind, by a book speculation, and placed the 'Manuscript Found,' of Spalding, in the hands of Rigdon." Actually, Lambdin was not in a position to finance any Spalding publication prior to that writer's death in 1816. Lambdin died in 1825, not 1826. However none of these facts negates an early Lambdin-Rigdon connection. The clerk for the early 1800s Pittsburgh Post Office later said: "I remember that there was an evident intimacy between Lambdin and Rigdon. They very often came to the office together." in 1878 Pittsburgh minister Samuel Williams offered the following recollection: "[I] suppose the Novel was returned to Mrs. Spaulding... Engles might during his leisure hours have copied it with the intention of making something out of it and perhaps not being able to publish it, sold it to Rigdon. Any one of these Lambden, Engles, Joseph Patterson, or Rigdon might have taken a copy."

Note 3: The supposed early Lambdin-Rigdon connection may not necessarily have been the means for Rigdon obtaining a copy of Spalding's writings. In 1882 I researcher mentioned that he had investigated the matter, and said: "The intimacy she [the postal clerk] says existed between Lambdin and Rigdon. In all my investigation I never found any one who knew of this. All impressed me with the belief that it was Silas Engles with whom Rigdon was intimate." This conclusion conforms to the assertion published in 1864, that it was the "foreman for a publisher of the name of Patterson" who received Solomon Spalding's writings from his employer and then handed the manuscript over to Sidney Rigdon for futher review.


Vol. XXXII.                              Pittsburgh, Tuesday, March 11, 1817.                              No. 61.


In The Press, and will be published in April, The Narrative of Samuel C. Frey, (a converted Jew), with an Address to Christians of all denominations in behalf of the descendants of Abraham. (Price 25 cents.)

Persons desirous of possessing this onteresting Pamphlet, (which passed thro' three editions in London, in a few weeks, will leave their names at the Office of the Pittsburgh Gazette, or with S. Engles, Liberty st.

Note 1: The published title read: The Narrative of the Reverend Joseph Samuel C. F. Frey, minister of the Gospel to the Jews. No copies of the 1817 Silas Engles Pittsburgh edition (advertised for sale on May 27) are known to be extant.

Note 2: The idea that a substantial portion of the world's Jews would be converted to Christianity, just prior to the Second Advent and commencement of the Millennium, was becoming a popular idea at about this time. Associated with that religious belief was the idea that the "lost tribes of Israel" would also be restored to their former prominence in the "latter days." See Elias Boudinot's The Second Advent, (1815) and A Star in the West, (1816).


Vol. 32.                                  Pittsburgh, May 9, 1817.                                  No. 77.


At an election for Officers of the Eagle Fire Company, held on Saturday the 3d inst. the following persons were elected to serve the ensuing year.

President -- Anthony Ernest.
Secretary -- J. H. Lambdin.
Captain -- James R. Butler.
Lieutenant -- D. S. Scully.
Engineer -- William Eichbaum.
Assistant Engineer -- John Reno...

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. 38.                                  Pittsburgh, Tuesday, Oct. 28, 1817.                                  No. 26.


ALBANY, New-York Sept. [sic] 13.         
A correspondent informs us that five wagons loaded with the household goods, men, women, and children of this sect, passed through Cherry Valley, Otsego county, on the 25th ult., on their way to the State of Ohio. The men and women were dressed in the same style of those who passed through Sussex, (N. J.) and were, as they alleged, followers of the same prophet. They call themselves the true followers of Christ -- Their pretended prophet came from Canada, a few months since, and is a man of "austere habits," and a great fanatic. His followers are not yet numerous, but it is thought he will increase them. He rejects sirnames [sic], and abolishes marriage and allows his followers to cohabit promiscuously.

The men eat their food in an erect posture, and the women, when they pray, prostrate themselves on the ground, with their faces downward. They frequently do pennance for sins, and seem to make uncleanliness a virtue. They allege that their prophet has not changed his cloaths for seven years. There was with the party above described, a deluded woman, who, it is said, had always sustained a fair character, and who left a husband in affluent circumstances, and a family of children, to follow this prophet. It is probably the object of the leader of this sect, to draw as many after him as possible, and to form in some of the western states a new settlement similar to the one made by Jemima Wilkinson in this state.

{The wrteched fanaticks above mentioned, pased through this city (Pittsburgh) on Saturday last, on their way to Mount Pleasant, Ohio.}

Note 1: The above report was reprinted from the Albany Daily Advertiser of Oct. 13, 1817, even though the copyist at the Pittsburgh Gazette mistakenly reproduced the date as "Sept. 13" -- see Wisconsin historian F. Gerald Ham's summer, 1973 article,"The Prophet and the Mummyjums..." for confirmation of the later date. Backtracking from the Albany Daily Advertiser's article, it appears that "Prophet" Isaac Bullard and his "Pilgrims" passed through Cherry Valley, New York, on Sept. 25, 1817. Ham deduces that Bullard's band of followers, after leaving Cherry Valley, split into two separate groups, somewhere in the vicinity of the Shaker village of New Lebanon, in Columbia County. One of the groups "proceeded down the Hudson Valley, across northern New Jersey, and through Pennsylvania." This was the same caravan of "wretched fanaticks" that passed through Pittsburgh on Saturday, Oct. 25, 1817.

Note 2: Another newspaper which reproduced the same news item was the Chillicothe, Ohio, Weekly Recorder of Nov. 5, 1817. For more on the Vermont Pilgrims, see the Sept. 15, 1817 issue of the Massachusetts Salem Register.


Vol. 38.                                  Pittsburgh, Tuesday, Nov. 4, 1817.                                  No. 27.


Mr. Editor.

I noticed in one of your late papers some account of several pilgrims who were then in New Jersey, on their way from Woodstock, Vermont, to the South. Their pilgrimage, it appears, commenced in Lower Canada, I believe in May or June last; in which province, it is understood, they had just before been tried, before one of the King's court's on a charge of murdering one of their children; or in other words, administering to it a decoction from a poisonous bark, by command of the Lord. Although the proof of the fact was not of that positive character which a conviction for murder demanded, yet so fully convinced were the Canadians of their guilt, that A MARCH became, as it is said, the last resort of this new sect.

At Woodstock, in the state of Vermont, they successively arrived, and tarried several weeks -- made some proselytes, and otherwise added to their numbers. Beneath the roof of a Christian preacher, their devout professions procured them a hospitable protection; and so incessant were their professed addresses to and communications with invisible beings, with whom they pretended at times to hold converse, in the most unmeaning gibberish; added to their dirty caps, bearskin girdles, and long beards, their fame went abroad, and not a few visitors, (among whom was the writer of this article) did curiosity lead to their habitation. They observed times of fasting, wore sackcloth and ashes -- frequently denounced woes upon persons and villages and often fell prostrate to the earth in their devotions. Strange as it may appear such a sect gained proselytes -- and the worthy man whose hospitable doors had been opened to these strangers, saw members of his own family assume the girdle and ape their manners. Whether they also commenced a pilgrimage, I am not informed.

Should these people, in executing their plan, ever be able to visit Virginia, it is hoped that their reception may be such, especially by the guardians of the public peace, as such pilgrims shall justly deserve.         VERMONT.

Note 1: In his summer, 1973 article,"The Prophet and the Mummyjums," F. Gerald Ham surmises that the band of "Vermont Pilgrims" which passed through Pittsburgh on Oct. 25, 1817, journeyed to Mount Pleasant, Jefferson Co., Ohio, there to re-join a separate group of their fanatical comrades led by the "Prophet" Isaac Bullard, which had traveled through "the Finger Lake region in those warm autumn days of 1817." While Ham does not provide an exact line of march westward from Mount Pleasant, he says that "the two companies were reunited somewhere in eastern Ohio" and that, "after stopping at Zanesville, Mechanicsberg, Xenia, and other towns" along the way, "the arrived at the Warren County town of Lebanon," Ohio, "on March 1, 1818." According to the Chillicothe, Ohio, Weekly Recorder of Nov. 26, 1817, Prophet Bullard's Pilgrims had reached Zanesville (some 140 miles from Pittsburgh) by mid-November. Assuming that the Pilgrims traveled westward at the rate of about 6-10 miles each day, their estimated itinerary would have been: Pittsburgh (Oct. 25) --> Washington (Oct. 28) --> Wheeling (Oct. 31) --> Mt. Pleasant (Nov. 2) --> Cambridge (Nov. 10) --> Zanesville (Nov. 14). Thus, if one group of the Pilgrims did "visit Virgina," their crossing of what is now the West Virginia "panhandle" must have occurred during the final days of October, 1817.

Note 2: Another newspaper which reproduced the same news item was the Chillicothe, Ohio, Weekly Recorder of Nov. 12, 1817.


Spirit of the Times & Carlisle Gazette.
Vol. I.                                  Carlisle, Pa., December 8, 1817.                                  No. 5.


                  From the Zanesville (O.)Express.
The Prophet & Pilgrims.

As this part of the community may feel anxious to know something of a new sect (I will not say a Christian sect) who have made their appearance here from Lower Canada and Vermont, composed of a leader by the name of Ballard, who calls himself a Prophet, a second Moses, a High Priest, &c., and 20 or 30 followers, who call themselves Pilgrims; I have thought proper to forward to you the following, which is about all the information in my possession, respecting them.

On their first arriving in town, a meeting was notified at the court house, where an exhortation was given by one of their party, Mr. Holmes, the only man of any considerable talents among them, who has been a Methodist preacher about twelve years in Vermont.

Although Mr. Holmes preached (as he called it) without a text, and wandered without system, upon various subjects, yet he made use of many pithy, common-place expressions, which would have been well received by the community at large, had not visited the "Prophet" and his groupe [sic - troupe:?] at home, where, it is presumed, no person possessing a mediocrity of talent, could remain five minutes in suspense relative to the [insincerity] of Bullard, the "Prophet," who wears every feature and gesture of a consummate scroundrel.

He has frequent paroxysms, in which he utters the unmeaning gibberish, which he calls "an unknown tongue," in which he pretends to converse with the Deity, which is composed almost of not more than four sounds, which he wil successively repeat from two to five minutes, at which length of time he has more than once been known to occupy in the reiteration of "Bab-Yab" alone.

The discerning mind may easily behold in this pretended Prophet, the sum of his wishes; to destroy all civil establishments, disannual marriage under the spurious pretence that Jesus Christ is the Bridegroom, and all his followers are the Bride, and consequently, need no civil restrictions, to govern their passions; but that those passions, in them, and their gratifications, are without sin, all being conducted with an eye "single to the glory of God." -- That they cannot sin so long as they are followers of the Prophet.

In fact, this wilderness of speculation, this depravity of principle and pursuit, this distruction of every principle of religion and reason, impelled them to leave a section of the country where little was to be expected, from a people generally enlightened, and seek a remoter section, offering less mental light, where they might, with greater certainty of success, execute their designs, enjoy boundless sway and support themselves in idleness, sloth and gratifications of their lusts, under the names of Morality and religion, upon the ruins of a misguided community.

They say that the Spirit of God has directed them to make a settlement in the town of Pike, on Darby creek [N.W. Madison Co., OH], whither they are bound.

We would advertise the inhabitants of Pike, to beware; in proportion as they value morality and religion, or revere the laws of civilization, and be cautious how they admit an enemy into their houses, "to steal away their brains."

From all we can gather from this slothful, dirty troupe, we are disposed to say that they practise indescriminate cohabitation, openly profess the power and gift of prophecy, pretend to heal the sick by various incantations, and that they are not progressing to such perfectability, through the instumentality of fasting and prayer, as to be soon able to raise the dead, who (to use their own expressions) die in the Lord.

Some of them have stated, since they have been in this place, that from Scripture, they thought they could draw strong enough proof that they should never die; and went on to quote several texts, which have strict reference to spiritual Death.

The writer of this has spent much time with them, (foolishly) to satisfy his mind, relative to their Doctrine, their motives, &c. He has found them generally aloof to conversation; and if at any time they attempted to answer his inquiries, it has been in an evasive way, introducing a different subject, even with the answer.

Never did a young pedagogue command more obsequiousness from his pupils in a country school, than does this "Prophet" from his followers; they groan when he groans, shout when he shouts, and ape him in his every Monkey trick; flying at his command, with servile agility, that a bystander might well conclude that they verily believed that the keys of heaven and hell were suspended upon his bear-skin girdle.

In this sect we see a striking proof of the awful strides which mankind have made in every age who have left the church of Christ and its canons, handed down by the apostles and their immediate successors, and taught for "doctrines, the commandments of men."     A READER.

Note: This same article was also reprinted in the Chillicothe, Ohio, Weekly Recorder of Nov. 26, 1817.


By John I. Scull                        Pittsburgh, Tuesday, January 6, 1818.                        Volume 32.

R. Patterson & Lambdin,

Fourth street, Pittsburgh.

I HAVE this day taken J. H. LAMBDIN into partnership in my business, which will now be conducted under the title of.

R. Patterson & Lambdin,

As I intend retiring from an active concern in the business, it will of course devolve entirely on J. H. LAMBDIN, in whom I place the most unlimited confidence, his integrity being established by the test of seven years, during which he has transacted my business. His skill and fidelity are well known in the circle of my customers, and he will as heretofore, pay strict attention to orders.

While I cheerfully and gratefully acjnowledge past favours, I feel a reasonable solicitude for a continuance of them in future, and am respectfully yours,
                            ROBERT PATTERSON.

Note 1: J. Harrison Lambdin was born in 1798. He was first employed by Robert Patterson in 1812, probably because Patterson knew his father, James Lambdin, Sr. When James died late in 1815, the 17 year old J. Harrison became a ward of Patterson. It appears that young Lambdin received his share of his inheritance from his father late in 1817 and that he invested a substantial portion of that money in Patterson's tottering business that same year. Once Lambdin was taken on as a full partner, Robert Patterson's nearly defunct publishing business began to thrive once again, releasing several new books in the years that followed.

Note 2: His brother, James Reid Lambdin, says in his "Journal": "my brother Harrison made his first visit to Philadelphia, being then about 19 years of age... Harrison resolved on establishing a school for poor children and obtained the use of the school room... I was a pupil in this school." All of this activity, coupled with J. Harrrison's entering into as business partnership with Patterson, indicates that he had lately come upon a substantial sum of money. The purpose of his trip to Philadelphia was probably partly to purchase stock and supplies for the reinvigorated Patterson business. The "Journal" entry continues: "his interest in Sunday School continued unabated through all his troubles and bad health until his decease in 1825." The modern reader can only wonder if local preachers like the Rev. Walter Scott and the Rev. Sidney Rigdon had any occasion to work with Lambdin in his Pittsburgh Sunday School project.

Note 3: James Reid Lambdin's "Journal" says: "it was decided by my Mother and brother that I was to enter [the] book-store of Patterson and Lambdin, my brother having been taken in as a partner on the retirement of Mr. Patterson. The year previous to this time it was determined by my mother that brother Harrison should embark with John B. Butler... in the printing business, and in order to obtain capital sufficient for this purpose, the farm was by order of the orphan's court, sold. A house for the printing office was built on the rear of the lot on Diamond Alley, which connected directly with the book-store fronting on 4th Street. The business was carried on for several years." The first Bulter & Lambdin imprints were issued in Pittsburgh in 1817; their last known title was printed in 1822.

Note 4: By late 1822 the Patterson-Lambdin firm was again faltering and it eventually became a bankrupt concern. Patterson's "retirement" from the book and stationery business in 1818 was only a partial one; he briefly went back into the book-selling business in competition with J. Harrison Lambdin, in 1823, and continued to dabble in that line of work, off and on, until the mid-1840s. See the Feb. 21, 1823 issue of the Gazette for the formal announcement of the break-up of the "partnership heretofore existing between Robert Patterson & Jonathan H. Lambdin."


Vol. I.                            Washington, Pa., Monday, March 2, 1818.                            No. 41.


For Trial at March Term, 1818, for Washington County,
Commencing 4th Monday.

Solomon Spalding & wife  v  Margaret Seaman
Zeriah Scott  v  John Hamilton
David Comfort  v  John Hunter

Note 1: The ongoing civil case between Solomon Spalding and Margaret Seaman was on the court schedule at least as early as the June term of 1817 -- and was advertised in periodic listings published by the Examiner beginning on June 4th of that year. Since Solomon died at Amity, Washington Co., Pennsylvania on Oct. 20, 1816, it is reasonable to conclude that the initial complaint against their landlady, Margaret Seamon, was lodged by him that year and was carried over in the legal system by his widow, Matilda, after his demise. According to p. 118 in Beers' 1893 Commemorative Biographical Record of Washington County, Pennsylvania, there was a Joseph Seaman residing at Amity as early as 1785: "Joseph Seaman... came to Washington, this county, in 1785... [his son] Jacob... kept tavern for many years at Amity, Amwell township." This Jacob was the "J. Van Seaman" mentioned by Cephas Dodd to Col. Ringland in 1857, as having "read his [Spalding's] novel or some parts of it." Jacob's grandfather was William Seaman, who died at Amity in 1814, and who obtained a tavern-keeper's license shortly before his passing. The Examiner's Margaret Seaman was William's widow -- she also was granted a tavern-keeper's license, in 1815. Her grandson Jacob continued the Seaman family's operation of the old Amity Inn, at least through the year 1822. See notes attached to the Reporter article of Apr. 1, 1955.

Note 2: The reason for the Spaldings' civil action against Margaret Seaman remains unknown, but typically such cases were brought before the court to settle perceived financial injustice, breach of contract, etc. It appears likely that the Widow Seaman employed the Spaldings to run her Amity public house, and that their own room rent and boarding costs were deducted from the income generated by the tavern. Possibly Mr. and Mrs. Spalding were promised a share of the tavern profits, and it was the failure of Mrs. Seaman to pay them these funds which led to the lawsuit. Another possibility is that the Spaldings spent some of their own money on tavern expenses and sued to recover those expenditures. At any rate, the Spaldings were engaged in a contentious dispute with Mrs. Seaman during the year 1816, and those circumstances may have produced the reason that Solomon Spalding accepted charitable housing assistance from Hugh Wilson of Washington borough -- see notes attached to the Reporter article of March 18, 1816.

Note 3: It is unlikely that Solomon's wife was still residing in Washington County as late as 1818 -- or that she took the trouble to travel there to attend any 1818 court sessions. The last that is known of her presence in the greater Pittsburgh area was reported by Elder William Small in 1876, who mentioned that the widow had attempted to get Rev. Robert Patterson, Sr. to publish some of her husband's writings after his death. This final episode in the Spaldings' tenure in Pennsylvania probably occurred early in 1817. See also her neighbor's 1868 account of how she got her late husband's estate settled in 1817.

Note 4: An unidentified journalist, writing for the New York Chronicle, in 1864, claimed that "Subsequently Mr. Stiles [sic - Engles?] died, and also Mr. Spaulding. Mr. Patterson in the meantime lost sight of the book until called upon by Mrs. Spaulding, who traveled all the way from her home on horse-back to inquire concerning her husband's book. It could not be found..." This 1864 report seems to conflict with the account given by Elder Small, who said of Spalding's manuscript: "after it had laid there [on a second occasion with Rev. Patterson] for some time, and after he had due time to consider it, he determined not to publish it. She [the Widow Spalding] then came and received the manuscript from his hands, and took it away." Also, in his 1857 letter, Cephas Dodd said: "Mrs. S. went after his death to N. York State and I suppose carried the M. S. with her."


Spirit of the Times & Carlisle Gazette.
Vol. I.                                  Carlisle, Pa., March 9, 1818.                                  No. 18.

                            Urbana, Jan. 28th.
The Prophet & Pilgrims.

It is to be expected, that it will not be unacceptable to the reader, to inform him, that the band of pilgrims, lately mentioned in different newspapers, as proceeding westerly, has arrived in this county, and are now in Mechanicsburg, making it a temporary residence; -- to remove as soon as they conceive that they have an intimation of the Spirit to that purpose. Report at present describes them as very religiously affected or exercised; extremely rigid in their profession; expert in the defence of their tenets proceedings; exceedingly singular in their customs, and as filthy a horde of beings almost, as can be possibly imagined. It is asserted of them, as particulars, that they use no water to wash anything: (the cooks' hands only excepted) use no knives or forks while eating; throw their bedding, uniformly or out of all form, on the floor; wear a girdle of the skins of beasts about their loins; that the males permit their beard to grow unshaven, and that they labor some, and appear not destitute of money. For some reason or other, those that have seen them there, suppose it probable that they will remove to Cincinnati, before long, passing through this place.

In all matters whatever, even concerning the cooking of their food, they profess to wait the immediate direction of the Spirit from above, generally (if I'm not mistaken) thro' the medium of a member or leader, styled "the Prophet," as their oracle. He takes a position with two short staves, and uses strange mutterings, gibberish, and exercises of body by which he Divines -- and professes to receive, sometimes, unutterable communications.

This intelligence is received thro' different concurring channels, and is probably, as far as it goes correct. It is thought their history will be shortly marked, by the gaining of proselytes or a dispersion of themselves.

Note 1: This report evidently originated with the Ohio Urbana Gazette, a newspaper published close to the Vermont Pilgrims' intended home in Northwest Madison Co., and to the town of Mechanicsburg (which the Pilgrims passed through in Jan., 1818).

Note 2: For more on the progress of the "Prophet" Isaac Bullard and his "Vermont Pilgrims," see also the Carlisle Republican for Jan. 11, 1820.


By John I. Scull                        Pittsburgh, Tuesday, May 8, 1818.                        Volume 32.


The Printing Office of the Pittsburgh Gazette, is removed to Fourth St. between Market & Wood Streets. nearly opposite to Patterson & Lambdin's Book-store.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXXIII.                             Pittsburgh, Tuesday, May 22, 1818.                             No. 2.


Two First Rate Journeyman Pressmen, of good character, wanted. Apply to R. Patterson & Lambdin, Pgh.

Note 1: Although various 19th century reports claimed Sidney Rigdon was a "journeyman printer" with the company of Patterson and Lambdin in Pittsburgh, there is no reliable evidence indicating that Rigdon ever held such a position with that particular publishing firm. The actual printing at that time was carried out by Butler and Lambdin -- however, it appears that the hiring of printing employees was done by the publishers.

Note 2: Robert Patterson, Sr. reportedly recalled in 1841 that "Sidney Rigdon was not connected with the office for several years afterwards." By "afterwards," Patterson meant after 1816, when Solomon Spalding was no longer living. The term "the office" could have applied to any one of the business concerns that the Pattersons were associated with in the early days. Even the core operation of their business, the Pittsburgh book shop, was eventually split into two competing "offices." The possibility that Sidney Rigdon had some peripheral connection with the firm of Butler & Lambdin, or that J. H Lambdin bookseller, or that of "Silas Engles & Co.," cannot be fully ruled out. A vistor in Rigdon's family in 1839 wrote in a letter: "Sidney Rigdon, the most learned man among the Latter Day Saints... studied for the ministry in his youth, then was employed in a newspaper office."


Vol. XXXIII.                             Pittsburgh, Friday, June 12, 1818.                             No. 8.

Continue their
Book and Job

Where will be printed with the utmost despatch


Mercantile Blanks;
Checks, Receipts, Bills of lading, Bills of parcels, Due-bills, &c.

Law Blanks
Judgements and common Bonds, Deeds, Leases,
Declarations, Protests, &c.

Magistrates' & Aldermans'
Summons's, Scieri Facias, Commitments, Indentures, Warrants,
Executions, Rules of Reference &c. for the city and counties.


Together with every other description of Book and Job Printing.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. I.                          Pittsburgh, Pa., Saturday, September 5, 1818.                            No. 21.

List of Letters

Remaining in the Post Office, at Pittsburgh, September 1, 1818 -- not advertised before.

John Robinson,
John Russell.
John Ramage.
John Ridsdale,
John Rankin,
John Rea,
John Read,
John J. Ralston,
John Ross,
James Roup,
Otis Read,
Robert Richard,
Richard Robins,
Richard Randolph,
Sidney Rigdon,
Thomas Rucker jr.
Thomas Roseburg,
Dr. Thomas Russell 2,
William P. Richards,
William Read,
William Roseman,
William Roseburg.
William Rippet,
William Ray,
William Rook,
William Robeson,
William Rodgers,
Anne Rattle,
Catharine Reiger,
Jane Riddle,
Polly Read,
Widow Russel.

Note: The same list of names was advertised by the Pittsburgh Postmaster again in The Statesman a week later, on Sept. 12, 1818. It was at about this same time that Sidney Rigdon's mother sold the family farm near Pittsburgh. Rigdon left the area and went to study divinity with the Baptist Rev. Andrew Clark at North Sewickley, in Beaver County, Pennsylvania. Rigdon probably ceased calling at the Pittsburgh Post Office for his letters some time during the fall of 1818.


Vol. I.                              Pittsburgh, Pa., Saturday, November 7, 1818.                              No. ??.

List of Letters

Remaining in the Post Office, at Pittsburgh, October 31, 1818 -- not advertised before.

John Reed,
Jonathan Richards
Martin W. Roberts
Morgan Reese
M. Rhey
Patrick Roark
Robert Ralston
Sidney Rigdon 2
Samuel Richardson
Thomas Robinson
William B. Rochester
Isabella Read
Catharine Richey,
Mary Richard
Dolly Richey

Note: Similar lists of names were advertised by the Pittsburgh Postmaster again in The Statesman on Nov. 21 and Nov. 28, 1818. In both of the subsequent published lists, Sidney Rigdon is shown to have two letters waiting for him in the Pittsburgh Post Office. The fact that letters addressed to Rigdon remained in the Post Office for such an extended period of time probably indicates that he was then residing out of the area and was unable to call in person for his mail. It also appears that no close friend or family member was regularly going into the city from Rigdon's home in St. Clair township to pick up his letters for him. This probable fact may be interpreted to mean that Sidney Rigdon was in the habit of picking up his own mail in Pittsburgh, and did not generally depend upon other people to perform that task for him.


Vol. XXXIII.                             Pittsburgh, Tuesday, November 17, 1818.                             No. 53.


An Annual Meeting of the Young Men's Western Auxiliary Bible Society, was held on Tuesday evening, the 3d inst. when an address was delivered by H. Denny, Esq. and the following persons were elected Managers of the institution, for the ensuing year: H. Denny, H. Sterling, John H. Hopkins, Daniel Chute, Samuel P. Bolles, J. H. Lambdin, James Wilson, M. Allen, V. B. McGahan, John R. Stockman, A. Liggett, B. R. Evans...

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. XXXIII.                             Pittsburgh, Friday, January 1, 1819.                             No. 66.


At a meeting of the Pittsburgh Sabbath School Association, held in the second Presbyterian Church on Tuesday evening the 29th December, the following persons were elected to manage the affairs of the institution for the ensuing year: President, Rev. Joseph Patterson. 1st Vice President, Thomas Davis.... Directors, John D. Davis... Samuel Church...

Note: The name of Joseph Patterson, Sr. returns to the columns of Pittsburgh newspapers after a hiatus of several months.


Vol. XXXIII.                             Pittsburgh, Friday, January 15, 1819.                             No. 70.


Apprentices Wanted. Two or 3 boys, between 13 and 16 years of age, whose parental education has been strict and moral, will be taken as apprentices to the Book-Binding business, by R. Patterson & Lambdin. Pgh.

Notes: (forthcoming)


Vol. ?                          Pittsburgh, (Penn.) Saturday, January 16, 1819.                          No. ?




Corner of Wood and Third streets,


A general assortment of elegant Landscape


Of entirely New Patterns.

J. TOWNE, will furnish the Western Merchants with the above article as low as they can be bought either in New York, Philadelphia or Baltimore. He has also on hand, and will constantly keep a large assortment of low priced Papers suitable for retailing at the following rates, viz: 50, 56, 62, 75 and 87 cents per roll. A discount of 3 per cent, will be given for prompt payment.


May be had at
R. Patterson & Lambdin's


At the same rates as at the Manufactory.
The Western Merchants will find their interest in
purchasing at Pittsburgh, as they will save,
not only the expense of carriage, but
also the exchanges between Eastern
and Western funds.

==> All kinds of LOTTERY and EXCHANGE
business, transacted by J. TOWNE.

Note 1: James Reid Lambdin says in his "Journal": "Patterson & Lambdin having purchased the paper hanging factory of Mr. John Thorne and being in want of some new print blocks... I tried my hand in this kind of carving and finished one set of four blocks to the satisfaction of my superiors. The book store having been removed from 4th St. to the corner of 3rd and Wood St. I continued for several months longer..." It appears that Patterson & Lambdin took over "Towne's Manufactory" at the corner of 3rd and Wood Streets, and there continued the previous store's sales of paper wall hangings, manufactured with paper from the Patterson Steam Mill. The move to the new location was made, perhaps, early in 1823, just before Patterson & Lambdin broke up. James Reid Lambdin later became a noted American painter -- his 1822-23 "print blocks" would now be a valuable artistic rarity, if any yet survive.

Note 2: The "J. Towne" mentioned above was John Towne, a business associate of James Reid Lambdin, who operated "a lottery and exchange office" at the corner of 3rd Street and Wood Street.


Vol. 33.                             Pittsburgh, Tuesday, May 4, 1819.                             No. 101.

Edited by Robert Morris -- Pub. by Jesper Harding, 74 1/2 South 2nd St. & 56 Carter's Alley.

MARRIED, at Philadelphia, on Tuesday evening, the 22d ult. by the Rev. James P. Wilson, D.D., Joseph Patterson, Esq. of Pittsburgh, to Miss Jane McCrea, of that city.

Note 1: This was the Rev. Joseph Patterson, Jr., (1783-1868) brother of Robert Patterson, Sr., and partner with him in the firm of R. & J. Patterson, (which existed in Pittsburgh between 1813 and 1817). William E. Du Bois, in his 1847 genealogy, A Record of the Families of Robert Patterson, says of Joseph Patterson, Jr.: "Joseph was born April 10, 1783. He was educated for the legal profession, and entered upon its practice with good prospects; but a dislike to some parts of the business suddenly determined him to abandon it. He then gave his attention to the purchase and sale, on his own account, of lots in the vicinity of the growing city of Pittsburg; a pursuit that has largely repaid the foresight and cautious management which he brought to it. Mr. P. made profession of religion many years ago, and during his residence in Philadelphia, was a member of the Walnut street Presbyterian church. He returned with his family to Pittsburg, in the spring of 1846, and continues to reside there, a short distance from the city. By his first wife, Jane M'Crea, of Philadelphia, there were no children.. His second wife is Esther Hoge, daughter of the late Rev. Thomas Hoge, of Philadelphia."

Note 2: Pittsburgh minister Samuel Williams, in 1878 offered the following recollection: "I wish to write about J. Patterson. He was Mr. Joseph Patterson who I suppose was in with his brother Robert before Lambden [sic] came into the firm. He married a very wealthy lady, built a long block of buildings on one of the principal business streets, 6th, producing high rents, retired from active business, and finally moved to Philadelphia to enjoy his fortune. I knew him well. I have no doubt you are right in the matter of Mrs. Spaulding's statement concerning the interest Jos. P. had taken in the Manuscript. But Mr. Spaulding not being able to furnish the money for its publication -- there it remained.... And suppose the Novel was returned to Mrs. Spaulding... Engles might during his leisure hours have copied it with the intention of making something out of it and perhaps not being able to publish it, sold it to Rigdon."

Note 3: Art Vanick, et al. offered this conclusion in their 2005 book: "A review of correspondence and other records related to Robert Patterson and the Patterson family leaves the distinct impression that there were hard feelings between these two brothers {Robert and Joseph], and that they avoided communication and contact as much as possible. Whatever the difficulty may have been, it seems to have arisen after 1823 and most likely involved money and real estate... Sidney Rigdon, of course, could have known that Joseph Patterson was the knowledgeable brother and that Spalding's involvement with Robert had been minimal... 'Why was not the testimony of Mr. Patterson obtained..." Rigdon thundered forth in righteous indignation... [but] Joseph Patterson had long since left Pittsburgh, and Robert had little to tell. -- If, as it appears, the squabble that led to the estrangement of these two brothers erupted between 1823-25, while Rigdon was preaching in that city, perhaps he had personal knowledge of it and used it to his advantage when the opportunity arose."

Note 4: Again, Vanick, et al. say: "[Joseph] was remarried to Jane McCrea ca. April 22, 1819, and... continued to rent a house in Pittsburgh until at least the fall of 1823. During the 1820s he practiced law, dabbled in politics, and is known to have been involved in a number of highly successful business ventures, most of them involving real estate. Around the middle of 1826, he appears to have moved to Philadelphia... Indications are that his second wife died ca. 1842, and that he remarried a year or so thereafter. Although Joseph was now 60, this union was to produce five additional children... Joseph survived until [March 25, 1868], when, as an extremely wealthy man then in his 85th year, he died in Philadelphia of the infirmities of old age..."

Note 5: In the 1840s Rev. Joseph Patterson donated money to the Western Theological Seminary (later the Pittsburgh Theological Seminary), in order to fund its Jane McCrea Patterson Scholarship.


Vol. 33.                             Pittsburgh, Friday, May 25, 1819.                             No. 107.

Edited by Robert Morris -- Pub. by Jesper Harding, 74 1/2 South 2nd St. & 56 Carter's Alley.


MARRIED, on the 12th inst. at Lyons Farms, (Sussex County, N. J.) by the Rev. Dr. McDowell, J. H. Lambdin of this city, to Miss Rachel, daughter of Mr. Joseph Wilbur of the former place.

Note 1: In their 2005 book, The Spalding Enigma, the authors offer these observations: "Equally unhelpful is the testimony of Mrs. Rachel Wilbur Lambdin, widow of Jonathan Harrison Lambdin, who [in a letter dated 15 January 1882] regretted she was unable to provide any information relative to either Spalding or Sidney Rigdon except to say 'They certainly could not have been friends of Mr. Lambdin.' [Robert] Patterson [Jr.] notes that Mrs. Lambdin resided in Pittsburgh only from the date of her marriage in May 1819 until shortly after the death of her husband on August 1, 1825."

Note 2: There is little reason to think that Lambdin's widow would have been aware of Solomon Spalding having ever been in the Pittsburgh area, since she was living in New Jersey until nearly two years after Spalding's death. Likewise, she would have had no reason to enquire into her husband's early acquaintance with Sidney Rigdon, unless Mr. Lambdin himself raised that topic. If Mr. Lambdin never invited the "Reverend" Sidney Rigdon to his house during the 1822-25 period, Rachel may have only been vaguely aware of there being a backslidden Baptist clergyman by that name then living in Pittsburgh. None of these explanations negate the possibility (or probability) that Sidney Rigdon maintained some minimal association with J. Harrison Lambdin, during the years shortly before Lambdin's death in 1825.

Note 3: A number of letters and papers pertaining to Rachel Wilbur Lambdin are preserved in the Clements Library at the University of Michigan; in the manuscripts files of the American Antiquarian Society, and in the library of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. See Ruth Irwin Weider's notes in the 2002 booklet, The Lambdins of Philadelphia. Mrs. Lambdin, in her later years, was certainly aware of numerous published articles and books mentioning her husband's supposed connection with Sidney Rigdon. Other than in her 1882 letter, the widow is not known to have offered any response to these allegations.


Vol. 33.                             Pittsburgh, Tuesday, June 1, 1819.                             No. 109.

Edited by Robert Morris -- Pub. by Jesper Harding, 74 1/2 South 2nd St. & 56 Carter's Alley.


Education. -- Walter Scott, from Edinburgh, Respectfully informs the inhabitants of Pittsburgh and its vicinity, that he intends opening a School on Monday 1st for the instruction of youth.

Parents and Guardians wishing to give their children a polite English or classical education may be satisfied of Mr. Scott's abilities by applying to Mr. George Forrester or Alderman Lowrie.

Note 1: William Baxter's 1874 Life of Elder Walter Scott, provides the following information on pages 36-41: "Reaching Pittsburg on the 7th of May, 1819, he [i.e. Scott] began to seek for some employment, and soon had the good fortune to fall in with Mr. George Forrester, a fellow-countryman, and the principal of an academy, by whom he was immediately engaged as assistant in his school... A change in the plans of Mr. Forrester made it necessary for him to give up his school, and as Mr. Scott had proved himself to be admirably qualified for the position, the entire management of it fell into his hands..."

Note 2: Elder Scott's reputation as an educator, preacher and evangelist grew over the years. For some insight into his religious views following his embracing Campbellism, and after befriending Sidney Rigdon, see the 1824 pamphlet, published in Pittsburgh, entitled A Reply, to... Iniquitous Letters.


Vol. ?                                 Pittsburgh, Friday, August 27, 1819.                                  No. ?


To cap the climax of desperation, this wanton of folly, had information extensively circulated, that she would, on a particular day, manifest her power and divinity, by walking on a certain river. Curiosity was upon tip toe, to witness such a phenomenon in nature. It is to be presumed, that thousands, from every quarter, repaired to the appointed place.

Jemima appeared, attended by the brothers and sisterhood of the fraternity, and commenced the exercises by addressing the multitude present, upon the important subject of faith, and endeavored by argumentation, to persuade her hearers, that if she did not perform her promise, it would be owing to their unbelief; and in order to exemplify and enforce conviction on their minds, she cited the case of Peter, and avered, that he walked on the water, until he and his brethren's faith had departed from them; then Peter began to sink, and in his extremity, "Jesus stretched forth his hand, and caught him, and said unto him, O! thou of little faith, therefore didst thou doubt?"

After the conclusion of this harangue, Jemima approached the margin of the river, and lo! as she trod the water, it would not obey her sovereign command, to uphold her unhallowed and ponderous weight! -- After this experiment, she indignantly retreated upon the multitude, and reproved them as the cause, and as a verification of her prediction, declared in the language of our Lord -- "This is an evil generation; they seek a sign, and there shall be no sign given it, for as Jonas was a sign unto the Ninevites, so shall Jemima be to this generation. The Queen of the South shall rise up in judgment with the men of this generation, and condemn them; for she came from the uttermost parts of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and behold, a greater than Solomon is here. The men of Ninevah shall rise up in judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it; for they repented at the preaching of Jonas, and behold, a greater than Jonas is here."

How the disappointed expectants suffered her to retire from this scene of action, I did not learn.

Notwithstanding her repeated discomfitures, by endeavouring to perform an act calculated to convince the most credulous of her admirers of her Messiahship, still, like the staunch murderer, steady to her purpose, she was determined to make another effort of imposition. She and her immediate followers formed a conspiracy for decerption, and pre-concerted a plan that promised success; for she had no doubt of the ultimatum, as the means to accomplish her project, was within her own borders and under her control.

This Anti-Christ and her apostles, agreed to circulate a report, that one of Jemima's apostles was severely indisposed. After this, his death was announced; the day appointed for his funeral obsequies; and that Jemima, having lost her favourite and belovd apostle, would only suffer him to sleep four days in death, and after that, raise him again. This account spread far distant, and the concourse which assembled to witness this solemn transaction, was represented to be immense. Jemima and her family walked in procession to the grave. When they had arrived at the place of interment, Jemima commenced their ritual ceremonies, by a short introductory discourse upon death and the resurrection; and, she assured them, as it was in the days of her prototype, so it had continued from generation to generation. Calumny and detraction put orcular demonstration and truth to defiance; and that a prophet was not without honour, save in his own country; and concluded by promising to perform such a miracle in the presence of her God and his people, as would convince them of her divine mission. She spoke largely of the affection she entertained towards the deceased; denominating him a beloved apostle, but assuring them that he should rise again from death, in their presence. After concluding her sermon, she recited, by rote (she was considered a perfect scriptorian) from the first verse of the XI Chapter of St. John's Gospel, until she came to the 41st verse. Every spectator was big with expectation, to witness the issue, and Jemima no less sanguine as to the result, and the establishment of a belief that she was more than mortal.

But, unfortunately for this Jezebel, and artful woman, an officer happened to be present, witnessing this farce, and it appeared by his own declaration afterwards, that he was convinced from the whole tenor of the exhibition, an imposition was intended, and would be practised, unless a proposition was made, which if acted upon, would effectually prevent the supposed dead man from rising. Accordingly, this wight, having more courage and daring than any one present, just as Jemima had ended repeating the 40th verse, and was about offering up, with sacriligeons lips, the prayer that our blessed Lord offered previous to his commanding Lazarus to come forth, commanded her to stop until he had run his sword through the coffin; and after that he would guarantee her beloved apostle would never rise again. The man in the coffin, having heard the conversation and determination of the officer, forced off the cover of the coffin and walked out, to the no small terror of some, and astonishment of all present!

The chagrin of this undaunted champion of a diabolical system, bears no parallel. Independent of that fatal developement of her Anti-Christian spirit, her hardihood and effrontery upon this, as well as all other occasions, has never been surpassed. How she escaped the vengeance of an indignant and insulted public, I cannot fathom; but the presumption must be, that her being a female, and viewed as a fanatic, was her passport and protection.

Note 1: The "walking on water" story was also told of Jacob Cochran at an early date. The bogus dead disciple's resurrection narrative was applied to a Mormon preacher in an 1844 issue of the Syracuse Freeman.

Note 2: The Utica Evangelical Magazine and Advocate of June 6, 1835 provided a fanciful tale of a "Mormon Angel" with Joseph Smith as the subject. See also the "walking on the water" tale applied to Smith in the Apr. 19, 1834 issue of the Philadelphia Saturday Courier and Smith's trained dove mimicking the Holy Spirit, as told in the Feb. 14, 1843 issue of the Norwalk Huron Reflector.


Vol. 33.                             Pittsburgh, Friday, October 1, 1819.                             No. 144.

Edited by Robert Morris -- Pub. by Jesper Harding, 74 1/2 South 2nd St. & 56 Carter's Alley.


Delegation Meeting. -- At a meeting of the Delegates of the county of Allegheny, convened in the city of Pittsburgh, pursuant to notice, on Saturday the 25th of September, inst.... Resolved -- That Robert Graham, esq., Samuel Marks, William Porter, Samuel Hare, Charles Rigdon, Thomas Gibson, esq. and Charles Shaler, be appointed a committee to correspond with the committees of other counties in the commonwealth...

Note 1: The Charles mentioned above was Sidney Rigdon's first cousin, Charles Rigdon (1786-1852?) who had grown up near Sidney's father's farm south of Pittsburgh. Charles had been previously ordained a Baptist elder and intermittently served as a pastor in Baptist churches north of Pittsburgh. His brother John Rigdon (also a Baptist minister) was present at Sidney's ordination at New Lisbon, Ohio, in August, 1819. He also attended the Sept. 1823 Redstone Baptist Associan annual meeting at Elder Sidney Rigdon's little chapel in Pittsburgh -- when Sidney was effectively deposed from his pastorate. Charles Rigdon and his wife Ann Dailey Rigdon were living in Saint Claire Twp., Allegheny Co., south of Pittsburgh, as late as 1818 when their first son, Thomas, was born there. The above newspaper notice extends his residence in the Pittsburgh neighborhood almost to the end of 1819.

Note 2: Obviously the young Sidney Rigdon had friends and relatives living very near Pittsburgh, who had reason to visit that town occasionally -- and perhaps even take up temporary residence there. It is also very likely that Sidney had kinfolk and/or former neighbors who lived within Pittsburgh's town limits, during the years when he was yet a juvenile. At some point in his early life Sidney must have served an apprenticeship in the leather finishing trade, and such an occupation might have taken him into town on business, years before his tenure as a journeyman tanner in that place. Such contacts in Pittsburgh would have naturally provided him with reasons to visit there (as well as resources for lodging and boarding).

Note 3: Sidney Rigdon came back to the Pittsburgh area early in 1822, and took up his duties of pastor for the First Baptist Church in that town. His brother and a brother-in-law, writing in 1843, characterized Sidney's actions thusly: "S. Rigdon... joined the regular Baptist Church... and was ordained a regular Baptist preacher, and returned to Pittsburgh in the winter of 1821 and '22, and took the care of the First Regular Baptist Church." Their use of the term "returned to Pittsburgh" is explained somewhat by a recollection penned about the year 1900 by Sidney's son, John W. Rigdon: "In 1819 he [Sidney Rigdon] obtained a license to preach & went to Pittsburgh & preached here a short time. Then went to... Ohio & remained there [about] 2 years. About the same yr. he married Phebe Brooks who was the daughter of Jeremiah Brooks a great Baptist Minister. Soon after his marriage they started on their wedding tour to Pittsburgh to visit his brother & mother & sister who resided 10 miles from Pittsburgh." Having briefly preached to the Pittsburgh Baptist church in 1819, Sidney can be said to have "returned to Pittsburgh" two years later. That description came from the memory of Carvil Rigdon, the same brother who "resided 10 miles from Pittsburgh" during "the winter of 1821 and '22."

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