RESEARCH  AND  INTERESTS  OF  THE  LATE  VERNAL  HOLLEY

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Vernal Holley
(1924-2000)
The Great Secret
(Roy, Utah: self-published 2000)
Special Annotated Digital Edition

  • Front Cover   Frontispiece
  • Introduction   Concerning Hades
  • Calpernius Piso   NT Parallels
  • Mary Accounts   Conclusion
  • Appendix 1   Appendix 2
  • Editor's Comments



  • Copyright 2000 by Vernal Holley - all rights reserved

    This web-page is still under contruction  




    THE  GREAT  SECRET



    THE  TRUE  AUTHORSHIP

    OF

    THE  NEW  TESTAMENT




    by


    VERNAL  HOLLEY








    Roy, Utah
    2000


     

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    THE  GREAT  SECRET

    "FOR THERE IS NOTHING COVERED THAT WILL NOT BE REVEALED" (Matt. 10:26)

    The title of these writings indicates that there is a question regarding the authorship of the New Testament. The New Testament, the Church, and Christianity, are said to be the creation of the Calpurnius Piso family, who were Roman aristocrats. The New Testament and all the characters in it -- Jesus, all the Josephs, all the Marys, all the disciples, apostles, Paul, and John the Baptist -- all are said to be fictional. It is believed that the Pisos, a prominent Roman family, created the story and the characters; and tied the story into a specific time and place in history; and connected it with some peripheral people, such as the Herods, Gamaliel, the Roman procurators, ect., and Jesus and everyone involved with him were created (that is fictional!) characters.

    The family headed by Lucius Piso were the Calpurnius Pesos, descended from statesmen and consuls, and from great poets and historians as well. Gaius Lucius Calpurnius Piso, was the leader of the family.

    In the middle of the first century of the present era, Rome's aristocracy felt itself confronted with a growing problem. The Jewish religion was continuing to grow in numbers, adding ever more proselytes. Jews numbered more than 8,000,000.... Romans feared that Judaism would become the chief religion of the Roman empire.... The Pisos searched for a solution to the problem. They found it in the Jewish holy books.... The Pisos mocked, but marveled at, the Jewish belief in their holy books. Therefore they felt that a new "Jewish" book would be the ideal method to pacify the Judeans and strengthen their control of the country.

    About the year, 60 A.D., Lucius Calpurnius Piso composed Ur Marcus, the first version of the Gospel of Mark, which no longer exists. Then Piso wrote, the gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke. The Jesus figure which Piso creates is a composite. He plagiarized the Hebrew scriptures. Especially, he loved and borrowed freely from the prophet Isaiah, whose 44th chapter was most helpful. Piso's idea to make Jesus a god to whom to bow, worship and pray came from Isaiah 44:17;... and the idea for Jesus' cross came from Isaiah 44:13. Piso makes Jesus "fulfill" a multitude of verses from the Hebrew Bible.
     

    PISO ALSO CREATED JOSEPHUS' WORKS

    In addition to creating Jesus in literature, Piso created for himself another famous literary role, that of a perported Jewish general and historian: Flavius Josephus. As Josephus, Piso contended he had bravely led his fellow Jews in the war against the Roman invaders. However, like Jesus, Josephus existed only in literature, that is, in Piso's own writings. Under his fictional name of Flavius Josephus he wrote during these approximate years the following:

    The Jewish War    75-80 C.E
    Jewish Antiquities    90-93 C.E.
    His purported autobiography    96-103 C.E.
    Contra Apionem    103-105 C.E.
    Discourse to the Greeks Concerning Hades    c. 105 C.E.
    Then Calpurnius Piso wrote the following gospels:
    The Gospel of Mark (now lost).
    The Gospel According to Saint Matthew.
    The Gospel According to Saint Mark.
    The Gospel According to Saint Luke.
    The writings of Paul.

     


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    AN  EXTRACT

    OUT OF
    JOSEPHUS'  DISCOURSE  TO  THE  GREEKS  CONCERNING  HADES


    1. Now as to Hades, wherein the souls of the righteous and unrighteous are detained, it is necessary to speak of it. Hades is a place in the world not regularly finished; a subterraneous region where the light of the world does not shine; from which circumstances, that in this place the light does not shine, it cannot be but there must be in it perpetual darkness. This region is allowed as a place of custody for souls, in which angels are appointed as guardians to them, who distribute to them temporary punishments, agreeable to every one's behavior and manners.

    2. In this region there is a certain place set apart, as a lake of unquenchable fire, wherein we suppose no one hath hitherto been cast; but it is prepared for a day afore-determined by God, in which one righteous sentence shall deservedly be passed upon all men; when the unjust and those that have been disobedient to God, and have given honor to such idols as have been the vain operations of the hands of men, as to God himself, shall be adjudged to this everlasting punishment, as having been the causes of defilement; while the just shall obtain an incorruptible and never-fading kingdom. These are now indeed confined to Hades, but not in the same place wherein the unjust are confined.

    3. For there is one decent into this region, at whose gate we believe who stands an archangel with a host; which gate when those pass through that are conducted down by the angels appointed over souls, they do not go the same way; but the just are guided to the right hand and are led with hymns sung by the angels appointed over that place, unto a region of light, in which the just have dwelt from the beginning of the world; not constrained by necessity, but ever enjoying the prospect of the good things they see, and rejoice in the expectation of those new enjoyments which will be peculiar to every one of them, and esteeming those things beyond what we have here; with them there is no place of toil, no burning heat, no piercing cold, nor are there any briers there; but the countenance of the fathers and of the just, which they see, always smiles upon them, while they wait for that rest and eternal new life in heaven, which is to succeed this region. This place we call The Bosom of Abraham.

    4. But as to the unjust, they are dragged by force to the left hand, by the angels allotted for punishment, no longer going with a good-will, but as prisoners driven by violence; to whom are sent the angels appointed over them to reproach them and to threaten them with their terrible looks, and to thrust them still downwards. Now those angels that are set over these souls, drag them into the neighborhood of hell itself; who, when they are hard by it, continually hear the noise of it, and do not stand clear of the hot vapor itself; but when they have a nearer view of this spectacle, as of a terrible and exceeding great prospect of fire, they are struck with a fearful expectation of a future judgment, and in effect punished thereby; and not only so, but where they see the place [or choir] of the fathers and of the just, even hereby are they punished; for a chaos deep and large is fixed between them; insomuch that a just man that hath compassion upon them, cannot be admitted, nor can one that is unjust, if he were bold enough to attempt it, pass over it.

    5. This is the discourse concerning Hades, wherein the souls of all men are confined until a proper season, which God hath determined, when he will make a resurrection of all men from the dead, not procuring a transmigration of souls from one body to another, but raising again those very bodies, which you Greeks, seeing to be dissolved, do not believe [their resurrection;] but learn not to disbelieve it; for while you believe that the soul is created, and yet is made immortal by God, according to the doctrine of Plato, and this in time, be not incredulous, but believe that God is able, when he hath raised to life that body which was made as a compound of the same elements, to make it immortal; for it must never be said of God that he is able to do some things, and unable to do others. We have therefore believed that the body will be raised again; for although it be dissolved, it is not perished; for the earth receives its remains, and preserves them; and while they are like seed, and are mixed among the more fruitful soil, they flourish, and what is sown is indeed sown bare grain; but at the mighty sound of God the Creator, it will sprout up, and be raised in a clothed and glorious condition, though not before it has been dissolved, and mixed [with the earth] so that we have not

     


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    rashly believed the resurrection of the body; for although it be dissolved for a time on account of the original transgression, it exists still, and is cast into the earth as a potters furnace, in order to be formed again, but in a state of purity, and so as never to be destroyed any more: and to every body shall its own soul be restored; and when it hath clothed itself with that body, it will not be subject to misery, but being itself pure, it will continue with its pure body, and rejoice with it, with which it having walked righteously now in this world, and never having had it as a snare, it would receive it again with great gladness; but as for the unjust, they will receive their bodies not changed, not freed from diseases or distempers, nor made glorious, but with the same diseases wherein they died; and such as they were in their unbelief, the same shall they be when they shall be faithfully judged.

    6. For all men, the just as well as the unjust, shall be brought before God the word; for to him hath the Father committed all judgment and he, in order to fulfill the will of his Father, shall come as judge, whom we call Christ. For Minos and Rhadamanthus are not judges, as you Greeks do suppose, but he whom God even the Father hath glorified, CONCERNING WHOM WE HAVE ELSEWHERE GIVEN A MORE PARTICULAR ACCOUNT, FOR THE SAKE OF THOSE WHO SEEK AFTER TRUTH. This person, exercising the righteous judgment of the Father towards all men, hath prepared a just sentence for every one, according to his works; at whose judgment-seat when all men, and angels, and demons shall stand, they will send forth one voice, and say, JUST IS THY JUDGMENT; the rejoinder to which will bring a just sentence upon both parties, by giving justly to those that have done well an everlasting fruition; but allotting to the lovers of wicked works eternal punishment. To these belong the unquenchable fire, and that without end, and a certain fiery worm never dying, and not destroying the body, but continuing its eruption out of the body with never-ceasing grief; neither will sleep give ease to these men, nor will the night afford them comfort; death will not free them from their punishment, nor will the interceding prayers of their kindred profit them; for the just are no longer seen by them, nor are they thought worthy of remembrance; but the just shall remember only their righteous actions, whereby they have attained the heavenly kingdom, in which there is no sleep, no sorrow, no corruption, no care, no night, no day measured by time, no sun driven in his course along the circle of heaven by necessity, and measuring out the bounds and conversions of the seasons, for the better illumination of the life of men; no moon decreasing and increasing, or introducing a variety of seasons, nor will she then moisten the earth; no burning sun, no Bear turning around [the pole] no Orion to rise, no wandering of innumerable stars. The earth will not then not be difficult to be passed over, nor will it be hard to find out the court of Paradise, nor will there be any fearful roaring of the sea, forbidding the passengers to walk on it: even that will be made easily passable to the just, though it will not be void of moisture. Heaven will not then be uninhabitable by men; and it will not be impossible to discover the way of ascending thither. The earth will not be uncultivated, nor require too much labor of men, but will bring forth its fruits of its own accord, and will be well adorned with them. There will be no more generations of wild beasts, nor will the substance of the rest of the animals shoot out any more; for it will not produce men, but the number of the righteous will continue, and never fail, together with the righteous angels, and spirits [of God,] and with his word, as a choir of righteous men and women that never grow old, and continue in an incorruptible state, singing hymns to God, who hath advanced them to that happiness, by the means of a regular institution of life; with whom the whole creation also will lift up a perpetual hymn from corruption to incorruption as glorified by a splendid and pure spirit. It will not then be restrained by a bond of necessity, but with a lively freedom shall offer up a voluntary hymn, and shall praise him that made them, together with the angels, and spirits, and men now freed from all bondage.

    7. And now, if you Gentiles will be persuaded by these motives, and leave your vain imaginations about your pedigrees, and gaining of riches and philosophy, and will not spend your time about subtleties of words, and thereby lead your minds into error, and if you will apply your ears to the hearing to the inspired prophets, the interpreters, both of God and his word, and will believe in God, you shall be both partakers of these things, and obtain the good things that are to come; you shall see the ascent into the immense heaven plainly, and that kingdom which is there; for what God hath now concealed in silence [will be then manifest,] what neither eye hath seen, nor ear hath heard, nor hath it entered into the heart of man, the things that God hath prepared for them that love him.

     


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    8. In whatsoever ways I shall find you, in them shall I judge you entirely; so cries the END of all things. And he that hath at first lived a virtuous life, but towards the later end falls into vice, these labors by him before endured, shall be altogether vain and unprofitable, even as in a play, brought to an ill catastrophe. Whosoever shall have lived wickedly and luxuriously may repent; however, there will be need of much time to conquer an evil habit, and even after repentance his whole life must be guarded with great care and diligence, after the manner of a body, which, after it hath been a long time afflicted with a distemper, requires a stricter diet and method of living; for though it may be possible, perhaps, to break off the chain of our irregular affections at once, yet our amendment cannot be secured without the grace of God, the prayers of good men, the help of the brethren, and our own sincere repentance and constant care. It is a good thing not to sin at all; it is also good, having sinned, to repent, as it is best to have good health always; but it is a good thing to recover from a distemper. To God be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.

      These lines will be familiar to the New Testament scholar. It is further evidence that the New Testament was written by Calpernius Piso alias Flavius Josephus.

    With their fathers death in 65, the Pisos vanish from public Roman history. For the next 73 years they are busy writing the additional books of the New Testament and tightening their power over the known world; but they appear only by their alias names.

    To the researcher, the above account of Piso, alias Josephus, may seem to be spurious. But it is interesting to know that there is nothing written of Josephus' life, by any of the many historical writers of his day. If Josephus was a real person and experienced the account said to have been written of himself, surely he would have merited some place in the history of Rome or Jerusalem. But his works are the only evidence that he may have actually existed. (The information on these pages was taken from a paper titled "The True Authorship of the New Testament" by Abela Reuchli [sic - Abelard Reuchlin])

    The following account of Josephus' purported life was written in 1878 by W.S. LaSor:
    "Josephus, or more accurately Joseph ben Matthias, was born the year Gaius acceded to the throne of the Roman empire, A.D. 37, and died sometime after A.D. 100. He was born of a priestly family and through his Hasmonean mother could boast of royal blood... In brief we can divide his life into two parts, each about thirty-three years in length: the first half could be described as the life of Joseph ben Matthias, Jewish priest, General, and prisoner; the second half, with some reservations, as the life of Flavius Josephus the Roman citizen and author....

    After the destruction of Jerusalem, Josephus was given a tract of land near Jerusalem, a number of books, and a chance to retire to a life off quiet contemplation. He chose, to return to Rome with Titus, where he became a client of the Flavian family, received Roman citizenship, and was commissioned to write a history of the Jewish people....

    Josephus' first literary work was the Wars of the Jews, published in the closing years of the reign of Vespasian... he composed the work first in Aramaic. According to his own word, he translated it into Greek... The Wars of the Jews was written under the commission of the emperor, and can be looked upon as a bit of propaganda, designed to deter others who might have been tempted to revolt.

    His Antiquities of the Jews was published about fifteen years later (A.D. 93 or 94)...

    His life was written... shortly after the year A.D. 100, principally as an apology for his own life, to defend himself against charges made by Justus of Tiberias concerning Josephus' conduct during the war in Galilee.

    (His treatise) Against Apion is an apology for Judaism in which Josephus evaluates the ideals of Hellenism and shows its deficiencies while at the same time showing the excellencies of the Jewish religion." (FORWARD by William Sanford LaSor, William Wiston, Josephus' Complete Works 1878).

     


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    The earliest non-Christian reference to a Christ occurs in Piso's Antiquities of the Jews A.D. 93.
    Now, there was about this time, Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a doer of wonderful works -- a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over to him both many of the Jews, and many of the gentiles. He was [the] Christ; and when Pilot, at the suggestion of the principal men amongst us, had condemned him to the cross, those who Ioved him at the first did not forsake him, for he appeared to them alive again the third day, as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other things concerning him; and the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day. (William Whiston, Josephus' Complete Works, 1978 ed., p. 379)

    Calpurnius Piso, (alias Josephus) tells of Christ a second time:
    Albinus... assembled the sanhedrim of the judges, and brought before them the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James, and some others, [or some of his companions] and when he had formed an accusation against them as breakers of the law, he delivered them to be stoned. (ibid. p. 423)

    About 110 CE, the Roman historian Tactitus told of Christ and the Christians:
    Nero, in order to stifle the rumor, (as if he himself had not set Rome on fire,) ascribed it to those people who were hated for their wicked practices, and called by the vulgar, Christians: these he punished exquisitely. The author of this name was Christ, who, in the reign of Tiberius, was brought to punishment by Pontius Pilate the procurator. (Whiston, p. 639)

    About 147 CE, Justin Martyr wrote: "You Jews knew that Jesus was risen from the dead, and ascended into heaven, as the prophecies did foretell was to happen. (ibid)

    These testamonies were undoubtedly inspired by the earlier written statements by Piso.
     
    Jesus in Rabinical Tradition
    There are other references to Jesus in Jewish literature, beyond those found in the works of Josephus, he is mentioned, expressly or allusively, in a number of places in the earlier Rabbinical literature.... It is from the Tannaitic period that we should expect the most reliable traditions about Jesus, if indeed any traditions about him are to be found at all. The most important is a baraitha preserved in the Talmudic tractate Sanhedrim (43a) "Jesus was hanged on Passover eve. Forty days previously the herald had cried, 'He is being led out for stoning, because he had practiced sorcery and led Israel astray and incised them into apostasy. Whoever has anything to say in his defense let him come and declare it.' As nothing was brought forward in his defense he was hanged on Passover eve...."

    To this Baraitha are appended some remarks by Ulla, a later Rabbi who flourished about the end of the third century. Ulla said: 'Would you believe that any defense would have been so zealously sought for him. He was a deceiver, and the All Merciful says: you shall not spare him, neither shall you conceal him' (F.F. Bruce, Jesus and Christian Origins Outside the New Testament pp. 54-57)

    The oldest extant copies of the gospels go back only to the third century. The original compositions were apparently written between A.D. 60 and 120... Christian writers before 100 quote the Old but never the New Testament. (Durant p. 555)
    It is to be noted that these testimonies of Jesus were written, not at the time of Jesus' supposed life, but many years later, probably taken from Piso's works.

    To these may be added statements found in the Encyclopedia Britannica:
    Passages about Jesus in the Babylonian Talmud show that the Babylonian Amorian had no conception of the historical Jesus and of the time when he lived; All they new about him was composed by hearsay. (also) It is worthy to note that there is no mention of Christianity and its founders in the Palestinian Talmud. (p. 769)

     


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    It is the opinion of this writer that Piso created the New Testament story and most of the characters, then tied them to a specific time and place in history, connecting it with actual people such as the Herods. (See appendix for name lists)

    JOSEPHUS  PARALLELS  IN  THE  NEW  TESTAMENT

    Since over one hundred personal names in Josephus' perported writings are also found in the New Testament, it seems obligatory on the part of the researcher to scan his works for further correspondence in details. Textual evidence is not found wanting to show that the writer of the New Testament was also the writer of Josephus' works:

    Josephus
    At the command of God... Abram left the land of Chaldea... the people of Mesopotamia...
    (Book 1, v 7, 1)
    Acts
    God appeared to... Abraham when he was in Mesopotamia and said... get thee out of thy country
    (Acts 7:2, 3)
    Genesis
    Now the Lord said unto Abram -- get thee out of thy country...
    (Gen. 12:1)

    The above parallels show that it is only in Josephus (Piso) and Acts that God commands Abraham to flee Mesopotamia. The book of Genesis tells tells nothing of Mesopotamia. This seems to indicate that both the Luke account and the Josephus account were written by the same person.

    Piso wrote:
    "Abraham greatly loved Isaac, as his only begotten" (Antq. I, XIII, I) The writer of Hebrews states: "Abraham when he was tried, offered up Isaac: and he that had received the promises offered up his only begotten son." (Hebrews 11:17) "his only begotten," in reference to Isaac, is found only in Josephus and Hebrews. The term is not found in the Old Testament account. This again seems to indicate that the Hebrews account was written by Piso.

    In Piso's Josephus we read:
    "The beauty of the child (Moses) was so remarkable, that it detained the spectators, and made them stay longer to look at him". And that Moses was "educated with great care." (Antq. II, IX, 6, 7) The writer of Acts has Steven say that Moses was "exceedingly fair" and "was learned in all wisdom of the Egyptians." The Old Testament account tells nothing of Moses' body nor his education. This again indicates that the New Testament account was written by Piso.

    THEUDAS  AND  JUDAS  OF  GALILEE

    Piso writes:
    Now it came to pass,... that a certain magician whose name was Theudas persuaded a great part of the people to take their effects with them, and to follow him to the River Jordan, for he told them he was a prophet.... and many were deluded by his words. However, Fadus... sent a troop of horsemen out against them; who falling upon them unexpectedly, slew many of them.... They also took Theudas alive, and cut off his head, and carried it to Jerusalem....

    Then came Tiberius Alexander as successor to Fadus.... and besides this, the sons of Judas of Galilee were now slain; I mean of that Judas who caused the people to revolt, when Cyrenius came to take an account of the estates of the Jews" (To determine their taxation) (Antq. XX V. 1,2)

    The New Testament author writes:
    For before these days rose up Theudas, boasting himself to be somebody; to whom a number of men, about four hundred, joined themselves, who was slain; and all, as many as obeyed him were scattered, and brought to naught.

     


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    After this man rose up Judas of Galilee in the days of taxing, and drew away much people after him: he also perished; and all, even as many as obeyed him, were dispersed. (Acts 5:36, 37)

    FROM  THE  BEGINNING  OF  THE  WORLD

    Piso records that:
    Accordingly it appears to me, that the misfortunes, of all men, from the beginning of the world, if they be compared with the Jews, are not so considerable as they were.... For example I shall relate how Antiochus, who was named Epiphanes, took Jerusalem by force and held it three years and three months.... Accordingly Matthias... together with his own family... fled to the Mountains... and... many of the people followed him. (Wars preface v. 4,7)

    This Antiochus Epiphanes, and his taking of Jerusalem by force, was described by Piso as the abomination of desolation "which came to pass according to the prophecy of Daniel." (Antq. XII, VII, 6)

    In the New Testament, the writer of Matthew tells a similar account, but applies the event to some time in the future:

    When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place. Then let them which be in Judae flee to the mountains.... For then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no nor ever shall be." (Matt. 24:15, 21)

    The similarity of these verses from Piso and Matthew again seem to indicate the connection between the two.

    ZOROBABLE  SON  OF  SALATHIEL

    The old Testament book of 1st Chronicles lists the genealogy of the descendants of David. Chapter three, verses 17 and 18 lists Jeconiah as the father of Salathiel, and Zorubbable as the son of Pedaiah and nephew of Salathiel. Josephus (Piso) also gives the genealogy of David, but differs from the Bible, telling that Zorobable was the son of Salathiel, leaving Pedaiah out of the genealogical line. Piso (Josephus) renders the spelling of Zorobable differently from the Zorubbable of the Bible (Antq. XI, III, 10).

    The writers of Matthew I:12 and Luke 3:27 also list the Davidic genealogy but both follow the line given in Josephus, leaving Pedaiah out of David's line. Matthew and Luke follow the Piso-Josephus account again when they spell the name "Zorobable" while the Bible uses the Zorubbable spelling.

    THE  TWELVE  AND  SEVENTY

    Josephus reads:
    He (Varus) therefore called twelve of the Jews of Caesarea, of the best character and ordered them to go to Ecbatana.... He also enjoined them to send seventy of their principal men.... so these seventy went down to Caesarea, together with the Twelve..." (Jos. Life, sec. 11)

    Piso' New Testament also tells of the twelve and seventy:
    Then he called his twelve disciples together... and sent them to preach the Kingdom of God... After these things the lord appointed other seventy a two and two and sent them two and two before his face into every city and place. (Luke 9:1, 10:1)

    THE  TEMPLE  OF  DIANA

    Piso tells us that:
    ...when Judas heard that Timotheus prepared himself to flight, he took all his own army and went in haste against Timotheus... About this time it was that King Antiochus, as he was going over the upper countries, heard that there was... a very rich Temple of Diana, and that it was full of all sorts of donations.., left there by Alexander... king of Macedonia..." (Antq. XII, VIII, 4, XII, IX, I)

     


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    The writer of Acts also mentions "Timotheus" "Alexander" and "Macedonia" in connection with the "Temple of Diana" story:
    So he sent to Macedonia, two of them that ministered unto him, Timotheus and Erastus.... moreover... this Paul hath persuaded and turned away much people, saying that they be no Gods.... also that the Temple of the great goddess Diana should be despised.... and they drew Alexander out of the multitude. (Acts 19:22, 27)

    TRIAL  OF  THE  SANHEDRIM

    Piso tells of Herod's trial before the Sanhedrim:
    ...for those women continued every day in the temple, persuading the king and the people that Herod might undergo a trial before the Sanhedrim for what he had done. Hycranus was so moved by these complaints, that he summoned Herod to come to his trial for what was charged upon him... when Herod stood before the Sanhedrim,... he affrighted them all, and no one of his Accusers durst, after that, to bring any charge against him, but there was a deep silence, and nobody knew what was to be done.

    When affairs stood thus, one whose name was Simeon, a righteous man he was... rose up and said, 'O you that are accusers with me... I neither have ever myself known such a case... that one who is called to take his trial by us ever stood in such a manner before us... but this admirable man Herod, (who is called King of the Jews) is called to answer so heavy an accusation, stands here in purple... yet do I not make this complaint against Herod...

    But when Hycranus saw that members of the Sanhedrim were ready to pronounce the sentence of death upon Herod, he put off the trial to another day... for that his accusation, which was derived from evil councilors, and not from... (Antq. XIV, IX, 4).

    The New Testament tells of Jesus' trial before the Sanhedrim:
    And the chief priests and the council (the Sanhedrim) sought witness against Jesus to put him to death; and found none... and there arose certain, and bare false witness... And the high priest stood up in their midst and asked Jesus, saying: Answerest thou nothing? What is it which these witness against thee? But he held his peace and answered him nothing.... And the chief priests.., delivered him to Pilate, and Pilate asked him, Art thou King of the Jews? And he answering said to him, Thou sayest it. And the chief priests accused him of many things: but he answered him nothing (And Herod said: I am innocent of the blood of this just person (Matt. 27:24)

    And the soldiers led him away... and they clothed him in purple.... and began to salute him. 'hail king of the Jews'.... and they compel one Simon.... to bear his cross. (Mark 15:17-21).

    FALSE  PROPHET  ON  THE  MOUNT  OF  OLIVES

    Piso tells of a false prophet:
    ...now these impostors and deceivers persuaded the multitude to follow them into the wilderness, and pretended that they would exhibit manifest wonders and signs, that should be performed by the providence of God.... Moreover, there came out of Egypt about this time to Jerusalem, one that said he was a prophet, and advised the multitude... to go along with him to the Mount of Olives, as it was called, which lay over against the city.... He said further that he would shew them, how, at his command the walls of Jerusalem would fall down. (Antq. XX, VIII, 6)

     


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    The writer of Mark tells a similar story:
    And as he went out of the temple, one of his disciples saith unto him, Master see what manner of stones and what buildings are here! And Jesus answering said to him, see thou these great buildings? There shall not be left one stone that shall not be throne down. And as he sat upon the Mount of Olives over against the temple, Peter and James and John and Andrew ask him privately, tell us when shall there things be.... And Jesus answering them began to say: Take heed lest any man deceive you: for many will come in my name saying, I am Christ; and shall deceive many.... For false Christ's and false prophets shall rise and show signs and wonders, to seduce if it were possible, even the elect. (Mark 13:1-6, 22)

    In this parallel the Egyptian false prophet in Piso becomes the prophet Christ of the New Testament. It is seen that in both accounts the prophets were deceivers who led their followers into the wilderness. In Piso the false prophet would manifest "wonders and signs," while in Mark the-prophet reversed the saying and would "show signs and wonders." In both stories the prophets prophesied that they would destroy the walls or buildings of the temple.

    The writer of Acts has the chief captain ask Paul: "Art thou not that Egyptian which before these days madest an uproar, and leddest out into the wilderness four thousand men that were murderers." Acts 21:38)

    SUNDRY  LAWS

    Piso:
    These Essenes reject pleasures as as evil, but esteem continence (self restraint), and the conquest over our passions, to be virtue. They neglect wedlock, but... do not absolutely deny the fitness of marriage, and the succession of mankind thereby continued; but they guard against the lascivious behavior of women, and are persuaded that none of them preserve their fidelity to one man. (Wars II, VIII, 2)

    New Testament:
    Now concerning the things whereof ye wrote unto me: it is good for a man not to touch a woman. Nevertheless, to avoid fornication, let every man have his own wife, and let every woman have her own husband.... For I would that all men were even as myself. (celibate)... I say therefore to the unmarried and widows, it is good for them if they abide even as I. But if they cannot contain, let them marry: for it is better to marry than to burn. (1st Cor. 7:1-9)

    Piso:
    These men are despisers of riches.... Nor is there any one to be found among them who hath more than another, for it is a law among them, that those who come to them must let what they have to be common to the whole order, insomuch that among them all there is no appearance of poverty or excess of riches, but every one's Possessions are intermingled with every other's Possessions; and so there is, as it were, one patrimony among all the brethren.... To provide succor... when they stand in need of it. (Wars II, VIII, 3,6)

    New Testament:
    And all that believed were together, and had all things in common, and sold their Possessions and goods, and parted them to all men, as every man had need.

    Piso:
    They are eminent for fidelity, and are ministers of peace; whatsoever they say also is firmer that an oath; but swearing is avoided by them, and they esteem it worse than perjury; for they say, that he that cannot be believed without swearing by God, is already condemned. (Wars II, VIII, 6)

    New Testament:
    But above all things, my brethren, Swear not, neither by heaven, neither by the earth, neither by any other oath: but let your yea be yea, and tour nay, nay; lest ye fall into condemnation. (James 5:12).

     


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    It is apparent that the author of Luke/Acts used a format taken from the works of Piso (Josephus):

    LUKE-ACTS

    "It seems good to me... to write to thee in order, most excellent Theophilus that thou might know the certainty of these things" (Luke 1:3)

    "The former treatise have I made O Theophilus, of all that Jesus began both to do and to teach..." (Acts I: I)

    JOSEPHUS

    "I suppose, that by my books of the Antiquities of the Jews, most excellent Epaphroditus. I have made it evident to those that pursue them that our nation is of great antiquity." (Against Apion Book 1, v. 1)

    "In The former book, most honorable Epaphroditus, I have demonstrated our Antiquity, and confirming the truth of what I have said." (Ibid book 2, v, 1)

     
    PISO  AGAIN  ASSUMES  THE  ROLE  OF  JOSEPHUS

    There are also some similarities between events in Josephus' alleged life and that told of Paul (Saul) of the New Testament. Both Josephus and Paul, in the early years of their lives, subscribed to the sect of the Pharisees. Paul changed his name from the Jewish "Saul" to the Roman Paul (Paulus). Josephus changed his name from the Jewish "Joseph ben Matthias" to the Roman "Josephus." Paul was a Roman soldier before being converted to Christianity and Josephus was said to be a priest before becoming a Jewish army commander. Both Josephus and Paul were said to have made a similar disastrous sea voyage to Rome, in the same 62-64 CE time period, as a result of an interview with Felix, the Roman governor of Caesarea. Both were writers while residing in Rome, both changed their allegiance to their governments; Paul, from the Romans to the Christian Jews, and Josephus from his Jewish background to Roman citizenship, and both Paul and Josephus were apparently about the same age.

    The pastoral letters of the New Testament are said to be, by most biblical scholars, the earliest written of the New Testament documents, mainly because they make no reference to, or use any material from, the Synoptic Gospels. It is logical to assume then, that the Epistle to the Romans may have been the earliest written of the pastoral letters as it was addressed to the [supposed] new Jewish/ Christian Church at Rome. But the real purpose of the epistle, may not have been to lend support to the fledgling church at Rome, but to establish a fictitious remote date for the formation of the Christian Church, and, by interpolating from Old Testament literature as many as two-hundred sayings, to convince the pious Jews that the "New Gospel" was the same as the old.

    A second purpose in writing the epistle to the Romans may have been to create scripture which would appeal to Jewish thinking. Passages such as:
    But glory, honor, peace, to every man that worketh good, to the Jews first, and also to the Gentile; for there is no respect of persons with God (Romans 2:11).

    Is he the God of the Jews only? Is he not also of the Gentiles? Yes, of the Gentiles also. (Romans, 3:29).

    In the first verse of this epistle, the Piso is careful not to offend the Jews. He begins by telling his readers that his gospel is "The gospel of God, which he had promised afore by his prophets in the Holy Scriptures."

    He is quick to mention that Jesus "was made of the seed of David according to the flesh...and declared to be the Son of God...by the resurrection of the dead."

     


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    THE  VOYAGE  TO  ROME

    In the opening pages of "The Life of Flavius Josephus" Piso tells how Josephus "made a trial of the several sects that were among us" and "began to conduct myself according to the rules of the Pharisees". Josephus (Piso) goes on to say:
    When I was in the twenty-sixth year of my age it happened that I took a voyage to Rome; and this on the occasion which I shall now describe. At the time that Felix was procurator of Judea, there were certain Priests of my acquaintance, and very excellent persons they were whom on a small and trifling occasion he had put into bonds and sent to Rome to plead their cause before Caesar. Accordingly I came to Rome, though it were through a great number of hazards, by sea; for, as our ship was drowned in the Adriatic Sea, we that were in it, being about six hundred in number, swam for our lives all that night; when, on the first appearance of day, and upon our sight of a ship of Cyrene, I and some others, eighty in all, by Gods providence were taken up into the other ship... (Life p. 2 v.3)

    The writer of the New Testament book; The Acts of the Apostles tells a strikingly similar story about Paul the apostle. Paul, like Josephus, informs us that he was a "Pharisee." (Acts 23:6) Paul, like Josephus, is brought in bonds (Acts 25:14) before Felix to be judged. (Acts 24:22) Paul, like the prisoners in the Josephus story, is taken to Rome to be tried before Caesar, according to Roman law. (Acts 25:10) Paul and "certain other prisoners" as in Josephus were taken aboard a ship, set sail, and:
    ...not long after there arose... a tempestuous wind... and when the ship was caught, and could not bear up to the wind, we let her drive.... But when the fourteenth night was come, as we were driven up and down in Adria (Adriatic) about midnight the shipman deemed that they drew near some country....

    And we were in all in the ship two hundred threescore and sixteen souls. And when it was day... those who could swim... escaped all safe to land. And after three months we departed in (another) ship.... and thence to Rome.

    The writer of Josephus says nothing of the trial of Josephus' priests before Caesar and abruptly ends his story with comments about an actor of plays named Aliturius.

    The New Testament writer, as if he were following the text he had previously written, also says nothing further on this most important part of his story, i.e. the trial of Paul before Caesar. The writer lapses into a dialogue on Paul's missionary work among the Romans.

    SAUL

    Piso/Josephus:
    Saul together with Philip... ran away from the city... (Jerusalem)... in the meantime the people of Damascus, when they were informed of the destruction of the Romans set about the slaughter of those Jews that were among them... but as to those (including Saul).... got together in great numbers... and appointed a great many generals for the war.... Jesus the son of Sapphias, one of the high priests; and Eleazar, son of Ananias, the high priest... Joseph the son of Simon was sent as a general to Jericho... and John the Essene, to the toparchy of Thamma." (Wars II, XX, 1-4)

    New Testament:
    And Saul was consenting to (Steven's) death and at that time there was a great persecution... at Jerusalem; and they were all scattered abroad throughout the regions of Judaea.... As for Saul, he made havoc of the church... Then Philip went down to the city... And there was a certain man called Simon... and Saul... went unto the High Priest and desired of him letters to Damascus... And there was a certain disciple at Damascus named Ananias... (Acts 8:1-14, 9:1-10)

     


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    PARABLES

    Piso/Josephus:
    Now the sagacity and wisdom which God had bestowed upon Solomon was so great... for he spake a parable upon every sort of tree, from the hyssop to the cedar, and in like manner about beasts, about all sorts of living creatures, whether upon the earth, or in the seas, or in the air: for he was not unacquainted with any of their natures, nor omitted inquiries about them, and described them all like a philosopher. (Antq. VIII, 11, 5)

    New Testament:

    And he spake many things unto them in parables, saying.... All these things spake Jesus unto the multitude in parables; and without a parable spake he not to them. (Matt. 13:3, 34)
     

    CASTING  OUT  DEMONS

    Piso/Josephus:

    After telling about King Solomon teaching in parables, Piso tells of Solomon's other talents:
    God also enabled (Solomon) to learn that skill which expels demons, which is a science useful and sanitive to men. He composed such incantations also by which distempers are alleviated. And he left behind him the manner of using exorcisms. by which they drive away demons, so that they never return, and this method of cure is of great force unto this day; for I have seen a man of my own country whose name was Eleasar, releasing people that were demonical.... The manner of the cure was this: He put a ring that had a root of one of those sorts mentioned by Solomon to the nostrils of the demonic, after which he drew out the demon through his nostrils; and when the man fell down immediately, he adjured the demon to return into him no more. (Antq. VIII, II, 5)

    It is interesting that Matthew, in the chapter just preceding his recitation of Christs parables, tells of one "possessed with a devil" and casts him out. (Matt. 12:22) Mark and Luke also give their rendition of the same event. Both Piso/Josephus and Mark tell of healing of the sick in connection with casting out devils

    JOHN  THE  BAPTIST

    Piso/Josephus:
    Herod the tetrarch had married the daughter of Aretas (the King of Arabia)... however, he fell in love with Herodius... (his brother Philip's wife) This man ventured to talk to her about a marriage between them... one article of this marriage was this, that he should divorce Aretas's daughter.... who soon came to her father, and told him of Herod's intentions. So Aretas made this the first occasion of his enmity between him and Herod, who had also some quarrel with him about the limits of the country of Gamalitis. So they raised armies on both sides and prepared for war.... And when they had joined in battle, all of Herod's army was destroyed... now some of the Jews thought that the destruction of Herod's army came from God... as a punishment for what he did to John, that was called the Baptist; for he slew him. who was a good man, and commanded the Jews to exercise virtue... and... to come to baptism... not in order to the putting away some sins only, but for the purification of the body... Now when many others came to crowd about him, for they were greatly moved by hearing his words. Herod who feared lest the great influence John had over the people might put it into his power and inclination to raise a rebellion, thought it best, by putting him to death, to prevent any mischief he might cause... Accordingly he was sent a prisoner, out of Herod's suspicious temper, to Macherus... and was there put to death. (Antiq. XVIII, V, 2)

    The writer of Mark gives a shorter and somewhat different version of the story:
    And King Herod heard of [Jesus] (for his name was spread abroad) and he said, that John the Baptist was risen from the dead, and therefore mighty works do show forth

     


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    themselves in him.... For Herod himself had sent forth and laid hold upon John, and bound him in prison for Herodias' sake, his brother Philip's wife; for he had married her. For John had said unto Herod, it is not lawful for thee to have thy brother's wife. Therefore Herod had a quarrel against him, and would have killed him; but she could not: For Herod feared John, knowing that he was a just man and an holy... and heard him gladly....

    And when the daughter of the said Herodias came in and danced, and pleased Herod and them that sat with him, the king said to the damsel: Ask of me what thou wilt, and I will give it thee.... and she came in straightway with haste unto the king and asked, saying, I will that thou give me by and by in a charger the head of John the Baptist... And immediately the king sent an executioner, and commanded his head to be brought: and he went and beheaded him in prison... (Mark 6:14-28)

    BIRTH OF A GOD

    This day has given the earth an entirely new aspect. The world would have gone to destruction had there not streamed forth from him, who is now born, a common blessing. Rightly does he judge who recognizes in this birth-day the beginning of life and all the powers of life; now is that time ended when men pitied themselves for being born. From no other day does the individual or the community receive such benefit as from this natal day, full of blessings to all.

    The providence which rules over all has filled this man with such gifts for the salvation of the world, as designate him as savior, for us and coming generations; of wars he will make an end, and establish all things worthily.

    By his appearing are the hopes of our forefathers fulfilled; not only has he surpassed the good deeds of earlier time, but it is impossible that one greater than he can never appear.

    The birthday of God has brought to the world glad tidings that are bound up in him From this birth day a new era begins.

    So runs the most perfect of a number of inscriptions lately found in Asia Minor and set up to commemorate the introduction of the Julian calendar by the Emperor Agustus. It bears a date corresponding to our B.C. 9. G.S.R. Mead, Fragments of a Faith Forgotten 1960, p. 4)

    The author of Acts also tells of Agustus and the birth of a god:
    And it came to pass in those days, there went up a decree from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be taxed... and Joseph also went up from Galilee... to be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being great with child.... and she brought forth her first born son... And., lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them... and the angel of the Lord said unto them, fear not: for, behold, I bring good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people.

    For unto you is born this day in the city of David a savior, which is Christ the Lord... And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God and saying, glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men. (Luke 2:1-14)

    It is interesting that the birth of the Roman god Augustus, and the birth of the Christ Child would both set into action the beginning of a new calendar system, and this only five years apart. Once again it is seen that the writers of the New Testament borrowed from Roman history.

     


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    The pastoral letters of the New Testament are said to be, by most biblical scholars, the earliest written of the New Testament documents, mainly because they make no reference to, or use any material from, the Synoptic Gospels. It is logical to assume then, that the Epistle to the Romans may have been the earliest written of the pastoral letters as it was addressed to the [supposed] new Jewish/Christian Church at Rome. But the real purpose of the epistle, may not have been to lend support to the fledgling church at Rome, but to establish a fictitious remote date for the formation of the Christian Church, and, by interpolating from Old Testament literature as many as two-hundred sayings, to convince the pious Jews that the "new Gospel" was the same as the old.

    A second purpose in writing the epistle to the Romans may have been to create scripture which would appeal to Jewish thinking. Passages such as:
    But glory, honor, peace, to every man that worketh good, to the Jews first, and also to the Gentile; for there is no respect of persons with God (Romans 2:11).

    Is he the God of the Jews only? Is he not also of the Gentiles? Yes, of the Gentiles also (Romans, 3:29).

    In the first verse of the epistle, Piso is careful not to offend the Jews. He begins by telling his readers that his gospel is "The gospel of God, which he had promised afore by his prophets in the Holy Scriptures."

    Piso is quick to mention that Jesus "was made of the seed of David according to the flesh...and declared to be the Son of God...by the resurrection of the dead."

    THE  MANY  FACES  OF  JESUS

    Piso/Josephus tells of over a dozen high priests whose names were "Jesus." The name Jesus means "Son of Salvation." Technically speaking, any one of the Jesus's mentioned by Piso could have been called "the anointed one" or "Saviour," in fact the appellation "Saviour" was given by Piso to several other persons:

    King Artaxerxes called Mordecai, "my benefactor, and my Saviour" at Antq. XI, VI, 12.

    Ptolemy Epiphanes, King of Egypt, was called "my saviour" at Antq, XII, I, I.

    Antiochus Epiphanes, (God manifest) was called "my saviour" at Antq. XII, V, 5.

    King Herod was called "saviour" at Antq. XIV, XV, 8.

    And Caesar was called "saviour" at Antq. XVI, IV, 3.

    Jesus Son of Ananus:

    Piso/Josephus tells us that "Jesus son of Ananus" became despondent over the sinful actions of the Jews at Jerusalem. Jesus came to the temple and cried "in the most lamentable tone possible":
    ...woe, woe to Jerusalem... he every day uttered these lamentable words as if it were premeditated, woe, woe, woe to Jerusalem! a melancholy presage of what was to come.... Woe, woe unto the city again and to the people and to the holy house! (Wars VI, V, 3)

    The writer of Matthew has Jesus of Nazareth also go the temple at Jerusalem and chastise the Scribes and Pharisees in the same lamentable way:
    But woe unto you Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye shut up the kingdom of heaven against man... Woe unto you... hypocrites! for ye devour widow's houses... Woe unto you... for ye compass sea and land to make one proselyte... Woe unto you blind guides, which say, whosoever shall swear by the temple it is nothing... Woe unto you... hypocrites! for ye pay tithe of mint and anise and cumin, and have omitted the weightier matters of the law... Woe unto you... for ye are like whited sepulchers, which indeed appear beautiful outward, but are within full of dead men's bones... O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that

     


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    killeth the prophets, and stoneth them that are sent unto thee... behold your house is left unto you desolate. (Matt. 23:13-27)

    The Twelve Year Old Jesus

    Piso/Josephus tells of the childhood of Josiah, (another name for Jesus) which is much like the Jesus of the New Testament:
    Josiah... was of a most excellent disposition, and naturally virtuous.., and when he was twelve years old, he gave demonstrations of his religious and righteous behavior, for he brought the people to a sober way of living... he prudently corrected what they did wrong, like a very elderly man, and like one abundantly able to understand what was fit to be done... thus he acted in following the wisdom and sagacity of his own nature, and in compliance with the advice and instruction of his elders... he also offered his accustomed sacrifices and burnt offerings upon the altar. He... called for Eliakim, the high priest, and for the scribes... and sent them to Huldah the Prophetess, the wife of Shallum and bade them go to her and say that he desired that she would appease God.

    The prophet Jadon... foretold what would come to pass -- viz, that a certain man of the house of David, Josiah (Jesus) by name, should do what is here mentioned.... And... he called the people to Jerusalem, and there celebrated the feast of the Passover. (Antq. X, IV, 1-5)

    The New Testament tells us that:
    Joseph went up... to the city of David... because he was of the house and lineage of David.... Mary being great with child... brought forth her first born son... (and) his name was called Jesus... and they brought him to Jerusalem...to offer a sacrifice according to that which is said in the law (of Moses).... and there was one Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel.... and she coming in that instant gave thanks likewise unto the Lord... and when they had performed all things according to the law of the Lord they returned to Galilee... now his parents went to Jerusalem every year at the feast of the Passover. And when he was twelve years old, they went up to Jerusalem.... and after three days they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the doctors. (of the law) both hearing them. and asking them questions. And all that heard him were astonished at his understanding and answers... And (Jesus) increased in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and man. (Luke 2:4-52)

    The parallels between the BCE childhood story, of Josiah, (Jesus) in Piso's writings, and the childhood story of Jesus of the New Testament are striking. Both say the child was "twelve years old", both say he was known for his wisdom, in both, the accustomed sacrifices were made, both accounts tell of a prophetess who prays to God (presumably on behalf of the child) and both accounts mention the "Feast of the Passover." The Josephus account tells that Josiah acted in compliance with the advice and instruction of the elders. The Lukean account has Jesus "sitting in the midst of the doctors, both hearing them and asking them questions. And both accounts tell that the child was of the house of David. But Piso could not establish a genuine genealogy for Christ. (see below)

    Jesus of Nazereth?

    Matthew tells us that Joseph, Mary and the new born child "came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets: 'he shall be called a Nazerine'" (Matt. 2:23) The scripture Matthew is referring to is found in Judges 12: 23, but refers to Manoah and his wife: "For, low, thou shalt conceive, and bare a son: and no razor shall come on his head: for the child shall be a Nazerite unto God from the womb... to the day of his death."

    The Scripture tells what the child's name would be: not Jesus, not Christ, but Sampson. There is no city in the Old Testament nor in Josephus's works that bears the name Nazereth.

     


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    Jason/Jesus

    The most interesting, and the most revealing, of the Jesus stories in the writings of Piso is the story of the Jesus who changed his name to Jason. Piso gives this revealing account:
    But when he (the King of Syria) was dead, his brother Antiochus, who was called Epiphanes (God manifest) took the kingdom.... About this time, upon the death of Onias the high priest, (of the temple at Jerusalem) they gave the high priesthood to Jesus (son of salvation) his brother... but this Jesus... was deprived of the priesthood (after three years) by the king, who was angry with him, and gave it to his younger brother who was Onias... This Jesus changed his name to Jason: but Onias was called Menalaus Now the former high priest Jesus raised a sedition against Menalaus, who was ordained after him, the multitude were divided between them both. And the sons of Tobias took the part of Menalaus, but the greater part of the people assisted Jason. (Antq. XII, V, I)

    The scene was Palestine ca. 175 BCE. The Selucid empire, which included the Holy Land, with its capital in Antioch, was ruled by king Antiochus Epihanes IV (god manifest) whom the Greeks called "The God." The Selucid empire, for the most part, had been hellenized by its Macedonian rulers. The exception being the city of Jerusalem with its pious Jews whom Antiochus sought to bring over to the Greek way of living. The high priests of the Jerusalem temple reigned over their peoples only with the permission of king Antiochus who extracted taxes from the temple treasuries. Jesus, called Jason, a direct descendant of King David, had usurped the high priest office from his brother Onias, by offering king Antiochus more in tax revenue.

    Immediately on taking office, Jesus/Jason the high priest, no doubt at the urging of his god Antiochus, attempted to bring his fellow Jews over to the more relaxed and enjoyable Greek way of life. By overthrowing the overbearing laws of Moses taught in the "Law and the Prophets," such as circumcision and the Sabbath day restrictions, Jesus/Jason hoped to bring the Jews in Jerusalem into the Hellenistic world.

    Jesus/Jason's fellow priests, eager for freedom from their rigorous sacrificial ceremonies, neglected their work, made light of their temple duties and engaged in entertainment in the new-built Greek gymnasium.

    Jesus/Jason reigned as high priest of the Jerusalem temple for a period of three years. But the more pious brethren refused to submit to the Hellenization process, fearing that God would punish them for this sin. This caused a schism to develop among the Jews. Some were eager for change while others were afraid to depart from the religious practices of their forefathers. Jesus/Jason made suspicious enemies as well as devout followers. After a troublesome three year reign, Jesus/Jason was deposed by his wicked brother Menalause who had offered king Antiochus even more revenue from taxes.

    Thus, Jesus/Jason, who had the full support of his god Antiochus, and who had usurped his brothers office, saw his own usurped by another and was forced to flee to the Amanities (modern Amman Jordan) where he officiated for a time in a schismatic temple. In the meantime a false report came to the exiled Jesus that king Antiochus had been killed in Egypt. Seizing what he thought to be an opportunity to regain his former position as high priest of the Jerusalem temple, Jesus/Jason raised an army and attempted a coup. But Jesus' enemies repulsed his attack and forced him to flee back across the Jordan to his sanctuary in Arabia.

    A grave situation faced Jesus in the Amanitis. Antis, the Arabian king, out of respect to king Antiochus, arrested Jesus as a fugitive and brought him to trial. Jesus was eventually released or escaped and fled into Egypt where he lived out the remainder of his life as a political fugitive.

    This abridged account of Jesus, who changed his name to Jason, was taken from 1st and 2nd Maccabees and told in part by Piso in his Antiquities of the Jews XII, V. I.

    If this Jesus was the model for the New Testament Jesus, it would explain several statements said to

     


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    have been made by the Nazerene. It seems inconsistent to have the peace-loving New Testament Jesus say:
    Think not that I have come to send peace on earth: I came not to send peace, but the sword. For I came to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother, and the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law. And a mans foes shall be of his own household. (Matt. 10:34-36)

    But this statement would fit very well the militant Jesus who was attempting a coup in Jerusalem to regain his former position as high priest of the temple. It seems strange that the obscure Nazerene of the New Testament would have the authority to enter the Jerusalem temple and "cast out them that sold and bought in the temple, and overthrow the tables of the money changers, and the seats of those who sold doves." But he might do so if he were the new high priest of the temple, and was in the process of changing the old Jewish temple rites into the new Greek form of temple worship. Jesus/Jason could not put new wine into old bottles, nor a piece of new garment upon an old.

    The author of Mark tells us that "They were astonished at his doctrine for he taught them as one having authority." The pious Jews were certainly astonished when Jesus/Jason began teaching them the Greek way of life. The Nazarine said: "My doctrine is not mine, but his that sent me." Jesus/Jason did not attempt to Hellenize the Jews on his own authority, but under the direction of king Antiochus Epiphanes, his god. When the writer of Acts has the witnesses say of Steven: "This man ceaseth not to speak blasphemous words against this holy place, and the law: for we have heard him say, that this Jesus of Nazareth shall destroy this place, and shall change the customs which Moses delivered us." they are describing perfectly the mission of the Jesus of ca. 159 B.C.E.. And when the writers of the synoptic gospels told the people that the kingdom of God would come with power, they were not telling of the meek teacher of the New Testament, but the Jesus/Jason of ca. 159 B.C.E.

    Jesus/Jason, as he fled from Jerusalem after he was deposed as high priest of the Jerusalem temple, might well have said:
    O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, which killeth the prophets, and stoneth them that are sent unto thee; how often would I have gathered thy children together, as a hen doth gather her brood under her wings, and ye would not. Behold your house is left unto you desolate (The Abomination of Desolation.,of 159 B.C.E.) and verily I say unto you, ye shall not see me, until the time come when ye shall say: blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord. (Luke 13:34, 35)

    Note that the names; Joseph, Jesus, John, Judas, Mattathias, Simon and Philip are found in book twelve of Piso's Antiquities, following the Jason/Jesus story. These same names were used by Matthew in his story of Jesus of Nazereth.

    DATING THE MESSIAH

    The book of St. John tells that the Messias was "the Christ" of New Testament times. But we must turn to the Old Testament book of Daniel for the correct dating of the Messiah. The angel Gabriel appeared to Daniel and said:
    O Daniel, I am now come forth to give thee skill and understanding.... Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and rebuild Jerusalem (by King Cyrus ca, 593 B.C.E.), unto Messiah the prince, shall be seven weeks and three score and two weeks (of years. see Numbers 14:34 and Ezekiel 4:6).... and after three score and two weeks (434 years) shall Messiah be cut off... and the people of the prince that shall come, shall destroy the city and the sanctuary.... and he shall cause the sacrifices and the oblations to cease, and the spreading of abominations he shall make it desolate... (Daniel 9:22-27)

     


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    It seems incredible that the angel Gabriel would say that the people of the Messiah would be responsible for the destruction of the city of Jerusalem and the temple, and the bringing about of the "abomination of Desolation". This would be unbecoming of the New Testament Jesus or his people. But these events fit the historical Jesus/Jason perfectly.

    To date the Messiah of the book of Daniel we need only subtract the "three score and two weeks" (434 yrs) when the Messiah was to be cut off, from the ca. 593 B.C.E. date when Cyrus was commanded by God to rebuild the Jerusalem temple. The answer is; the Messiah of Daniel's vision would live ca. 159 B.C.E., at the very time of the historical Jesus/Jason.

    Piso at Antq. XII, VII, 6, as well as that told by Bible commentators, tell that the Abomination of Desolation, i.e. the placing of pagan idols and improper sacrifices on the alter of the Jewish temple, spoken of by Daniel, took place immediately after the three years Jesus/Jason was high priest of the Jerusalem temple.

    When the abomination of Desolation, which had already taken place in ca. 175 B.C.E., is spoken of by the writers of Matthew (24:15) and by Mark (13:14) as if it were coming in their day, they are placing the events if Jesus/Jason's life in the time period of Jesus of Nazereth, which implies that the two Jesus' were the same person. Actually, Piso used the story of Jesus/Jason when he wrote his Jesus of Nazereth story.

    Piso confirms this date when he tells that: "This abomination (of desolation) came to pass according to the prophecy of Daniel, which was given four hundred and eight years before (Antq. XII, VIII, 6) The Piso date is quite accurate. The time that expired between the commandment to King Cyrus, and the Gabriel revelation, would account for the small difference between the Daniel account and that of Piso.

    The ca. 159 B.C.E,. date for the reign of the Messiah is confirmed a third time when Daniel interprets the dream of King Nebuchadnezzar. Daniel tells of four successive kingdoms which would rule on the earth. At the end of the forth kingdom:
    shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom (with the Messiah as king) which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to another people... and it shall stand forever. (Daniel 2:44)

    The first of the four kingdoms, spoken of by Daniel, was that of King Nebuchadnezzar, which was represented by the head of gold on a great image. The second kingdom was that of King Darius the Mede, represented by arms of silver. The third kingdom was that of King Cyrus of Persia, represented by a belly and thighs of brass. The forth kingdom was that of King Alexander, the Macadamian, represented by legs of iron; and feet, part of iron and part of clay.

    Alexander's empire continued after his death under the leadership of Selucid, one of Alexander's generals, whose descendants continued to rule until Antiochus IV was defeated by Judas Maccabees. This ended the rule of Daniel's fourth kingdom.

    It was towards the end of the reign of King Antiochus IV ca. 175 B.C.E. that the "God of heaven" would set up his kingdom with the messiah as its king. This again points to our Jesus/Jason.

    Piso understood well the writings of the book of Daniel and what was meant by the rule of the four kings:
    ...there should arise a certain king that should overcome our nation and their laws and should take away our political government and should spoil the temple, and forbid the sacrifices to be offered for three years time. And indeed it so came to pass, that our whole nation suffered these things under Antiochus Epiphanes, according to Daniel's vision... (Antq. X, XI, VII)

    The 159 B.C.E. date for the reign of the Messiah is confirmed a forth time when Daniel tells us that he "saw in the night visions, and behold, one like the Son of Man come with the clouds of heaven... and there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom... His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom... shall not be destroyed." (Daniel 7:13, 14)

    It is clear that Daniel is still telling of the ca. 159 B.C.E. Messiah

     


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    Piso once more erroneously applies the time period of the Son of Man to his own time for he writes:
    For as the lightning cometh out of the East, and shineth unto the west, so shall the coming of the son of man be.... And they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven... this generation shall not pass, till all these things be fulfilled. (Matt. 24:27,30,34)

    It is obvious that Piso, the writer of the New Testament, borrowed the messianic concepts from the book of Daniel and erroneously applied them to his Christ/Jesus stories briefly mentioned in his writings.

    It is interesting to note that the Qumran Zodokite Document states that "After 390 years of captivity God restored his people; twenty years later he raised up a Teacher of Righteousness, and that twenty years after the Teacher of Righteousness the "men of war will be consumed in a great battle." (D.S. Russell, The Method and Message of Jewish Apocalyptic 1964, p. 201)

    According to Piso, at St. John 1:41, the appellation "Messias" is interpreted as "The Christ." "The word 'Messiah' (Hebrew Mahsiah) occurs frequently in the Old Testament. The Jews who made the Septuagint (ca. 280 B.C.E.) translated it to the Greek 'Christos, the anointed,' he upon whom has been poured a chrism of holy oil." (Will Durant, Caesar and Christ, Footnote p. 544)

    It follows then, that the Messiah of Daniel's revelation could also be called Christ. And if the Jesus/Jason of ca. 159 B.C.E. was the expected Messiah, as shone above, it also follows that Piso's Jason/Jesus could also legitimately be called "The Christ."

    THE  GENEALOGY  OF  JESUS

    The Prophet Samuel tells us that:
    The word of the Lord came to Nathan saying, go and tell my servant David... I will set up thy seed after thee, which shall proceed out of thy bowels and I will establish his kingdom... forever. (2nd Samuel 7:4, 5, 12)

    Piso, applying these verses to Christ, tells that David "being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him, that out of the fruit of his loins, according to the flesh, he would raise up Christ to sit on his throne." (Acts 2:30)

    Piso seems to be suspiciously determined to, inform his readers of Jesus' decent from King David of the Old Testament: (Matt. 9:27, 12:23, 21:9, Mark, 10:48, Luke 2:4, John, 7:42, 2nd Tim. 2:8, and Rev. 22:16.

    From David to the Captivity

    Piso tells us that there were fourteen generations "from David until the carrying away into Babylon.... And from the carrying away into Babylon unto Christ are fourteen generations." (Matt. 1:17)

    Piso's Matthew's list is almost completely different from the seventeen generation list he gives in Luke 3:23. Piso's Matthew's list of names from David to the captivity follows closely the name list given in the book 1st Chronicles 3:10, except four of the names; Joash, Amaziah, Azeriah and Jehoiakim were left out of the Matthew list apparently to make the number come out to the prescribed number fourteen. This omission makes the Matthew list artificial. Piso's second list of names, from the captivity to Christ, cannot be verified from Old Testament name lists and also appears to be artificial. Piso's Mark, the earliest written of the gospels, omitted any reference to the genealogy of Jesus.

     


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    GENEALOGY  FROM  DAVID  TO  THE  CAPTIVITY
    Matthew 1:6-11

    David
    Solomon
    Roboam
    Abia
    Asa
    Josaphat
    Joram
    Ozias
    Joatham
    Achaz
    Ezekias
    Manasses
    Amon
    Josias
    Jechonias
    Luke 3:27-31

    David
    Nathan
    Mattatha
    Meman
    Melea
    Eliakim
    Jonan
    Joseph
    Juda
    Simeon
    Levi
    Matthat
    Jorim
    Eliezer
    Jose
    Er
    Elmodam
    Cosam
    Addi
    Melchi
    Neri
    1 Chron. 3:9-17

    David
    Solomon
    Rehoboam
    Abia
    Asa
    Jehoshaphat
    Joram
    Ahaziah
    * Joash
    * Amaziah
    * Azariah
    Jotham
    Ahaz
    Hezekiah
    Manasseh
    Amon
    Josiah
    * Jehoiakim
    Jeconiah
    Josephus Antq. VIII, I, I, X,VII, I
    David
    Solomon
    Jehoboam
    Asa
    Elah
    Zimri
    Omri
    Ahab
    Ahaziah
    Joram
    Juha
    Johoash
    Jehoahaz
    Amaziah
    Uzziah
    Jotham
    Ahaz
    Hezekiah
    Manasseh
    Ammon
    Josiah
    Jehoiakim
    Jeconiah

    GENEALOGY  FROM  THE  CAPTIVITY  TO  JESUS
    Matthew 1:11-17

    Salathiel
    Zorobabel
    Abiud
    Elikim
    Azor
    Sadoc
    Achim
    Eliud
    Eleazar
    Matthan
    Jacob
    Joseph
    Jesus
    Luke 3:23-27

    Salathiel
    Zorobable
    Rhesa
    Joanna
    Juda
    Joseph
    Semei
    Mattathias
    Maath
    Nagge
    Esli
    Naum
    Mattathias
    Joseph
    Janna
    Melchi
    Levi
    Matthat
    Heli
    Joseph
    Jesus
    Nehemiah 12:1-26

    Salathiel
    Zerubbable
    Jozadak
    Jeshua (Jesus)
    Joiakim
    Eliasib
    Joiada
    Jonathan
    Juddua
    Josephus Antq. XI, III, XXII, V, I
    Salathiel
    Zorobabel
    Josedek
    Jeshua (Jesus)
    Joacim
    Eliasib
    Judas
    John
    Juddua
    Onias
    Simon
    Eleasar
    Manasseh
    Jesus/Jason


    * Names left out of Matthew genealogy.

     


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    THE  KING  HEROD  STORY

    According to Piso, King Herod lived in fear that "one" would arise that would take his kingdom from him":
    Herod offered him (Markas Antonius) money to make him king, as he had formerly given it to him to make him to make him Tetrarch.... But Antigonus, by way of reply to what Herod had proclaimed... said that they would not do justly if they gave the kingdom to Herod, who was no more than a private man, and an Idumean, ie. a half Jew, whereas they ought to bestow it on one of the holy family, as their custom was; for, that in case they at present bear an ill-will to him, and had resolved to deprive him of the kingdom, as having received it from the Parthians, yet were there many others of his family that might by their law take it, and these such as had no way offended the Romans; and being of the sacerdotal family, it would be an unworthy thing to put them by, now... they said thus one to another, and fell to reproaching one another on both sides... (Antq. XIV, XIV, 4, XIV, XV, 2)

    From Piso's statement, it is plain to see that from the beginning, there were serious reservations on the part of King Herod's own family as to whether Herod should be made "king of the Jews." Piso goes on to say:
    Strabo (the Roman historian) attests to what I have said, when he thus speaks: 'Antony ordered Antigonus the Jew to be brought to Antioch, and there to be beheaded... as supposing he could in no way bend the minds of the Jews so as to receive Herod, whom he had made king in his stead; for by no torments could they be forced to call him king, so great a fondness they had for their former king; so he thought that this dishonorable death would diminish the value they had for Antigonus' memory, and at the same time would diminish the hatred they bear for Herod. Thus for Strabo' (Antq. XV, I, 2)

    Herod took Jerusalem by force and was made king and governor without having just claim to the government. To further secure his position, Herod deposed the royal high priest Hycranus, and replaced him with Ananelus "an obscure priest out of Babylon." This action, on the part of Herod, "occasioned a sedition in his own family." Alexandra, the daughter of Hycranus, and wife of Alexander, could not bear this indignity, believing that her own son, Aristobulus, should be made "King of the Jews." "Now this son was one of the greatest comeliness... and the daughter Mariamne was married to Herod and eminent for her beauty also... These children seemed not derived from men, but from some god or other."

    THE  FLIGHT  INTO  EGYPT

    Piso continues:
    Alexandra was much disturbed because Herod had secured the priesthood office for himself when it was Alexandra's son Aristobulus who was the rightful heir. Herod feared that one day the child god would deprive him of the kingdom. 'Alexandra privately conspired against Herod's (supposed) royal authority and endeavored to bring it about that he might be deprived of the government. She therefore sent to Cleopatra, and made a long complaint of the circumstances she was in, and entreated her to do her utmost for her assistance. Cleopatra hereupon advised her to take her son with her, and come away immediately to Egypt. This advice pleased her; and she had this contrivance for getting away: she got two coffins made, as if they were to carry away two bodies, and put herself into one, and her son into the other and gave orders to such of her servants as knew of her intentions, to carry them away in the night-time. (Antq. XV, II, 5, XV, 111, 2)

    In Matthew, Piso tells a similar story about the child god Jesus:
    When Herod the king heard these things, (the birth of Jesus) he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him. And when he had gathered all the chief priests and scribes of the people together, he demanded of them where Christ should be born.... And... the angel of

     


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    the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream, saying: Arise, and take the young child and his mother and flee into Egypt... for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him. And when he arose, he took the young child and his mother by night, and departed into Egypt: and was there until the death of Herod. (Matthew 2:3, 4, 13-15)

    KING  HEROD  SLAYS  THE  INFANTS

    Piso writes:
    When Herod was near his death he spake thus to them: 'I shall die in a little time, so great are my pains... but what troubles me is this, that I shall die without being lamented, and without such mourning as men usually expect at a king's death.' So Herod took care, when he was departing out of this life, that the whole nation should be put into mourning, and indeed made desolate of their dearest kindred, when he gave orders that one in every family should be slain.... Now Herod altered his testament and granted the kingdom to Archelaus. (Antq. XVII, VI, 5,6)

    In Matthew, Piso writes:
    Then Herod was exceedingly wroth, and sent forth, and slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, and all the coasts thereof, from two years old and younger... But when Herod was dead, behold, an angel of the Lord appeareth in a dream to Joseph in Egypt, saying, arise, and take the young child and his mother and come into the land of Israel. But when he beheld that Archelaus did reign in Judea in the room of his father Herod he was afraid to go thither." (Matthew 2:16, 19, 22)

    The story by Piso of the slaying of "one in every family", at Herod's command, after his death in the year 4 B.C.E., corresponds in time to his story in Matthew that "Herod slew all the children" at Christ's birth in ca. 4 B.C.E. and seems to confirm that both stories were telling of the same event.

    DEATH  OF  A  GOD

    Piso writes that King Herod feared that he might be deprived of the government by the child god Aristobulus, the legal heir, who was said to be "not derived from men, but some god or other so he:
    proposed to himself to put this young man out of the way.... And now upon the feast of the tabernacles.... Herod drew Aristobulus into a lonely place and had him killed. When this sad accident was told the women their joy was soon changed into lamentation at the sight of the dead body that lay before them, and their sorrow was immoderate.... Herod endeavored that none abroad should believe that the child's death was caused by any cause of his.... although his death was supposed to tend to his own security... as for Aristobulus' funeral, he took care that it should be very magnificent, by making great preparation for the sepulcher to lay his body in. and providing a great quantity of spices... till the very women, who were in such great sorrow, were astonished at it... (Antq. XV, III, 2-4)

    Piso's story, of the death of the child god Aristobulus is similar to that which he tells of the death of Jesus in the New Testament:
    After two days was the feast of the Passover, and of unleavened bread: and the chief priests and the Scribes sought him that they might take Jesus by craft, and put him to death.... And the chief priests accused him of many things; but he answered them nothing... and they cried out... crucify him... and it was the third hour.... And the centurion said; truly was this man the son of God. There were also women looking afar off... and many other women which came up with him unto Jerusalem....

    And Joseph brought up fine linen and laid him in a sepulcher.... And Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of James, and Salome had brought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him. (Mark, 14:1, 15:3, 37-47, 16:1)

     


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    The killing of the god in both stories took place at the approach of the "Feast of the Tabernacles" or "passover." In both stories "spices" were brought to the sepulcher to anoint the dead body of the god. In both stories women mourn the death of the god. In Piso's "Josephus," the names of the women who mourn are not given, but it is logical that the dead child-god's relatives, Mariamne and Salome would have been among the women mentioned. In his "Mark," it was the two Marys and Salome who came to mourn.

    There is no question that the account from Piso's Josephus, and his New Testament account, were telling the same story. The only basic difference is that in Piso's New Testament account the name Jesus was used instead of Aristobulus.

    There are also many similarities between the Piso account and his New Testament account concerning Herod's dealings with the god, Mary and Joseph, prier to the god's death.

    In both stories, Herod is obsessed with the thought that one day the child-god would deprive him of the kingdom. In both accounts Mary flees to Egypt with the child-god to escape the wrath of King Herod. In both stories Herod kills or threatens to kill children, both tell of the death of Herod and the passing of the kingdom to Archelaus, Herod's son, and in both the God, or child god is eventually killed. A sepulcher is provided, soldiers are mentioned, and women come to the tomb to mourn.

    There seems to be no question that Piso is telling of the same event in both accounts. However there are some notable differences. In his earlier account it is Alexandra, the sister of the child-god who takes him to Egypt. In his Matthew account it is the child-gods parents, Joseph and Mary who make the journey. In his first account Mariamne is the wife of Herod while his Matthew account tells that Mary is the wife of Joseph. The threat of "slaying of one in every family" at the death of Herod, differs from the "slew all the children" in his later account. And most notable of all, in Piso's Josephus account it was the "child-god Aristobulus" who was the center of the story, while in his synoptics it was the "Jesus the Christ-child."

    CRUCIFIED  JEWS

    Crucifixion was the Roman method of capital punishment. Piso tells us:
    ...they were first whipped and then tormented with all sorts of tortures before they died, and then were crucified before the walls of the city... so the Soldiers, out of the wrath and hatred they bore the Jews, nailed those they caught, one after one way, and another after another, to the crosses, by way of jest; when their multitude was so great, that room was wanting for the crosses, and crosses -wanting for the bodies. (Josephus' Wars V, XI, I)

    In the New Testament Piso writes:
    And so Pilot... delivered Jesus, when he had scourged (whipped) him, to be crucified. And the soldiers led him away.... And they clothed him with purple, and planted a crown of thorns, and put it about his head, and began to salute him. Hail, King of the Jews!.... Thomas said unto them, except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails... I shall not believe. (Mark 15:15-18, John 20:24, 25)

    THREE  DAYS  IN  THE  EARTH

    Piso:
    ... the Romans went away rejoicing, as taking it for granted that Niger was destroyed; but he leaped out of the tower into a subterraneous cave, and in the inter most part of it, was preserved, and on the third day afterward he spake out of the ground to those who with great lamentations were searching for him, in order to give him a decent funeral; and when he was come out he filled all the Jews with unexpected Joy, as though he was preserved by God's providence to be their commander for the time to come. (Wars III, II, 3)

    Piso's Gospel of Luke reads:
    For he taught his disciples, and said to them, The Son of Man is delivered into the hands of men, and they shall kill him, and after he is killed, he shall rise the third day.... and as they

     


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    spake, Jesus himself stood in the midst of them, and saith unto them, peace be unto you. .... And they worshipped him, and returned with great joy. (Mark, 9:31, Luke 24:36-39, 53)

    In the gospel story, the Romans thought they had killed the Nazerene. In the Piso story the Romans thought they had killed Niger. In his gospel account Piso's Christ was in the sepulcher three days and his followers thought he was dead. In both accounts, the supposed dead person, after coming out of the sepelchre or cave, spoke to those who were mourning his death. In both stories the Jews were filled with unexpected great joy on learning that he was alive, and in both, the person would be their future leader.

    The story elements in Piso's Niger story seem to confirm that the controversial statement given at Antq. 18:3, of Christ's resurrection after three days in the tomb, was authentic and not a later interpolation by Christian writers.

    WAS  MARY  UNFAITHFUL  TO  HER  HUSBAND?

    Piso tells that it was rumored that Mariamne was "false to Herod's bed," Mariamne's soldier-uncle Joseph being the seducer. Herod's sister Salome "confirmed the suspicion about Joseph." Herod commanded that both of them be slain immediately. (Wars, I, XXIII, 3-5)

    It is interesting that Celsus, the Roman historian c. 250 C.E. circulated with others a scandalous story about the New Testament Mary and a Roman soldier. (Guignburt, Jesus p. 127, Kalusner, p. 23, cited in Will Durant, Caesar and Christ 1944, p.559)

    Jesus is occasionally referred to in the Rabinical literature as Jesus Ben Pantera or Ben Pandira... according to Origin, Panther was a sir-name of Jesus' grandfather Jacob. (This was a reply to a Jewish calumny, quoted by Celsus, that Pantheras was the name of a pagan soldier.) (F.F. Bruce, Jesus and Christian Origins Outside the New Testament p. 57) The writings attributed to Matthew contain a shadow of the scandalous story.
    Now the birth of Jesus was on this wise: when as his mother was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child of the Holy Ghost, then her husband, being a just man, and not willing to make her a publick example, was minded to put her away privily. Matt. 1:18, 19)

    THE  TALMUD  MARY  STORIES

    ...the Talmud Mary stories... revolve entirely around the accusation of her unfaithfulness to her husband.... Simon ben Azzai has said: 'I found in Jerusalem a book of genealogies; wherein was written: that so and so is the bastard son of a married woman' This Simon ben Azzai flourished.., at the end of the first and beginning of the second century. (Note that Piso published in 94 CE) .... this book of genealogies can be taken to mean nothing else than an official record; nevertheless we are told that it contained proof of Jeschu's bastardy, for "so and so" is one of the well known substitutes for Jesus and Jesus alone in the Talmud, as has been proved and admitted on either side.... "the virgin birth" doctrine was invented in answer to this record.... we therefore conclude that the earliest Jewish Mary legends came to birth somewhere towards the close of the first century. It is exceedingly difficult to classify these Mamzer legends or to treat them in any satisfactory chronological fashion, but it is remarkable that in them there seems to be two deposits of tradition characterized by different names for Jeschu -- ben Strada and ben Pandera, names... of which the current meaning was evidently simply "son of a harlot"....

    Finally in these Talmud-Mary legends we come to the thrice-repeated Miriam, daughter of Bilga story which runs as follows: 'Bilga always receives his part on the south side, on account of Miriam, daughter of Bilga, who turned apostate and went to marry a soldier.... Laible, refers to Origin, quoting Celsus as making his Jew declare that 'Mary gave birth to Jesus by a certain soldier, Panthera.' (G.R.S. Mead, Did Jesus live 100 B.C. pp. 162-166)

    In the Piso story, it was Mariamne's soldier-uncle Joseph with whom Mariamne was "false to Herod's bed."

     


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    WAS  MARY  THE  MARIAM  OF  THE  TALMUD?

    According to Piso, Elisabeth, Mary's cousin, "was of the daughters of Aaron. (Luke 1:5) Miriam of the Talmud stories was said to have been of the daughters of Bilga, who was of the "house of Aaron" (1st Chron. 24:14) Miriam, then, was of the same Aaronic lineage as Elisabeth. Since Mary and Elisabeth were cousins, it follows that both Mary and Miriam were descendants of Aaron. This seems to confirm that the Mary of the New Testament and the Mary of the Talmud were the same person.

    THE  GOSPEL  OF  THOMAS

    The Gospel of Thomas was part of the Nag Hammadi discoveries in Egypt in 1945. The author of these writings apparently knew of the scandalous Herod-Miriamne-Joseph story cited by Piso. This writer has Jesus say: "...whoever recognizes father and mother will be called the child of a whore." (Marvin W. Meyer, The Secret Sayings of Jesus, 1984, p. 37)

    This saying, attributed to Jesus, may explain the difficult verse in Luke: "Whoever does not hate father and mother as I do cannot be my disciple" (Luke 14:26)

    FALSE  WRITINGS

    The pseudepigrapha has traditionally included pseudonymous and anonymous Jewish writings produced between 200 B.C.E. and 200 C.E. They usually purport to have been written by illustrious figures from Jewish history who lived long before they were actually composed. (Tanner, Rogers and McMurrin, Towards Understanding the New Testament, 1990, footnote p. 59)

    This period gave rise to a quite unique literature, in which were manufactured facts for the past and for the future, and did not submit to the usual literary rules and forms, but came forward with the loftiest pretensions. Particular sayings and arguments of assumed "apostolic teachers" were brought forward as being of great authority. (G.R.S. Mead Fragments of a Faith Forgotten, 1960, p. 125)

    A  NEW  RELIGION

    If it is indeed possible to develop a likely scenario, as to how, and why, the New Testament was written, it may proceed something like this; With the Destruction of Jerusalem in 70 C.E., the Jews were dispersed into Arabia, Syria, Egypt, Babylon, and Italy. By the time Piso published in 93-94 C.E., the simple, true story of the Nazerine became more and more obscure until it had almost completely disappeared from folklore. A new "pseudonymous history" could be safely developed by the Piso family, The Jews, who in past centuries, had been the source of irreconcilable conflict to the Greeks and now to the Romans, flocked to Rome in increasing numbers. No doubt Roman officials could see that if the Jewish influx into Rome continued, the same age-old conflict would raise her ugly head. Solution; Find a way to appease the pious Jews by creating a new religion based primarily on the Messianic hope of the Jews, but retaining Roman mythology. Piso's new pseudonymous history called the "New Testament" was apparently written sometime after 80 C.E.

    Since certain events in the life of the New Testament apostle Paul seem to have been taken from the writings of Piso, and since Paul was not part of the synoptic gospels, it seems probable that Paul's history was an afterthought; Propaganda created by the Roman writer to create the impression that the church had been in existence for some 70 years.

     


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    HILLEL  THE  BABYLONIAN

    "Hillel the younger c. 30 B.C.E., stands as a classic figure of a Palestine scholar... as little is known with certainty about his life as about his near contemporary, Jesus, whose saintly silhouette suggests similar qualities of sensitivity and wisdom.... According the accepted tradition, he was born abysmally poor, of non-priestly family in Babylon. He became the leading scholar of his century in Jerusalem.... In the tradition of many exciting teachers Hillel founded a school founded for him, Bet-Hillel, and uniquely a dynasty which gained for itself a teacher as well as a scribe, a mystic, a man of retreats and silence, and a sensitive man who knew well the anguish of the poor....

    Analysis of Hillel's few surviving decisions reveal a concern for the common folk, women and thee outcast. To be sure, the search for the historical Hillel is almost as difficult as the much more famous search for the contemporary, Jesus...

    Hillel set character above ceremonial punctilio... 'Be of the disciples of Aaron, loving peace.' He lived by a code of infinite patience, and was deeply concerned for another's feelings: 'Do not appear standing among those who sit, or seated among those who stand.' He set human relations over possessions and learning above all attainments: 'The more flesh, the more worms: the more possessions, the more worry: and 'The more Torah, the more life; the more study and contemplation, the more wisdom; the more counsel, the more discernment; The more charity, the more peace.'

    Hillel's theology is submissive. 'Blessed be the Lord, day by day. he bears our burden.' 'My humiliation is my exaltation, my exaltation is my humiliation... the uneducated man knows not the fear of sin' 'He who has knowledge of the Torah has life in the world to come,' Torah was the way of 'gaining life in this world and life in the world to come.' In learning the Torah one... becomes truly free.... By properly obeying the Torah... he becomes united with Him.... He who 6bserves the Torah merited salvation.' (J.D. Silver, A history of Judaism Vol. 1, pp. 234-237).

    To a pagan who said he would become a Jew if he could be taught the Torah while standing on one foot, Hillel is said to have replied, "what is hateful to you do not unto your neighbor; this is the entire Torah. All the rest is commentary -- go and study it....." (Paul Jonston, A History of the Jews pp. 127.)

    CONCLUSION

    The New Testament Jesus appears to have been a composite figure. A combination of several Jesus personalities invented by Calpernius Piso. There was the Josiah-Jesus who at twelve years of age offered the accustomed sacrifices at the Jerusalem temple. There was Jesus the High Priest of the Jerusalem temple, who attempted to helenize the Jews but failed. There was the "Jesus of Galilee," who was crucified by the Idumeans, and finally there was the c. 65 A.D. Jesus who pronounced woe upon the people of Jerusalem.

    G.A. Wells agrees with my theory that there was more than one Jesus displayed in the New Testament:
    In the twenty seven books of the New Testament there is not one Jesus but many, and from the beginning, Christians were divided about his fundamental nature. (Wells The Historical Evidence For Jesus, p. 197)

    "Christianity did not destroy paganism, it adopted it .... The Greek mysteries passed down into the impressive mystery of the mass. Other pagan cultures contributed to the syncretist result. From Egypt came the idea of a divine trinity, the last judgment, and a personal immortality of reward and punishment; from Egypt the adoration of the mother and child.... From Syria the resurrection drama of Adonis; from thence, perhaps the cult of Dionysus, the dying and saving God. From Persia came millenarianism, the age of the world, the final conflagration, the dualism of Satan and God.... Christianity was the last great creation of the pagan world" (Will Durant Caesar and Christ p. 595)


     

    [ 29 ]


    APPENDIX I

    NAMES  IN  JOSEPHUS  AND  NEW  TESTAMENT  COMPARED

    Date

    BC.
    166

    AD.
    06

    BC.
    140

    BC.
    150

    AD.
    06

    AD.
    30

    BC.
    30

    BC.
    73

    BC.
    150

    BC.
    ?

    BC.
    35

    BC.
    150

    BC.
    39

    BC.
    70

    BC.
    160

    BC.
    180
    JOSEPHUS ANTIQUITIES

    Lysias -- Commander and Governer
    (XII. VII, 2)

    Ananias, High Priest
    (XX, IX, 3)

    Nicanor, slain in battle
    (XII, II, II)

    Timotheus, captain, and Governer
    (XII, VIII, I)

    Judas of Galilee, objected to taxation
    (XVIII, I, 6)

    Zacharias, son of Baruch, murdered in
    temple (Wars, IV, v. 4)

    Phillip, son of Herod the Great
    (XVII, I, 3)

    Herod the Great, Tetrarch
    (XIV, VII, 3)

    Demetrius, king, enemy of Jews
    (XIII, XIII, 4)

    Perseus, king of Citims
    (2nd Maccabees 8:6)

    Alexander, Herod's son
    (XVI, IV, 3)

    Mattathias, father of Simon


    Aretas, king of Arabia in Damascus
    (XIII, XV, 1)

    Nicodemus, Roman ambassador to Jews
    (XIV, II, 2)

    Apelles, king's general
    (XII, VI, 2)

    Jeremy the prophet (Quotes from
    2 Macc. ch. 2)
    Date

    AD.
    30

    AD.
    60

    AD.
    33

    AD.
    53

    AD.
    52

    AD.
    30

    AD.
    08

    AD.
    31

    AD.
    35

    AD.
    60

    AD.
    33

    AD.
    26

    AD.
    60

    AD.
    30

    AD.
    60

    AD.
    60
    NEW TESTAMENT

    Lysias, Claudius, chief captain
    (Acts 24:7)

    Ananias, High Priest
    (Acts 24:1)

    Nicanor
    (Acts 6:5)

    Timotheus, Disciple
    (Acts 16:1)

    Judas of Galilee in the days of taxation
    (Acts 5:37)

    Zacharias, son of Barachias, slain in temple
    (Matt. 23:35)

    Philip, brother of Pilot
    (Luke 3:1)

    Herod the Great, Tetrarch
    (Matt. 14:1)

    Demetrius silversmith
    (Acts 19:34)

    Persis, saint?
    (Romans 16:12)

    Alexander, a Jew
    (Acts, 19:33)

    Mattathias, son of Semei


    [Aretas?] King in Damascus
    (2 Cor. 11:32)

    Nicodemus, ruler of Jews
    (John 3:1)

    Apelles, disciple
    (Romans 16:10)

    Jeremy the prophet
    (Quotes from. Matt. 2:17)


     


    [ 30 ]


    Date

    AD.
    40-81

    BC.
    50

    BC.
    64

    AD.
    60

    AD.
    06

    BC.
    30

    AD.
    60

    AD. 26-
    36

    BC. 04-
    AD. 06

    BC.
    20

    BC.
    15

    AD.
    12

    AD.
    ?

    AD.
    12

    AD.
    15

    AD.
    06

    AD.
    06
    JOSEPHUS

    Titus, Roman Emperor
    (XII, III, 1)

    Joseph-Mariamne-Herod
    (XV, 111, 7)

    Nicolas, historian
    (XII, III, 2)

    Festus, procurater of Judea
    (XX, VIII, 10)

    Theudas, magician, imposter had head
    cut off (XX, V, 1)

    Annas, Rufas, high priest
    (XVIII, II, 1)

    Felex, bro. of Paulus, Procurator
    (XX, VII, 1)

    Pilate, procurator of Judea
    (XVIII, III, 1)

    Archelause, king, son of Herod the
    Great (XVII, I, 3)

    Nathanael, son of John
    (XX, I, 2)

    Ananias, High priest, son of Nebedius
    (XX, V, 2)

    Cornelius, Sibinus, tribune, a worthy
    man (XIX, I, 7)

    James, bro. of Jesus who was called
    Christ (XX, IX, 1)

    Gaius, Emperor
    (XIX, I, 1)

    Quadratus, President of Syria
    (XX, VI, 2)

    Cuspius, Fadus, Procurator of Judea
    (XV, XI, 4)

    Stephanas, servant of Caesar
    (XX, V, 4)
    Date

    AD.
    66

    BC.
    04

    AD.
    33

    AD.
    60

    AD.
    33

    AD.
    30

    AD.
    60

    AD.
    33

    BC.
    04

    AD.
    33

    AD.
    60

    AD.
    64

    AD.
    58

    AD.
    59

    AD.
    60

    AD.
    54

    AD.
    59
    NEW TESTAMENT

    Titus, Missionary with Paul
    (2nd Timothy, 4:10

    Joseph-Mary-Herod
    (Matthew 1:20, 2:1)

    Nicolas, a proselyte
    (Acts 6:5)

    Festus,
    (Acts, 24:27)

    Theudas, boaster, was slain
    (Acts 5:36)

    Annas, high priest
    (Acts 4:6)

    Felex, Gov. of Caesarea to whom Paul was sent
    (Acts 23:26)

    Pilate, Pontius, governer
    (Matthew 27:2)

    Archelause, son of Herod
    (Matthew, 2:22)

    Nathanael, of Cana
    (John, 21:2)

    Ananias, High priest
    (Acts, 23:2)

    Cornelius of Caesarea, Centurion a just man
    (Acts 10:1)

    James, the Lord's Brother
    (John 21:2)

    Gaius of Derbe, Paul's comp.
    (Acts 19:29)

    Quartus, a brother in the church
    (Romans 16:23)

    Crispus, chief ruler of synagague
    (Acts 18:8)

    Stephanas, convert of Paul
    (I Cor. 1:15)

     


    [ 31 ]


    Date

    BC.
    163


    BC.
    160

    BC.
    155

    AD.
    20

    AD.
    20

    AD.
    60

    BC.
    104

    BC.
    50

    AD.
    15

    AD.
    26

    AD.
    10

    BC.
    15

    BC.
    15

    AD.
    12

    AD.
    10

    AD.
    31

    AD.
    40

    BC.
    40
    JOSEPHUS

    Diana, temple of, Alexander donates riches to... Timothus mentioned in previous Ch.
    (XII, IX, 1)

    Judas, High Priest, brother of Simon
    (XII, VIII, 2)

    Andronicus, son of Massalamus
    (XIII, III, 4)

    Stechus, freedman, Marco's friend
    (XVIII, VI, 7)

    Tiberius, Caesar
    (XVIII, VI, 7)

    Lysanias, Tetrarchy of Abila
    (XX, VII, 1)

    Malchus, Governer of Arabia
    (XV, VI, 2)

    Aristobulus, bro. of Hycranus, slain by Herod
    (XV, VI, 4)

    Rufas, Annius, procurator
    (XVII, X, 3)

    John, the baptist
    (XVIII, V. 2)

    Eutychus, Agrippa's charioteer
    (XIX, IV, 4)

    Euodus, religious Jew
    (XVIII, VI, 9)

    Fortunatus, Agrippa's freedman
    (X, V, 3)

    Clement, General, tortured by Romans
    (XIX, I, 6)

    Publius, Patronius, pres. of Syria
    (XIV, VI, 3)

    Julia, Caius's sister
    (XVI, V, 1)

    Julius, Caesar
    (XIV, VIII, 1)

    Aeneas, whose name was Aretas
    (XVI, IX, 4)
    Date

    AD.
    59


    AD.
    32

    AD.
    53

    AD.
    60

    AD.
    08

    AD.
    08

    AD.
    33

    AD.
    60

    AD.
    60

    AD.
    26

    AD.
    60

    AD.
    64

    AD.
    59

    AD.
    59

    AD.
    62

    AD.
    60

    AD.
    62

    AD.
    34
    NEW TESTAMENT

    Diana, temple of, Alexander mentioned in verse 33, Timothius in verse 22.
    (Acts 19:27)

    Judas Iscariot, Apostle, son of Simon
    (John 6:71)

    Andronicus, fellow prisoner with Paul
    (Romans 16:7)

    Stachys, Paul's disciple
    (Romans 16:9)

    Tiberius, Caesar
    (Luke 1:3)

    Lysanias, Tetrarch of Abilene
    (Luke 3:1)

    Malchus, High Priest's servant
    (John 18:10)

    Aristobulus, saluted by Paul
    (Romans 16:10)

    Rufas, chosen of the Lord
    (Romans, 16:13)

    John, the Baptist
    (Matthew 3:1)

    Eutychus, raised to life
    (Acts 20:9)

    Euodias, fellow labourer with Paul
    (Philippians: 4:2)

    Fortunatus, disciple of Paul
    (I Corinthians 16:17)

    Clement, disciple of Paul
    (Philippians, 4:3)

    Publius, chief man of the island
    (Acts 28:7, 8)

    Julia, saluted by Paul
    (Rom. 16:1, 15)

    Julius, a centurian
    (Acts, 27:1)

    Aeneas, cured by Paul
    (Acts 9:33)


     


    [ 32 ]


    Date

    AD.
    20

    BC.
    30

    BC.
    25

    BC.
    ?

    BC.
    23

    BC. 63-
    AD. 14

    BC. 10-
    AD. 04

    BC.
    50

    BC.
    40

    AD.
    20

    AD.
    30

    BC.
    170






    BC.
    170



    AD.
    20
    JOSEPHUS

    Paulus, brother of Felix
    (XX, VII, 1)

    Matthias, son of Saripheus, companion of Judas
    (XVII, VI, 2)

    Antipas, Herod's son, Tetrarch of Galilee
    (XVII, VIII, 1)

    Antipatris
    (Wars IV, VII, 1 ?)

    Cyrenius, Roman Senator, counsul to Syria,
    taxed Jews (XVIII, I, 1)

    Augustus Caesar, Emperor, 27 BC Mentioned
    with Julius Antonius (XVI, VI, 7)

    Claudius, Caesar
    (XX, IX, 7)

    Mariamne, Herod's wife, friend of Joseph
    (XV, VII, 1)

    Mariamne, daughter of Josephus, Joseph
    relative (XVIII, V, 4)

    Mariamne, daughter of Simon the High Priest
    (Wars, I, XXIII, 4)

    Miriamne, wife of Archelaus
    (XX, VII, 1)

    Jesus, called Jason, High Priest of Jerusalem temple, religious reformer, sought to convert Jews to Hellenism, reigned three years then was deposed by Menalause, seeks former position by force of arms, is rejected by his own people, fled as a fugitive into Egypt.
    (XII, V, 1)

    Jason
    (same as above)



    Silas, an attendant of King Agrippa, became troublesome to the king. (XIX, VII, 1)
    Date

    AD.
    44

    AD.
    33

    AD.
    30?

    AD.
    60

    BC.
    06

    AD.
    62

    AD.
    41

    BC.
    04

    AD.
    33

    AD.
    33

    AD.
    41

    AD.
    30






    AD.
    53



    AD.
    20
    NEW TESTAMENT

    Paulus, Sergius, Duputy
    (Acts 13:7)

    Matthias, replaced Judas as apostle
    (Acts 1:23, 25)

    Antipas, faithful martyr
    (Revelation, 2:13)

    Antipatris, Governer?
    (Acts 23:3 1)

    Cyrenius, Governer of Syria taxed Jews


    Augustus, mentioned with Julius, a centurion
    (Acts 27:1)

    Claudius Caesar
    (Acts 11:28)

    Mary, Joseph's wife
    (Matthew 1:16)

    Mary Magdalene
    (Mathew 27:56)

    Mary, wife of Cleophas
    (John, 19:25)

    Mary, mother of John
    (Acts 12:12)

    Jesus of Nazereth, religious teacher and
    reformer, came not to bring peace but the
    sword. Was a fugitive rejected by his own
    people. Died on the cross. (The Gospels)




    Jason, Christian disciple in Thessalonia "who turned the world upside down... These all do contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying there is another king, one Jesus." (Acts 17:5)

    Silas, companion to Paul. Became "Exceedingly troublesome to the city." (Acts 16:19, 20)


     


    [ 33 ]

    Date

    BC.
    98

    AD.
    09

    AD.
    70

    AD.
    25

    BC.
    10

    AD.
    30?

    BC.
    50

    BC.
    50

    BC.
    65

    BC.
    ?

    BC.
    20

    BC.
    20

    AD.
    60

    AD.
    54

    BC.
    1042

    BC.
    33

    AD.
    60

    AD.
    66

    AD.
    66

    BC.
    ?

    AD.
    20
    JOSEPHUS

    Dionysius, tyrant, beheaded
    (XIV, III, 2)

    Aquila, murderer of Caius
    (XIX, I, 14)

    Justus, of Tiberius, historian
    (Life sec. 65)

    Saulus, ring leader of robbers
    (XX., IX, 4)

    Herodias, King Herods's wife
    (XVIII, V, 1)

    Salome, one of Herod's wives
    (XVII, I, 3)

    Joseph, Caiaphas, High Priest
    (XVIII, 11, 2)

    Joseph, Brother of Herod
    (XIV, XIV, 6)

    Joseph, Procurator, Herod's uncle,
    married Salome(XV, III, 5)

    Epicureans, philosophers
    (X, XI, 7)

    Olympus, Herod's daughter
    (XVI, X, 7)

    Trachonites, rebel
    (XVI, IX, 1)

    Niger, General and Governer
    (Wars III, 11, 2)

    Egyptian false prophet
    (XX, VIII, 6)

    Zadok, high priest
    (VII, 11, 2)

    Saul, father of Simon
    (II, XVIII, 4)

    John, the Essene, son of Matthias
    (Wars, II, XX, 4)

    Dorcas, John's father
    (Wars, IV, III, 5)

    Jacob, son of Sosas
    (Wars, IV, IV, 2)

    Quintilius, Varus, President of Syria,
    tax assessor for Herod (XVII, V, 2)

    Simon, a magician, a Jew
    (XX, VII, 2)
    Date

    AD.
    53

    AD.
    53

    AD.
    53

    AD.
    38

    AD.
    31

    AD.
    31

    AD.
    33

    AD.
    31

    BC.
    06

    BC.
    ?

    AD.
    59

    AD.
    ?

    AD.
    60

    AD.
    60

    BC.
    ?

    AD.
    33

    AD.
    31

    AD.
    41

    AD.
    30

    BC.
    06

    AD.
    33
    NEW TESTAMENT

    Dionysius, the Areopagite, convert
    (Acts, 17:34)

    Aquila, a certain Jew


    Justus, disciple of Paul
    (Acts, 18:7)

    Saul, the Apostle
    (Acts, 7:58)

    Herodius, Herod's bro. Phillip's wife
    (Matthew 14:3)

    Salome, Herod's daughter
    (Mark, 16:1)

    Joseph, called Barsabus, sir-named Justus
    (Acts 1:23)

    Joseph of Armiathaea
    (Mark, 15:43)

    Joseph, Mary's husband
    (Luke 1:27)

    Epicureans
    (philosophers)

    Olympas, saint
    (Romans 16:15)

    Trachonitis, region of
    (Luke 3:1)

    Niger, called Simeon
    (Acts 13:1)

    Egyptian false prophet
    (Acts 21:38)

    Sadoc, high priest
    (Matthew 1:14)

    Saul of Tarsus
    (Acts 7:58)

    John, bro. of James, apostle with Matthias
    (Mark, 3:17)

    Dorcas, Disciple
    (Acts 9:36)

    Jacob, son of Matthan
    (Matt. 1:16)

    Quirinious (Cyrenius) Governer of Syria when
    Augustus taxed the Jews (Luke 2:2)

    Simon, a Magician, convert
    (Acts 8:9)


     


    [ 34 ]

    Date

    AD
    ?


    AD.
    30

    BC. 10-
    AD. 44

    BC.
    40

    BC.
    30

    AD.
    12

    BC.
    ?

    BC.
    160

    AD.
    30

    AD.
    10

    BC.
    ?


    AD.
    12

    AD.
    ?


    BC.
    300?

    BC.
    100

    BC.
    100?

    AD.
    30

    AD.
    06

    BC.
    ?
    JOSEPHUS

    Caiaphas, Josephus, high priest. Son in law
    to High Priest Anaus
    (Footnote, (XX, VIII, 6)

    Christ
    (XVIII, III, 3)

    Agrippa, Marcas, Grandson of Herod
    (XII, 111, 2)

    Tyrannus, slain by Antipator
    (XVI, X, 6)

    Corinthus, Herod's guard
    (XVII, III, 2)

    Marcus, Pres. of Syria
    (XIX, VI, 4)

    Barnabazus, servant, by birth a Jew
    (XI, VI, 4)

    Simon, brother of Judas
    (XII, VIII, 2)

    Simeon, son of Gamaliel
    (Wars, IV, III, 9)

    Theophilus, son of Ananus, deprived of priesthood
    (XIX, VI, 2)

    Anna, in the days of Samuel the prophet
    (V, X, 2)

    Proculus, a centurian
    (XIX, VI, 3)

    Diana, Roman goddess, Mentioned with Alexander
    (XII, IX, 1)

    Abiathar, son of Abemeleck, high priest
    (VI, XIV, 6)

    Apollo, temple of
    (XIII, XIII, 3)

    Baal, Ahab's God
    (IX, VI, 6)

    Deucilla, daughter of Agrippa Sr.
    (XX, VII, 2)

    Abia, king of the Arabians
    (XX, IV, 1)

    Berechiah, chief in Government
    (IX, XII, 2)
    Date

    AD.
    33


    AD.
    30

    AD.
    60

    AD.
    56

    AD.
    60

    AD.
    64

    AD.
    64

    AD.
    33

    BC.
    05

    AD.
    33

    BC.
    03

    AD.
    33


    AD.
    59


    AD.
    31

    AD.
    56

    AD.
    60

    AD.
    60

    AD.
    06

    AD.
    33
    NEW TESTAMENT

    Caiaphas, High Priest, son in law to
    High Priest Anaus (John 18:13)


    Christ
    (John, 4:25)

    Agrippa, King
    (Acts 25:13)

    Tyrannus. Roman teacher
    (Acts, 19:9)

    Corinthus, Roman city
    (Romans heading)

    Markus, fellow prisoner with Paul
    (Col. 4:10)

    Barnabus, a Levite of Cyprus
    (Acts 4:26)

    Simon, Zelotes, fellow apostle with Judas
    (Acts, 1:13)

    Simean, a Just and devout man
    (Luke 2:25)

    Theophilus, most excellent disciple
    (Luke 1:3)


    Anna, a prophetess
    (Luke 2:36)

    Prochurus, Christian
    (Acts 6:5)

    Diana, Roman Goddess, mentioned with Alexander
    (Acts, 19:33, 35)

    Abiathar, high priest
    (Mark 2:26)

    Apollos, a certain Jew
    (Acts, 18:24)

    Baal, image of
    (Romans 11:4)

    Drucilla, wife to Felix
    (Acts 24:24)

    Abia, ancestor of Zacharias
    (Luke 1:5

    Barachias, father of Zacharias
    (Matt. 23:35)


     


    [ 35 ]


    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Bruce, F.F., Jesus and Christian Origins Outside the New Testament.

    Durant Will, Caesar and Christ.

    Johnson, Paul, A History of the Jews.

    Josephus, Flavius, Antiquities of the Jews.

    Josephus, Flavius, Wars of the Jews.

    Josephus, Flavius, Life.

    Mead, G.S.R., Fragments of a Faith Forgotten.

    Meyer, Marvin W., The Secret Teachings of Jesus.

    Piso, Arius, Calpernius, The New Testament (true Author).

    Reuchlin, Abelard, The True Authorship of the New Testament.

    Russell, D.S., The method and message of Jewish Apocalyptic.

    Schweitzer, Albert, The Quest of the Historical Jesus.

    Silver, D.J., A History of Judaism.

    Tanner, Rogers and McMurrin, Towards Understanding the New Testament.

    The Interpreters Bible.

    Wells, G.A., The Historical Evidence For Jesus.

    Whiston, William, Josephus' Complete Works.

     


    [ 36-37 ]



    APPENDIX II


    AMERICAN  ATHEIST

    Austin, Texas: February 1988, pp. 39ff
    Copyright ©: 1975 Society of Separationists


    AMERICAN ATHEIST RADIO SERIES / Madalyn O'Hair

    DID  JOSEPHUS  WRITE  IT?

    When the first installment of a regularly scheduled, fifteen-minute, weekly American Atheist radio series on KLBJ radio (a station in Austin, Texas, owned by then President Lyndon Baines Johnson) hit the airwaves on June 3, 1968, the nation was shocked. The programs had to be submitted weeks in advance and were heavily censored The regular production of the series ended in September 1977, when no further funding was available.

    The following is the text of American Atheist Radio Series program No. 356, first broadcast on August 23, 1975.

    Christianity, without Christ, cannot be. It is just that simple. Because of this, a veritable duel to the death has existed between Atheists and Christians for as long as the Atheist has been permitted to duel. In early Christian history, he was simply murdered for heretical beliefs. Since 1667, he has been permitted to speak with only the harassment of prison terms, loss of employment, and complete boycott by the Christian-dominated culture, with severe economic and psychological sanctions against him.

    The argument always reaches to the histotical writers of the time of Jesus Christ. Of course, the Christian historians will not admit that god certainly could have preserved the records of his only son, had there really been a god. In the United States, we did a much better job preserving the documents which made us a nation than did god to preserve the documents which would have proven the authenticity of his son.

    The Atheist historians are not all that brave as yet. One of ours, indeed, refuses to even identify himself. He writes under the name of Historicus.

    Despite the fact that the basis of anti-Semitism in the Western culture is Christianity, when it comes to the all-important argument of whether or not a christ did exist, the average Christian theologian calls upon the evidence of the despised Jew -- particularly that of Josephus, a Jewish historian who lived about the time that Christ's life should have been reported and who was of major significance in the Roman culture. Josephus lived from A.D. 37 to 100, and he was the official (or one of the official) historians of the Roman Empire. Therefore, he had access to documents and information which others might not have had.

    Well, Historicus writes about this important problem, the historicity of Jesus Christ, quite often. I have here one of his later works, written in 1972, which I am permitted reproduce in whole or in part. Let's see what he has to say about this question in an article titled "Did Josephus Write It?"

    Scholars have often averred that the Jesus of the New Testament is a myth, that he never had existed, and that there is no historical evidence to substantiate the claims for his existence advanced by the Christian church. At first the religious apologists scoffed at this contention and attributed the statements of the scholars to pure wickedness, seeing in it but another attempt of Satan to lure more souls to Hell -- this, and nothing more.

    But as the study of mythology advanced, historical parallels were constructed and the truth began to dawn upon unprejudiced persons. The similarities proved to be extremely destructive to the accepted beliefs about the life of Jesus.

    Dupuis, Strauss, Drews, Smith, Roberson, and others brought together sufficient evidence to establish upon a firm foundation that there is nothing in all history to prove that the Jesus of the New Testament ever walked the face of the earth.

    Contemporary writers displayed an amazing lack of information about Jesus. Here was a man who performed miracles that astounded the multitudes, yet his acts are not found recorded in the books of historians who noted occurrences of much less importance. Remsburg, in The Christ, names forty-two writers who lived and wrote during the time or within a century after the period when Jesus is said to have existed, and from all their writings only four passages are to be found that might possibly support the historicity of Jesus. And of these four passages, not a single one can stand a critical test.

    It is agreed that the strongest of them is the passage found in the works of a Jewish historian, Flavius Josephus (living between the years A.D. 37 and 100). Professor Arthur Drews, in Witnesses to the Historicity of Jesus, states that "he [Josephusj is the first profane writer who can seriously be quoted for the historicity of Jesus."

    If the passage in Josephus is genuine, then strong and in fact formidable proof is offered for the Christian claim along historical lines. On the other hand, should this passage be found a mere forgery, a clumsy interpolation, then the strongest element of proof for the historicity of Jesus in the whole mass of ancient literature crumbles and dissolves.

    Josephus was the author of A Defense of the Jewish Religion. In this he showed himself to be a fervent believer in Judaism -- a point that must be kept in mind in view of the passage attributed to him depicting Jesus as the long-awaited Messiah. At the time he wrote, the Christians constituted a very small sect, of no particular political or social importance. Late in the first century, Josephus completed his classical work, The Antiquities of the Jews. In this book is found a complete history of his race, dating from the very earliest age, according to the knowledge of his day.

    While in the midst of the story of a Jewish uprising, the narrator in this book is interrupted by the following irrelevant passage: "Now there was about this time Jesus, a wise man -- if it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a doer of wonderful works and a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over to him both many of the Jews and many of the Gentiles. He was the Christ. Although Pilate, at the complaint of the leaders of our people, condemned him to die on the cross, his earlier followers were faithful to him. For he appeared to them alive again on the third day, as god-sent prophets had foretold this and a thousand other wonderful things of him. The tribe of Christians, which is called after him, survives until the present day" (Jewish Antiquities xviii, 3, 31.)

    Would Josephus, who wrote with such careful sequence, break the unity of his narrative to observe, with Christian piety, that "about this time [lived] Jesus, a wise man -- if it be lawful to call him a man,... he was a doer of wonderful works ... He was the Christ.... he appeared to them alive again on the third day, as god-sent prophets had foretold," etc? All this we are asked to accept as coming from Josephus, an extremely pious Jew!

    We should be inclined to think that this Jewish historian, after noting a matter of such prime importance in the history of his people as the coming of the Messiah, would proceed to elaborate on it, to impress its significance upon his religious brethren, for the Jews at that time were bestowing great attention on matters pertaining to the coming of Jesus the Messiah. In fact, they were awaiting the Messiah with painful impatience and desperate hope.

    But Josephus, as soon as he is through with the Jesus passage, the heaven-sent Messiah, the long-awaited Christ who was to bring peace and happiness to all those suffering under the cruel Roman heel, goes on, as though nothing of unusual importance had been touched upon, to make the statement: "Also about this time another misfortune befell the Jews;" and the text continues leisurely with the story of how Tiberius expelled the Jews from Rome. Attention is immediately arrested by the wording, "another misfortune befell the Jews." What other misfortune? If Josephus had written the joyful Jesus passage, would he have continued with "another misfortune" and then told of Tiberius and his expulsion of the Jews?

    About this passage affirming Jesus as the Christ, a number of observations might be made. Josephus is obviously ignorant of the occurrences connected with Jesus and his followers. As one who accepted Jesus as the Messiah whom the "god-sent prophets had foretold," Josephus must certainly have gathered zealously all available information about him. Yet, the conscientious narrator of Jewish history fails utterly to note such exciting events as: (1) the triumphal entry of Jesus into Jerusalem, (2) his acclamation as the Messiah, (3) the riot before the governor's house, (4) the surrendering by the Sanhedrim of one of their people to the Roman authorities, (5) the disappearance of the body from the grave. It is not an easy matter, as Professor Drews states, to show that these events were too insignificant for Josephus to record. The Acts of the Apostles (2:41) shows the new religious sect (Christian)entering into deadly rivalry with the old religion. It is difficult to understand how Josephus, a thorough historian in his way, could have failed to include the aforementioned events in his work had these incidents occurred during the fife of Jesus.

    That he noticed messianic disturbances in the times is amply proven in his Antiquities (pages xviii, 4, 1). Here are noted the false Messiah and his attempts to induce the Samaritans to rise against their Roman masters. Then there is the incident of Judas, the Gaulonite, who created a disturbance of the people against the census of Quirinus; the story of the pretending prophet, Theudas, who claimed to possess the power to divide the waters of the Jordan to allow his followers to cross in safety.

    In Witnesses to the Historicity of Jesus, Professor Drews says (page f) "Does anyone seriously believe, in fact, that Josephus could have concealed from the Romans, who had long ruled over Palestine and were accurately informed as to the disposition of their subjects, the messianic expectations and agitations of his compatriots and represented them as harmless, in works which were especially concerned with their" strained relations to their oppressors?

    The most important and illuminating fact, however, is that the passage about Jesus as the Messiah is not to be found in the early copies of Josephus. Not until the Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius (about A.D. 300) do we come across it, and it is claimed that all reference to this passage is worthless as historical material because of the deliberate falsifications of Eusebius.

    Jakob Burkhardt considers the wily Eusebius to be "the first thoroughly dishonest historian of antiquity." He elaborates on his character as follows:

    "After many falsifications, suppressions, and fictions which have been proved in his work, he has no right to be put forward as a decisive authority; and to these faults we must add a consciously perverse manner of expression, deliberate bombast, and many equivocations, so that the reader stumbles upon trapdoors and pitfalls in the most important passages. (Leben Konstantins, 2nd edition, 1860, pages 307, 335, 347)

    Also of the utmost significance is the absence of the Josephian passage in the controversies of the early church fathers. Not only is the passage not to be found cited in their voluminous disputes, but one fails to come across even a mention of it in works where it would undoubtedly have appeared had it been in existence at that early day. It is not in the polemics of Tertullian, Cyprian, Justin or Origen. Valuable indeed would this passage have been to Justin in his dialogue with Trypho the Jew.

    Chrysostom, a careful reader of Josephus, wrote in the latter part of the fourth century. The quotation of the Josephian passage would have weighed strongly in favor of the church. But no mention is made of it in his works, and we are inclined to accept the view of Remsburg that he was "too honest or too wise to use it."

    Canon Farrar, in his We of Christ (Volume 1, page 63), sums up the case in the following words: "The single passage in which he [Josephus] alludes to him [Jesus Christ] is interpolated, if not wholly spurious."

    The verdict of history has thrown this passage out. And thus the church remains without one iota of tangible evidence to uphold its claims for the historicity of Jesus.

    And thus speaks Historicus (Jacob Benjamin).









    JOSEPHUS  PLEADS  WITH  JERUSALEM  DEFENDERS







     

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