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Adolf Harnack
The Sayings of Jesus
(New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1908)
  • Title Page
  • Preface
  • Introduction
  • excerpts

  • "Q" Resources
  • Text of "Q"

  • Transcriber'Comments


    New Testament Studies











    [ v ]


    In the following pages an attempt is made to determine exactly the second source of St. Matthew and St. Luke (Q) both in regard to its extent and its contents, and to estimate its value both in itself and relatively to the Gospel of St. Mark. I have been moved to complete and to publish these investigations by Wellhausen's "Introduction to the First Three Gospels" (1905). The attitude of opposition I am driven to adopt towards an important result of Wellhausen's researches, does not detract from my high appreciation of the merit of this work.

    A supplementary observation which I have made may serve as an additional proof of the unity of the source Q. In St. Matthew are found about 112 words, and in St. Luke (without the Acts) about 261, which occur in these gospels and do not occur elsewhere in the New Testament. Now of these 373 words, the reconstructed text of Q given on pp. 127 ff. contains at the most 16 -- i.e. 13 (12) from St. Matthew... and 3 from St. Luke...; yet it is questionable whether three of these really belong to Q. That it is thus possible to construct the fairly extensive text of Q without making a further demand than of 12 to 16 words upon


    vi                                                 PREFACE                                                

    the copious and distinctive vocabularies of St. Matthew and St. Luke, is a welcome additional proof of the distinct individuality of Q. On the other hand, the variety of the stylistic, rhetorical, and poetic forms in which the discourses and sayings in Q are thus seen to be cast, is no argument against its distinctive unity, but even serves to confirm our confidence in the individuality as well as in the genuineness and originality of this source.

    If in the following investigation I have correctly defined the limits and have justly estimated the value of Q, I have only given fresh utterance to the long-established judgment of competent scholars, though it is to be hoped that I have established it upon a more secure foundation than that upon which it has rested hitherto. No words of mine are needed to explain what this means for our knowledge of the history of our Lord. And yet one can scarcely hope that there will be an end of wild hypotheses in regard to that history. The temptation to confine one's gaze to isolated details, and to view these as reflected in the distorting mirror of prepossession and prejudice, without deep and reverent study of tradition, is too great for us to expect that these strivings will ever cease.

    I offer my hearty thanks to my friend Professor von Dobschiitz for the active and kindly interest which he has devoted to this undertaking of mine while it was passing through the press.
    A. H.        
    BERLIN, 8th December, 1906.


    [ ix ]


    The sections which are common to St. Matthew and St. Luke, excluding those which they share with St. Mark, are, as is well known, very considerable both in number and content. They amount altogether to about one-sixth of the text of St. Luke and two-elevenths of the text of St. Matthew.^ The researches of very many scholars have led them to the unanimous conclusion that neither St. Matthew nor St. Luke have copied the one from the other, and that these sections are thus dependent upon either one or several connnon sources. The former alternative is generally preferred, and rightly so; and yet one does not thereby conceal from oneself the possibility that it may well have been otherwise, and that in regard to many points of detail and many passages there is still room for the hypothesis of several written sources and even of depend- ence upon oral tradition. In this connection a great number of other questions arise which cannot be passed by. The most important are the following: --

    1. Is it not possible that after the publication of the

    1 Here of course difficulties begin at once. It is not always a simple matter to determine the limits of these sections; different opinions may be held as to the origin of the doublets which are found both in St. Matthew and St. Luke; and in regard to a few important sections, it must remain doubtful whether they are not mutually dependent upon a much earlier source, which is thus not identical with the main source.


    x                                             INTRODUCTION                                            

    gospel of St. Luke and St. Matthew the one was so much corrected from the other 1 that the task of settling the text of the source has been rendered very difficult?

    2. Did St. Matthew and St. Luke use the same recension of Q? Or did the former use it in one form (Q 1), the latter in another (Q2, Q3, Q4, &c.)?

    3. If Q first existed in Aramaic, did one or both of the evangelists pay attention to this Aramaic original, 2 and occasionally make use of it?

    4. Since it is a priori probable that neither of the two evangelists quite exhausted the contents of the source, in which of them is it best reproduced both in regard to extent and arrangement? and which of the passages that are transmitted to us by only one of our authorities belong nevertheless to the source?

    5. Judging from the investigation of those sections which may be with certainty assigned to the source, are we to regard Q as a collection of sayings or a "gospel?" And is it possible that the answer to this question may afford us a principle by which we may decide whether doubtful sections belong or do not belong to the source? Or, if this question cannot be answered, is it not hopeless to attempt to determine the extent of Q?

    These problems, so numerous and of such intense importance, seem to render it so difficult to answer the question: What is Q? that one can easily understand a person of sceptical mind refusing to concern

    1 Compare, for instance, Blass's reconstruction of the text of St. Matthew ("Evang. sec. Matth. 1901").

    2 It is quite certain that in general both used one and the same Greek translation.


                                                INTRODUCTION                                             xi

    himself with it. Yet, on the other hand, such scepticism is only permissible when there is distinct proof of the hopelessness of all attempts to solve the question. But no proof of such a kind has as yet been produced. It is true that Q has been much written about and investigated by Weiss, Holtzmann, Wendt, and Wernle, and by other scholars following their lead, last of all by Wellhausen -- though it is strange how much more attention has been devoted to St. Mark; but as yet no work has appeared which takes into account all the details. Such a work ought in the first place to confine itself with rigorous exclusiveness to the non-Markan passages which are common to St. Matthew and St. Luke; to subject these to a thorough investigation from the point of view of grammar, style, and literary criticism in general, and after having thus gained a firm standpoint, to see what definite results may be deduced. If such an investigation fails of its aim -- that is, if it is shown that nothing connected or distinctive is evolved from the study of the passages in question -- then it follows that Q vanishes as a tangible entity, indeed disappears altogether, and accordingly that the problem of the relationship between St. Matthew and St. Luke in those parts which are not covered by St. Mark is declared to be insoluble. The necessary consequence of this would be that the discourses and narratives contained in these portions of the gospels (whether in sections of greater or smaller extent) would have to be dealt with each by itself.

    Up to the present, however, there has been no final settlement of the preliminary textual question -- in


    xii                                             INTRODUCTION                                            

    which of the two gospels do these sections appear in their more original form? If we seek counsel among the critics we only meet with unconvincing statements, that both evangelists allowed themselves to make numerous changes and revisions of the text, while it is usually added that on the whole more trust is to be placed in St. Luke than in St. Matthew. 1 One seeks in vain for a proof of this thesis, in so far as its feeble character at all permits of one, and even the question which at once suggests itself -- What are then the points of view and the principles in accordance with which St. Matthew and St. Luke have respectively corrected the source? -- is propounded by scarcely a single critic. The situation here is the same as in the case of a dozen other important problems of the criticism of the gospels: men soar away into sublime discussions concerning the meaning of "the Kingdom of God," the "Son of Man," "Messiahship," &c., and occupy themselves with investigations into the "history of religion," and with problems of genuineness, in the light of " higher " criticism (as if the critic were inspired with absolute knowledge of historical matters from some secret source); while the "lower" problems, whose treatment involves real scavenger's labour in which one is almost choked with dust, are passed by on the other side. Or where this is not the case, the investigation is still never carried far enough; it breaks off prematurely, and the critic rests satisfied with work only half done. Hence the wretched plight

    1 Wernle forms an exception. This scholar has shown that apart from some instances of severe revision the text appears in a more trustworthy form in St. Matthew. His work on Q is quite excellent but not detailed enough.


                                                INTRODUCTION                                             xiii

    in which the criticism of the gospels finds itself in these days, and indeed has always found itself 1 -- with the exception of the work of a few critics, and apart from the Markan problem, which has been treated with scientific thoroughness.

    But even in the case of the Markan problem much important work remains to be accomplished by the

    1 This wretched state of affairs is apparent above all in the case of those who are compelled to take their knowledge of the criticism of the New Testament at second-hand, or have condemned themselves to this unassuming intellectual position. They are like reeds swaying with the blasts of the most extreme and mutually exclusive hypotheses, and find everything in this connection which is offered them "very worthy of consideration." To-day they are ready to believe that there was no such person as Jesus, while yesterday they regarded Him as a neurotic visionary, shown to be such with convincing force by His own words, if only these are rightly interpreted, which words by the way have been excellently transmitted by tradition. To-morrow He has become for them an Essene, as may be proved likewise from His own words; and yet the day before yesterday none of these words were His own; and perhaps on the very same day it was accounted correct to regard Him as belonging to some Greek sect of esoteric Gnostics -- a sect which still remains to be discovered, and which with its symbols and sacraments represented a religion of a chaotic and retrograde character, nay, exercised a beneficial influence upon the development of culture. Or rather, He was an anarchist monk like Tolstoi; or, still better, a genuine Buddhist, who had, however, come under the influence of ideas originating in ancient Babylon, Persia, Egypt, and Greece; or, better still, He was the eponymous hero of the mildly revolutionary and moderately radical fourth estate in the capital of the Roman world. It is evident, forsooth, that he may possibly have been all of these things, and may be assumed to have been one of them. If therefore one only keeps hold of all these reins, naturally with a loose hand, one is shielded from the reproach of not being up to date, and this is more important by far than the knowledge of the facts themselves, which indeed do not so much concern us, seeing that in this twentieth century we must of course wean ourselves from a contemptible dependence upon history in matters of religion.


    xiv                                             INTRODUCTION                                            

    "lower" criticism, and remarkably little is to be found in our books on the question of the relationship of Q to St. Mark. "The problem of the literary relationship between Q and St. Mark must at least be propounded and needs thorough investigation. It is indeed most extraordinary, to use only a mild expression, that such an investigation up to the present has never been set on foot" (Wellhausen, "Einleitung in die drei ersten Evangelien," s. 73). The last remark is scarcely correct; several scholars have occupied themselves with the problem. But Wellhausen's astonishment is nevertheless quite justifiable. If the criticism of the gospels had been carried on methodically, so that each scholar stood as it were upon the shoulders of his predecessor, this cardinal problem would necessarily have been thoroughly discussed long ago, the whole material for discussion would have been set in order, and the definite and final conclusion would have been drawn. Instead of this everything is still enveloped in a cloud of uncertainty, and amid the dearth of preliminary studies of a connected and scientific character, we can easily understand how it has come to pass that Wellhausen has produced a solution of the problem which has this merit, that by its very paradox it has summoned theologians to descend from the airy heights of their critical speculations and to gird themselves for strenuous labour as hewers in the mines of knowledge.

    In the following treatise I begin by ascertaining the relatively original text of the sections which are exclusively common to St. Matthew and St. Luke, and


                                                INTRODUCTION                                             xv

    by deducing at the same time the points of view and the principles according to which each of the two evangelists has worked -- that is, has edited the hypothetical common source. Before coming to a conclusion as to the most approximately original text of St. Matthew and St. Mark, I have thoroughly worked through the texts adopted by Blass, Wellhausen, and others, together with the editions of older scholars. I have convinced myself anew of a fact that I had already learned at the time of my studies on the text of the Acts -- namely, that Blass has assigned far too great weight to the testimony of the important Codex D with its satellites, as well as to the isolated readings of other authorities (Chrysostom!). In my opinion, even Wellhausen goes too far in this direction. Neither can I recognise that the text of St. Luke has had the subsequent influence upon the text of St. Matthew which Blass supposes; indeed, as compared with him, I keep much more closely to the text of Westcott and Hort.

    As is well known, the sections of St. Matthew and St. Luke which concern us are of such a character that a very considerable portion of them occurs in practically verbal similarity in the two gospels, while another (very small) portion shows variations which are so great as to compel us to doubt whether it is even possible to accept in their case the hypothesis of a common immediate source (vide p. v). In between lies the great mass of the remaining sections, which show more or less numerous and important variants. The first group has the great advantage in that from it we are enabled to draw conclusions of the highest


    xvi                                             INTRODUCTION                                            

    probability. I have therefore divided the material into three parts, and I shall first consider those sections in which the differences between St. Matthew and St. Luke are comparatively very slight. Equipped with the results of this investigation, I shall proceed to the examination of the second group, in which the differences are more numerous. I shall then, only after the fashion of an appendix, deal with those sections in which the difference is so great that one must seriously doubt whether they belong to Q. They include only one saying and two parables.


    [ 1 ]



    (pages 1-245 under construction)


    246                                  THE  SAYINGS  OF  JESUS                                  

    these sayings our Lord claims faith not because He is the present Messiah -- this is unthinkable -- but because He works the works of God and proclaims His commandments.



    If we consider Q apart from its introduction (sections 1 and 2), we see at once that we are dealing with a document of the highest antiquity -- there is here no need of proof; but even if we take into our view Q together with the introduction, there is little difference in the final verdict. The idea that Jesus was endowed with the Messiahship at the Baptism had, as St. Mark shows, already taken form in the apostolic age and in the circle of the immediate disciples -- how early we do not know. An idea so impressive and so incapable of proof or of disproof could have taken form and have established itself in the Christian community at a very early date. The view indeed which preceded it, according to which Jesus was declared by God to be the Messiah by means of an act of glorification, is an idea which had already completely lost its significance for St. Mark, while St. Matthew and


                                   HISTORICAL VALUE  OF  Q                                247

    St. Luke knew no more of it than what they read in St. Mark. Further, the fact that our Lord throughout the principal part of His ministry had not represented Himself as being the future, and still less the present, Messiah, was afterwards found to be no difficulty at all. The disciples needed only to say to themselves: "We did not understand Him," and this is just what they did say. The cases of discrepancy and confusion which we find in their own and their disciples' 1 reproduction of particular stories and discourses, and which have led to the adoption of such strange subterfuges and harmonising hypotheses in the interpretation of the Markan accounts, did not exist for those who were provided with this refugium ignorantice 1 St. Mark indeed knows as little of a development in our Lord's consciousness as Q; he also, like Q, places the revelation of the Divine Sonship (the Messiahship) at the beginning of our Lord's active ministry, and it is only because of the careless and naive fashion in which one may say he has gathered together and heaped up his materials -- in strange contrast with the energy with which he follows his main purpose and finds it vouched for in the most discrepant narratives -- that we (against the will and intention of St. Mark) receive any hint of stages of development in the ministry of our Lord.

    Q, a compilation of sayings originally written in Aramaic (vide Wellhausen, Nestle, and others),

    1 These show us, however, the relative faithfulness of their record.


    248                                  THE  SAYINGS  OF  JESUS                                  

    belongs to the apostolic epoch. This is shown by its form and contents, nor can I discern any reasons for a contrary opinion; in particular, the destruction of Jerusalem is not here presupposed as having already occurred. 1 It is, moreover, more ancient than St. Mark. The influence of "Paulinism" which is so strong in St. Mark is entirely wanting, and accordingly the main theme of St. Mark -- that Jesus, His death and resurrection, form the content of His own gospel -- is not to he found in Q. 2 It is evident that Q was composed in Palestine -- its Jewish and Palestinian horizon is quite obvious. St. Mark, however, wrote his gospel in Rome. No proof can be given of any literary relationship between the two works. This is an indication that we must not set Q too early; for it Q had been already long in circulation it is incomprehensible that St. Mark neither knew it nor used it, even though he wrote at a place far distant from Palestine.

    Is Q of apostolic origin? I can make no new contribution towards settling this question. That Papias (like Eusebius) in the well-known passage (Euseb., "Hist. Eccl.," iii. 39) means our St. Matthew, is very probable; whether, however, the Presbyter meant this St. Matthew, is doubtful. Seeing that our St. Matthew cannot have been

    1 Moreover even in passages peculiar to St. Matthew sayings occur which must have taken form before the destruction of Jerusalem.

    2 There is surely no need for me to notice the theory that Q was intended as a complement to the Gospel of St. Mark, who had gathered together all the tradition within his reach.


                                   HISTORICAL VALUE  OF  Q                                249

    composed by an Apostle, and that the tradition: [-Greek text-], already dates from about a.d. 100, there is a strong balance of probability that Q is a work of St. Matthew; but more cannot be said. It is useless to discuss the historical and psychological question whether one of the Twelve could have composed such a compilation as Q; convincing reasons either for or against cannot be discovered. From the so-called charge to the Apostles we can only conclude that behind the written record there stands the memory of an apostolic listener. But whoever the author, or rather the redactor, of Q may have been, he was a man deserving of the highest respect. To his reverence and faithfulness, to his simple-minded common-sense, we owe this priceless compilation of the sayings of Jesus.

    Our knowledge of the teaching and the history of our Lord, in their main features a,t least, thus depends upon two authorities independent of one another, yet composed at nearly the same time. Where they agree their testimony is strong, and they agree often and on important points. 1 On the rock of their united testimony the assault of destructive critical views, however necessary these are to easily self-satisfied research, will ever be shattered to pieces.

    And yet again how different are these two sources! On the one hand St. Mark -- wherein page by page the student is reduced to despair by the inconsistencies,

    1 Compare especially the historical background and the historical references in numerous sayings in Q.


    250                                  THE  SAYINGS  OF  JESUS                                  

    the discrepancies, and the incredibilities of the narrative -- and yet without this gospel we should be deprived of every thread of consistent and concrete historical information concerning the life of Jesus; and on the other hand, this compilation of sayings, which alone affords us a really exact and profound conception of the teaching of Jesus, and is free from bias, apologetic or otherwise, and yet gives us no history. In St. Mark an almost complete inability to distinguish between what is primary or secondary, between what is trustworthy or questionable, an apologetic which grasps at all within its reach, to which everything is welcome and right -- and yet at the same time a feeling for detail and for life, and even where this feeling is not present, the actual preservation of these traits; in Q, on the other hand, a many-sidedness in reference to that which is the most important, which quite compensates us for the want of "history."

    Which is the more valuable? Eighteen centuries of Christianity have answered this question, and their answer is true. The portrait of Jesus as given in the sayings of Q has remained in the foreground. 1 The attempts which have been made to replace it by that of St. Mark have met with no success; they will lead ever and again into the abyss of confusion, they will come to nought through their own inconsistency. The collection of sayings and St. Mark must remain in power, but the former takes precedence. Above all, the tendency to exaggerate the apocalyptic and eschatological

    1 This is so even with the sketch of the personality of our Lord drawn by Wellhausen in his History of Israel.


                                   HISTORICAL VALUE  OF  Q                                251

    element in our Lord's message, and to subordinate to this the purely religious and ethical elements, will ever find its refutation in Q. This source is the authority for that which formed the central theme of the message of our Lord -- that is, the revelation of the knowledge of God, and the moral call to repent and to believe, to renounce the world and to gain heaven -- this and nothing else.

    We cannot tell how long this compilation remained in existence. Its traces in St. Clement of Rome and in writers after his time are not certain. It found its grave in the gospels of St. Matthew and St. Luke, and probably elsewhere in some apocryphal gospels. St. Mark alone could not have supplanted it; but the narrative type of gospel, which was created by the second evangelist and which answered to the needs of catechetical apologetics, no longer allowed the separate existence of a compilation of sayings. The final blow to the independent existence of Q was dealt when it was incorporated in the gospels of St. Luke and St. Matthew. In St. Luke it exists, split up and dispersed throughout the gospel in subservience to the historical narrative; in St. Matthew it was treated in more conservative spirit, though in some important passages it has suffered more from revision and shows clearer traces of the particular bias of the evangelist. In most skilful fashion -- often only by means of an accent or by an arrangement of the context which seems quite insignificant -- the first evangelist has made this compilation of discourses subservient to his own special interest in the Christian


    252                                  THE  SAYINGS  OF  JESUS                                  

    community and its organisation, while St. Luke, who has much more frequently altered the wording of his source, has nevertheless kept so closely to it in essential points that its original character is more clearly perceived in his reproduction.





        *     *     *     *

    (When John saw many [or: the multitudes] coming to baptism, he said to them): Ye offspring of vipers, who warned you to flee from the wrath to come? Bring forth therefore fruit worthy of repentance; and think not [begin not] to say within yourselves: We have Abraham for our father; for I say unto you that God is able of these stones to raise up children to Abraham. Already the axe is laid to the root of the trees; every tree therefore that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down and cast into the fire. I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance; but he that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear, he will baptize you with (the [Holy] Spirit and) with fire. Whose fan is in his hand, and he will thoroughly purge his threshing-floor and will gather

    1 The numbers are those of the Greek text on pp. 127-146. A line of dots preceding a passage shows that its original position in Q is uncertain. All that is otherwise uncertain is placed in brackets. In general, it must be remembered that in the case of quite short sayings, whose position in Q is doubtful, there is also a doubt whether they belong to Q at all. Such are found in 16, 19, 24, 26-28, 31, 32, 35, 36, 39-42, 44, 47-55.


    254                                  THE  SAYINGS  OF  JESUS                                  

    his wheat into the barn, but the chafF he will burn up with fire unquenchable.

    (The baptism of Jesus, together with the descent of the Spirit and the voice from heaven.)


    Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil, and when he had fasted forty days and forty nights he afterwards hungered, and the tempter said to him: If thou art the Son of God, command that these stones become bread, and he answered: It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone. Then he taketh him with him to Jerusalem and set him on the pinnacle of the temple and saith to him: If thou art the Son of God, cast thyself down; for it is written, He shall give his angels charge concerning thee, and in their hands they shall hear thee up lest haply thou dash thy foot against a stone. Jesus said to him: Again it is written. Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God. Again he taketh him with him to an exceeding high mountain and sheweth him all the kingdoms of the world and the glory of them, and said to him: All these will I give thee if thou wilt worship me. And Jesus saith to him: It is written. Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God and him only shalt thou serve. And the devil leaveth him.

    3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 9, 27, 28, 31, 32, 35, 36, 39, 41, 47, 49, 51, 52.

    (He taught his disciples in the presence of the multitude as follows): --


                                     TRANSLATION  OF  Q                                   255

    Blessed are the poor, for theirs is the kingdom of God;

    Blessed are they that mourn, for they shall be comforted;

    Blessed are they that hunger, for they shall be filled;

    Blessed are ye, when they shall revile you and persecute you and say all manner of evil against you falsely; rejoice and be exceeding glad, for great is your reward in heaven; for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you.

    Whosoever smiteth thee on the
    (thy right) cheek turn to him the other also, and if any man would go to law with thee and take away thy coat let him have thy cloke also.

    Give to him that asketh thee, and from him that would borrow from thee turn not away.

    I say unto you: Love your enemies and pray for your persecutors, that ye may become the sons of your Father, for he maketh his sun to rise upon the evil and the good (and sendeth rain on the just and the unjust). For if ye love those which love you, what reward have ye? Do not even the publicans the same? And if ye salute your brethren only, what do ye more than others? Do not even the Gentiles the same? Ye shall therefore be merciful as your Father is merciful.

    All things whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, even so do ye also unto them.


    256                                  THE  SAYINGS  OF  JESUS                                  

    Judge not, that ye be not judged. For with what judgment ye judge, ye shall be judged; and with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you. But why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but perceivest not the beam that is in thine own eye? Or how wilt thou say to thy brother: Let be, I will cast out the mote from thine eye, and the beam is in thine own eye? Thou hypocrite, cast out first the beam from thine own eye, and then shalt thou see clearly to cast out the mote from thy brother's eye.

    The tree is known from the fruit. Do they gather grapes from thorns or figs from thistles? Even so every good tree bringeth forth excellent fruit, but the corrupt tree bringeth forth bad fruit. A good tree cannot bear bad fruit, neither can a corrupt tree bring forth excellent fruit.

    (Not everyone that saith unto me: Lord, Lord! shall enter into the kingdom of God, but he that doeth the will of my Father.) Everyone therefore that heareth these my words and doeth them, I will shew you to whom he is like. He is like (or in place of the last twelve words: He shall be likened) to a man who built his house upon the rock. And the rain came down, and the floods arose, and the winds blew and beat upon that house, and it fell not; for it had been founded upon the rock. And everyone that heareth these my words and doeth them not, shall be likened to a man who built his house upon the sand. And the rain came down, and the floods arose, and the winds blew and smote


                                   TRANSLATION  OF  Q                                257

    upon that house, and it fell, and great was the fall thereof.

        *     *     *     *

    If the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch.

        *     *     *     *

    (Father, give us this day our bread for the coming day, and remit us our debts, as we also have remitted to our debtors, and lead us not into temptation.)

        *     *     *     *

    Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened to you. For everyone that asketh receiveth, and he that seeketh findeth, and to him that knocketh it shall be opened. Or what man is there of you, of whom his son shall ask bread, will he give him a stone? Or if he shall ask for a fish, will he give him a serpent? If then ye being evil know how to give good things (gifts) to your children, how much more will the Father from heaven give good things to those who ask him.

        *     *     *     *

    Men do not light a lamp and place it under a bushel, but upon a lamp-stand, and it giveth light to all that are in the house.

    The light of the body is the (thine) eye; if then thine eye be single, thy whole body shall be full of light; but if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall


    258                                  THE  SAYINGS  OF  JESUS                                  

    be darkened. If therefore the light which is in thee be darkness, how great will the darkness [scil, in the whole outlook of the soul] then be!

        *     *     *     *

    Wherefore I say unto you: Be not anxious for your life, what ye shall eat; nor for your body, what ye shall put on. Is not the life more than meat and the body than raiment? Look at the ravens (or: the birds of the heaven), they sow not, neither reap nor gather into barns, and God feedeth them. Are ye not much better than they? Which of you by being anxious can add one cubit to his stature; and why are ye anxious about raiment? Consider the lilies, how they grow! They toil not, neither do they spin; but I say unto you, even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed as one of these. If then in the field God so clothe the grass which is to-day, and to-morrow is cast into the oven, will he not much more you, O ye of little faith? Therefore be not anxious, saying: What shall we eat? or What shall we drink? or Wherewithal shall we be clothed? For after all these things do the nations (of the world) seek; for your Father knoweth that ye have need of all these things. But seek ye his kingdom, and all these things shall be added unto you.

        *     *     *     *

    Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth, where moth and rust doth consume, and where thieves break through and steal: but lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth


                                   TRANSLATION  OF  Q                                259

    consume, and where thieves do not break through nor steal; for where thy (your) treasure is, there will thy (your) heart be also.

        *     *     *     *

    Agree with thine adversary quickly, whilst thou art in the way with him; lest the adversary deliver thee to the judge and the judge to the officer, and thou be cast into prison. (Verily) I say unto thee, thou shalt by no means come out thence, till thou hast paid the last farthing.

        *     *     *     *

    Enter in by the narrow gate; for wide (is the gate) and broad is the way that leadeth to destruction, and many there be that enter by it. Because narrow is the gate and straitened the way that leadeth to life, and few there be that find it.

        *     *     *     *

    Ye are the salt (of the land); if however the salt have lost its savour, wherewith shall it be salted? It is thenceforth good for nothing but to be cast out and trodden under foot by men.

        *     *     *     *

    No one can serve two masters, for either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will hold to the one and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon.

        *     *     *     *

    (Verily I say unto you): Until heaven and earth


    260                                  THE  SAYINGS  OF  JESUS                                  

    pass away, one iota or one tittle shall not pass away from the law.

        *     *     *     *

    (I say unto you): Everyone who divorceth his wife maketh her an adulteress, and whosoever marrieth her that is divorced committeth adultery.

    (After he had spoken these words), he entered into Capernaum, and a centurion came to him beseeching him and saying: Lord, my servant lieth in the house sick of the palsy, grievously tormented. He saith to him: I will come and heal him. But the centurion answered and said: Lord, I am not worthy that thou shouldest enter beneath my roof; but only say the word and my servant shall be healed. For I also am a man under authority, having soldiers under me, and I say to this one: Go, and he goeth; and to another: Come, and he cometh; and to my slave: Do this, and he doeth it. When Jesus heard he marvelled and said to those that followed: (Verily) I say unto you, Not even in Israel have I found such faith. (And Jesus said to the centurion: [Go thy way] as thou hast believed, be it done unto thee. And the servant was healed in that very hour.)

    17, 18, 16, 20, 21, 22, 19, 34a, 34b, 38, 45, 46, 57, 10, 24.

    (One said to him): I will follow thee whithersoever thou goest; and Jesus saith to him: Foxes have holes, and the birds of the heaven have nests;


                                   TRANSLATION  OF  Q                                261

    but the Son of man hath not where to lay his head. Another said to him: Suffer me first to go away and bury my father; but he saith to him: Follow me, and let the dead bury their own dead.

    He saith to them (or: to his disciples): The harvest is great but the labourers are few; pray therefore the Lord of the harvest that he send forth labourers into his harvest.

    Go and preach, saying, that the kingdom of God is at hand.

    (Carry no purse, no scrip, no shoes, and greet no one by the way).... When however ye enter into a house, salute it; and if the house is worthy, let your peace come upon it; but if it be not worthy, let your peace return to you again.

    (Abide in the same house, and eat and drink what they give you); for the labourer is worthy of his meat.

    (...Into whatsoever city ye enter and they receive you, eat that which is set before you and say to them: The kingdom of God is at hand. But into whatsoever city ye enter and they receive you not, go out into its streets and say: Even the dust of your city which cleaveth to our feet do we shake off and leave it to you). (Verily) I say unto you: It will be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrha (or in place of the last


    262                                  THE  SAYINGS  OF  JESUS                                  

    six words: Sodom) in that day (or: in the day of judgment) than for that city.

        *     *     *     *

    Behold I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves.

        *     *     *     *

    Nothing is secret which shall not be revealed, and hidden which shall not be made known. What I say unto you in darkness speak forth in the light; and what ye hear in the ear publish upon the house-tops. And be not afraid of those that kill the body but cannot kill the soul; but rather be afraid of him who is able to destroy both soul and body in Gehenna. Are not two (five) sparrows sold for one farthing (two farthings)? And not one of them shall fall to the earth without God. But the very hairs of your head are all numbered. Be not (therefore) afraid, ye are of much more value than sparrows. Everyone therefore who shall confess me before men, him will the Son of man (or: I) also confess before the angels of God; but whosoever shall deny me before men, him will I also deny before the angels of God.

        *     *     *     *

    ...And whosoever shall speak a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him; but whosoever shall speak (a word) against the Holy Spirit, it shall not be forgiven him.

        *     *     *     *

    Think ye that I came to send peace on the earth?


                                   TRANSLATION  OF  Q                                263

    I came not to send peace, but a sword. For I came to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother, and the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law. (And a man's foes are those of his own household.)

        *     *     *     *

    (He that loveth father or mother more than me, is not worthy of me; and he that loveth son and daughter more than me, is not worthy of me.)

        *     *     *     *

    Whosoever doth not take his cross and follow after me is not worthy of me.

        *     *     *     *

    He that findeth his life shall lose it, and he that loseth his life shall find it.

        *     *     *     *

    The disciple is not above his master, neither the servant above his lord. It is sufficient for the disciple that he become as his master, and the servant as his lord.

        *     *     *     *

    (Whosoever receiveth you receiveth me, and whosoever receiveth me receiveth him that sent me.)

    14, 50, 15.

    But when John heard in the prison the works of the Christ, he sent by his disciples and said unto him: Art thou he that cometh, or do we look for another?


    264                                  THE  SAYINGS  OF  JESUS                                  

    And he answered and said unto them: Go tell John what ye hear and see, the blind receive their sight, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hear, and the dead are raised up, and the poor have good tidings preached to them; and blessed is he whosoever shall find no cause of stumbling in me. And as these were on their way, he began to speak to the multitudes concerning John: What went ye out into the wilderness to behold? A reed shaken by the wind? But what went ye out to see? A man clothed in soft raiment? Behold they that wear soft raiment are in kings' houses! But why went ye out? To see a prophet? Yea, I say unto you, and more than a prophet! This is he of whom it is written: Behold I send my angel before thy face, who shall prepare thy way before thee. (Verily) I say unto you, there hath not risen among those born of women a greater than John (the Baptist); but he that is least in the kingdom of God is greater than he...

    The prophets and the law were until John; from then until now the kingdom of God suffereth violence, and the violent take it by force
    (or: From the days of John until now the kingdom of God, &c.; for all the prophets and the law prophesied until John)....

    To what shall I liken this generation (and to what is it like)? It is like unto children sitting in the market-places, which cry unto their fellows, saying: We piped unto you, and ye danced not; we mourned unto you, and ye beat not the breast. For John came neither eating nor drinking, and they say: He


                                   TRANSLATION  OF  Q                                265

    hath a devil! The Son of man came eating and drinking, and they say, Behold a man gluttonous and a winebibber, a friend of publicans and sinners! And wisdom is justified of her children.


    Woe unto thee, Chorazin! woe unto thee, Bethsaida! For if the mighty works which were done in you had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would long ago have repented in sackcloth and ashes. Yet (I say unto you) it will be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon (in the day of judgment, or: in the judgment) than for you. And thou Capernaum shalt thou have been exalted to heaven? To hell thou shalt be cast down!


    At that time he said: I thank thee, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that thou didst hide these things from the wise and prudent, and didst reveal them unto babes; yea [I thank thee] Father, for so it seemed good in thy sight. All [all knowledge] has been delivered to me by my Father, and no one hath known (the Son except the Father, neither hath any one known) the Father except the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son willeth to reveal him.


        *     *     *     *

    Blessed are your eyes, for they see, and (your) ears, for they hear; (for verily) I say unto you that many


    266                                  THE  SAYINGS  OF  JESUS                                  

    prophets (and kings) desired to see the things which ye see and have not seen them, and to hear the things which ye hear and have not heard them.


    (He healed) a dumb man possessed with a devil, (so that) the dumb spake and the multitudes (all) marvelled... every kingdom which is divided against itself cometh to desolation... and if I by Beelzebub cast out devils, by whom do your sons cast them out? therefore they shall be your judges. But if I by the Spirit of God cast out devils, then indeed is the kingdom of God come upon you.... He that is not with me is against me, and he that gathereth not with me scattereth.... Whenever the unclean spirit is gone out of a man he passeth through dry places seeking rest and findeth it not, (then) he saith: I will return unto mine house whence I came out; and when he is come he findeth it empty (and) swept and garnished. Then he goeth and taketh to him seven spirits more evil than himself, and they enter in and dwell there, and the last state of that man becometh worse than the first.


    (They said): We would see from thee a sign. But he said: An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign, and a sign shall not be given to it except the sign of Jonah. For as Jonah became a sign to the Ninevites, so shall also the Son of man be to this generation. The men of Nineveh shall stand up in


                                   TRANSLATION  OF  Q                                267

    the judgment against this generation, and shall condemn it, because they repented at the preaching of Jonah, and behold here is more than Jonah. The queen of the south shall stand up in the judgment against this generation and shall condemn it, because she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon, and behold here is more than Solomon.


        *     *     *     *

    Unto what is the kingdom of God like? and to what shall I liken it? It is like unto a grain of mustard seed which a man took and sowed in his field, and it grew and becometh a tree, and the birds of the heaven nested in its branches.

    (And again he said): To what shall I liken the kingdom of God? It is like unto leaven which a woman took and hid in three measures of meal until the whole was leavened.


        *     *     *     *

    He that exalteth himself shall be abased, and he that humbleth himself shall be exalted.


        *     *     *     *

    I say unto you: They shall come from the east and from the west, and shall sit at meat with Abraham and Isaac and Jacob in the kingdom of God;


    268                                  THE  SAYINGS  OF  JESUS                                  

    but the sons of the kingdom shall be cast out; there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.


        *     *     *     *

    What think ye? If a man have an hundred sheep, and one of them has strayed, will he not leave the ninety and nine upon the mountains, and having set out doth he not seek that which is strayed? And if he happeneth to find it, (verily) I say unto you that he rejoiceth over it more than over the ninety and nine which had not strayed.


        *     *     *     *

    It is necessary that occasions of stumbling should come, yet Woe unto the man through whom the occasion of stumbling cometh.


        *     *     *     *

    If thy brother sinneth, rebuke him; if he hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother.... If my brother sinneth against me, how oft shall I forgive him? Until seven times? Jesus saith unto him: I say unto thee, not until seven times, but until seventy times seven.


        *     *     *     *

    If ye have faith so great as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say to this mountain: Be removed from hence thither, and it shall be removed.


                                   TRANSLATION  OF  Q                                269

    33, 43.

    ...They bind together heavy burdens and lay them upon men's shoulders, and they themselves will not touch them with a finger.

    Woe unto you, Pharisees! for ye shut the kingdom of God before men; for ye yourselves enter not in, nor even do ye suffer them that are entering in to enter.

    Woe unto you, Pharisees! for ye tithe mint, anise, and cummin, and neglect the weightier matters of the law, judgment and mercy.

    ...Now ye Pharisees, ye cleanse the outside of the cup and platter, but within they are full of extortion and excess.

    Woe unto you, for ye are as tombs which appear not, and the men that walk over them know it not.

    (Woe unto you, Pharisees! for ye are like unto tombs that have been whitened which outwardly indeed appear beautiful, but within are full of dead men's bones and all uncleanness.)

    Woe unto you! For ye build the tombs of the prophets and say: If we had been in the days of our fathers we would not have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets. So that ye bear witness against yourselves that ye are sons of those who slew the prophets (now fulfil the measure of your fathers)!

    Wherefore also the Wisdom of God said: I send to you prophets and wise men and scribes; sovie of them ye will slay and persecute; that there may come upon you all the blood shed upon the earth from the blood of


    270                                  THE  SAYINGS  OF  JESUS                                  

    Abel to the blood of Zacharias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar. Verily I say unto you. All these things will come upon this generation. O Jerusalem! Jerusalem! which killeth the prophets and stoneth those that are sent to her! How often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen (gathereth) her chickens under her wings, and ye would not. Behold your house is left unto you desolate. (For) I say unto you: Ye shall not see me from henceforth until (it shall come when) ye say: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.


    If then they say to you: Lo! he is in the desert! Go ye not forth. Lo! he is in the secret chambers! Believe it not. For as the lightning cometh forth from the east and is seen even unto the west, so shall be the coming of the Son of man. Wheresoever the carcase is, there will the eagles be gathered together.

    As were the days of Noah, so shall be the coming of the Son of man. For as in the days before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noah entered into the ark, and they knew not until the flood came and took them all away, so shall be the coming of the Son of man. There shall be two in the field, one is taken and one is left; two women shall be grinding at the mill, one is taken and one is left.


                                   TRANSLATION  OF  Q                                271


    But know this, that if the master of the house knew in what watch the thief would come, he would have watched and would not have suffered his house to have been broken through. (Wherefore be ye also ready, for at an hour that ye think not the Son of man cometh.) Who then is the faithful and wise servant whom his lord hath set over his household to give them their meat in due season? Blessed is that servant whom his lord when he cometh shall find so doing. Verily I say unto you, that he shall set him over all that he hath. But if that (evil) servant shall say in his heart: My lord tarrieth, and shall begin to smite his fellow servants, and shall eat and drink with the drmiken, the lord of that servant shall come in a day when he expecteth not, and in an hour when he knoweth not, and shall cut him asunder and appoint his portion with the hypocrites.


    To him (to everyone) that hath it shall be given, and he shall have abundance; but from him that hath not, even that which he hath shall be taken away.


    Ye who follow me... shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. 1

    1 Perhaps the parables of the Great Supper and the Talents stood in Q (vide supra, pp. 119 ff.).


    272                                  THE  SAYINGS  OF  JESUS                                  

    (remainder of text under construction)


    Q: The Lost Sayings Source
    Burton Mack's translation

    Burton Mack is a former professor of the New Testament at the School of Theology at Claremont, California. He has written several books about the origins of Christianity including A Myth of Innocence: Mark and Christian Origins and Who Wrote the New Testament? The Making of the Christian Myth.

    Note: Q1 bold, Q2 normal, and Q3 italic
    {QS1-62} = Q verse [Luke parallel]

    My interpretation: Q1 (the bold) is what Biblical scholars are putting as the very earliest writings of the followers of Jesus of Nazareth. As can be seen from this collection, the original members of this following did not view Jesus as a Christ or a Messiah, and definitely not as the celestially begotten Son of God. These people saw Jesus as a very wise teacher. A cynic/sage, teaching a morality and practicality that suited the people of that day. Mr. Mack puts Q1 in the mid 50's of the first century of the common era, though at least some of the sayings had more than likely been handed down directly from Jesus.

    Q2 (normal text) makes up more than half of the Q collection of sayings and parables. Jesus has passed on from sage/cynic to child of wisdom. Clearly we can see an evolution in the thought process of these people. They had encountered rejections and had made some advances. They had encountered some difficulty with the Pharisees and with lawyers. We see the introduction of John the Baptist in this collection. John had apparently had his own cult following at the time and there was some interaction between the two groups. We also see the introduction of an apocolyptic vision that was not evident in Q1. An impending "Judgement Day" looms large in tone. Mr. Mack puts Q2 in the late 60's or early 70's.

    Q3 (the italic) is by far the smallest source in Q. Jerusalem has fallen, and the tone here is one of a reproach of the ones who refused to listen. Jesus has evolved one more time from child of wisdom to son of God. This would be the vision of Jesus that would last and be the strongest influence on Mark, Matthew and Luke. Mythology has completely taken over here, and only a glimpse of who Jesus actually was is left here. Mr. Mack puts Q3 in the mid 80's of the first century.

    My suggestion is to read them in order of levels, Q1 first, followed by Q2, and then Q3. before going back to get a narrative story as told in the Bible.


    {QS1}Title [No Luke parallel]
    scholarly conjecture: These are the teachings of Jesus.

    {QS2}The setting for the instructions [No Luke parallel]


    {QS3}The appearance of John [Luke 3:1-6]
    scholarly conjecture: John appeared in the countryside along the Jordan river.

    {QS4}John's address to the people [Luke 3:7-9]
    He said to the people who were coming to be plunged, "You offspring of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the coming fury? Change your ways if you have changed your mind. Don't say, 'We have Abraham as our father.' I am telling you, God can raise up children for Abraham from these stones. Even now the ax is aimed at the root of the trees. Every tree that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire."

    {QS5}John's prediction of someone to come [Luke 3:16-17]
    "I am plunging you in water; but one who is stronger than I is coming, one whose sandals I am not worthy to touch. He will overwhelm you with holy spirit and fire. His winnowing fork is in his hand to clear his threshing floor and gather the wheat into his granary. The chaff he will burn with a fire that no one can put out."


    {QS6}Jesus tempted by the accuser [Luke 4:1-13]
    Then Jesus was led into the wilderness by the spirit for trial by the accuser (Diabolos, the prosecuting angel of the heavenly court). He fasted for forty days and was hungry. The accuser said, "If you are the son of God, tell this stone to become bread." But Jesus answered, "It is written, 'No one lives by bread alone.'" Then the accuser took him to Jerusalem and placed him at the highest point of the temple and said to him, "If you are the son of God, throw yourself down, for it is written, 'He will command his angels to protect you,' and 'They will carry you with their hands so that your foot will not strike a stone.'" But Jesus answered him, "It is written, 'You shall not put the lord, your God to the test.'" Then the accuser took him to a very high mountain and showed him all the kingdoms of the world and their splendor, and he said to him, "All these I will give you if you will do obeisance and reverence me." But Jesus answered him, "It is written, 'You shall reverence the lord your God and serve him alone.'" Then the accuser left him.


    {QS7}Introduction [Luke 6:20]
    Seeing the crowds, he said to his disciples,

    {QS8}On those who are fortunate [Luke 6:20-23]
    "How fortunate are the poor; they have God's kingdom. How fortunate the hungry; they will be fed. How fortunate are those who are crying; they will laugh."
    "How fortunate you are when they reproach you as good-for-nothings because of the son of man. Rejoice, be glad, you have a great reward in heaven. That is exactly how they treated the prophets."

    {QS9}On responding to reproach [Luke 6:27-35]
    "I am telling you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, pray for those who mistreat you. If someone slaps you on the cheek, offer your other cheek as well. If anyone grabs your coat, let him have your shirt as well. Give to anyone who asks, and if anyone takes away your belongings, do not ask to have them back. As you want people to treat you, do the same to them."
    "If you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? Even tax collectors love those who love them, do they not? And if you embrace only your brothers, what more are you doing than others? Doesn't everybody do that? If you lend to those from whom you expect repayment, what credit is that to you? Even wrongdoers lend to their kind because they expect to be repaid. Instead, love your enemies, do good and lend without expecting anything in return. Your reward will be great, and you will be children of God. For he makes his sun rise on the evil and on the good; he sends rain on the just and on the unjust."

    {QS10}On making judgements [Luke 6:36-38]
    "Be merciful even as your Father is merciful. Don't judge and you won't be judged. For the standard you use [for judging] will be the standard used against you."

    {QS11}On teacher and students [Luke 6:39-40]
    "Can the blind lead the blind? Won't they both fall into a pit? A student is not better than his teacher. It is enough for a student to be like his teacher."

    {QS12}On hypocrisy [Luke 6:41-42]
    "How can you look for the splinter in your brother's eye and not notice the stick in your own eye? How can you say to your brother, 'Let me remove the splinter in your eye,' when you do not see the stick in your own eye? You hypocrite, first take the stick from your own eye, and then you can see to remove the splinter that is in your brother's eye."

    {QS13}On integrity [Luke 6:43-45]
    "A good tree does not bear rotten fruit; a rotten tree does not bear good fruit. Are figs gathered from thorns, or grapes from thistles? Every tree is known by its fruit. The good man produces good things from his store of goods and treasures; and the evil man evil things. For the mouth speaks from a full heart."

    {QS14}On practical obedience [Luke 6:46-49]
    "Why do you call me 'Master, master,' and not do what I say? Everyone who hears my words and does them is like a man who built a house on rock. The rain fell, a torrent broke against the house, and it did not fall, for it had a rock foundation. But everyone who hears my words and does not do them is like a man who built a house on sand. The rain came, the torrent broke against it, and it collapsed. The ruin of that house was great."


    {QS15}The occasion [Luke 7:1-10]
    After Jesus said these things, he went up into Capernaum. And a centurion, when he heard about Jesus, came to him begging him, "My servant is lying paralyzed at home about to die." Jesus said to him, "I will come to heal him." The centurion answered him, "Sir, I am not worthy to have you enter my home. Just say the word and my servant will be healed. For I am a man under orders, with soldiers under me. I say to one, 'Go,' and he goes; to another, 'Come,' and he comes, and to my slave, 'Do this,' and he does it." When Jesus heard this he was amazed and said to those who were following him, "I tell you, I have not found such confidence in Israel." And he said to the centurion, "Go." And when the centurion returned home, he found the servant well.

    {QS16}John's inquiry [Luke 7:18-23]
    John heard about this and sent his disciples to ask, "Are you the one to come, or should we look for another?" Jesus said, "Go and tell John what you hear and see: the blind recovered their sight, the lame walk, lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised, and the poor are given good news."
    "And fortunate is the one who is not disturbed at hearing these things about me."

    {QS17}What Jesus said about John [Luke 7:24-28]
    When John's disciples left, Jesus began to speak to the crowds about John:
    "What did you go out into the wilderness to see? A reed shaking in the wind? Then tell me what you went out to see. A man in soft clothes? Look, those who wear soft clothes live in palaces. So what did you expect? A prophet? Yes, of course, and much more than a prophet. This is the one referred to in the writings, 'Look, I am sending my messenger before you. He will prepare your path ahead of you.' I am telling you, no one born of a woman is greater than John; yet the least in God's realm is greater than he."

    {QS18}What Jesus said about this generation [Luke 7:31-35]
    "To what shall I compare this generation? It is like children sitting in the marketplace and calling to each other: 'We played the pipes for you and you did not dance.' 'We sang a dirge and you did not wail.' For John did not come eating or drinking, and they are saying, 'He is demon possessed.' The son of man (Jesus) has come eating and drinking, and they say, 'Look at him, a glutton and a drunkard, a friend of tax collectors and sinners.' But in spite of what they say, wisdom's children show that she is right."


    {QS19}On becoming a follower of Jesus [Luke 9:57-62]
    When someone said to him, "I will follow you wherever you go," Jesus answered, "Foxes have dens, and birds of the sky have nests, but the son of man has nowhere to lay his head."
    When another said, "Let me first go and bury my father," Jesus said, "Leave the dead to bury their dead."
    Yet another said, "I will follow you, sir, but first let me say goodbye to my family." Jesus said to him, "No one who puts his hand on the plow and then looks back is fit for the kingdom of God."

    {QS20}On working for the kingdom of God [Luke 10:1-11]
    He said, "The harvest is abundant, but the workers are few; beg therefore the master of the harvest to send out workers into his harvest."
    "Go. Look, I send you out as lambs among wolves."
    "Do not carry money, or bag, or sandals, or staff; and do not greet anyone on the road."
    "Whatever house you enter, say, 'Peace be to this house!' And if a child of peace is there, your greeting will be received [literally, 'your peace will rest upon him']. But if not, let your peace return to you."
    "And stay in the same house, eating and drinking whatever they provide, for the worker deserves his wages. Do not go from house to house. And is you enter a town and they receive you, eat what is set before you. Pay attention to the sick and say to them, 'God's kingdom has come near to you. But if you enter a town and they do not receive you, as you leave, shake the dust from your feet and say, 'Nevertheless, be sure of this, the realm of God has come to you.'"


    {QS21}The unreceptive town [Luke 10:12]
    "I am telling you, Sodom will have a lighter punishment on the day of judgement than that town."

    {QS22}The Galilean towns [Luke 10:13-15]
    "Woe for you, Chorazim! Woe for you, Bethsaida! If the forceful deeds performed among you had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would have changed their ways long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes. In the judgement Tyre and Sidon will have a lighter punishment than you."
    "And you, Capernaum, do you think you will be praised to high heaven? You will be told to go to hell."


    {QS23}On the one who receives the worker [Luke 10:16]
    "Whoever welcomes you welcomes me, and whoever welcomes me welcomes the one who sent me."

    {QS24}On the one who receives revelation [10:21-22]
    Jesus declared, "I am grateful to father, master of heaven and earth, because you have kept these things hidden from the wise and understanding and revealed them to babies. Truly I am grateful, father, for that was your gracious will."
    "Authority over all the world has been given to me by my father. No one recognizes the son except the father; and no one knows who the father is except the son and the one to whom the son chooses to reveal him."

    {QS25}On the one who hears and sees [Luke 10:23-24]
    "How fortunate are the eyes that see what you see! for I'm telling you that many prophets and kings longed to see what you see and did not see it, and to hear what you hear and did not hear it."


    {QS26}How to pray [Luke 11:1-4]
    "When you pray say, 'Father, may your name be holy. May your rule take place. Give us each day our daily bread. Pardon our debts, for we ourselves pardon everyone indebted to us. And do not bring us to trial [into a trying situation].'"

    {QS27}Confidence in asking [Luke 11:9-13]
    "Ask and it will be given to you; seek and you will find; knock and the door will be opened for you."
    "For everyone who asks receives, and the one who seeks finds, and to the one who knocks the door will be opened."
    "What father of yours, if the son asks for a loaf of bread, will give him a stone, or if he asks for a fish will give him a snake?"
    "Therefore, if you, although you are not good, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will the father above give good things to those who ask him!"


    {QS28}On kingdoms in conflict [Luke 11:14-23]
    He exorcised a demon that had made a man a mute, and when the demon had been thrown out, the dumb man spoke and the people marveled. But some said, "He exorcises demons by Beelzebul, the ruler of demons."
    Knowing their thoughts, he said to them, "Every kingdom divided against itself is destroyed, and every house divided against itself will not stand. And if Satan also is divided against himself, how will his kingdom stand?"
    "You say that I exorcise demons be Beelzebul. If I exorcise demons be Beelzebul, by whom do your sons exorcise them? Why not ask them and see what they say?"
    "But if I exorcise demons by the finger of God, then God's rule has caught up with you."
    "When a strong man, fully armed, guards his own palace his possessions are safe. But when someone stronger than he attacks and conquers him, the stronger demolishes his defenses and then plunders his goods."


    {QS29}Those for and those against [Luke 11:23]
    "Whoever is not with me is against me, and the one who does not gather with me, scatters."

    {QS30}The return of an evil spirit [Luke 11:24-26]
    "When an unclean spirit leaves a person, it wanders through arid region seeking rest without finding it. Then it says, 'I will return to my house from which it came,' And when it comes it finds the house swept and tidy. Then it goes and brings seven other spirits more wicked than itself, and they go in and settle there. And the last state of that person is worse than the first."

    {QS31}Hearing and keeping the teaching of God[Luke11:27-28]
    As he was saying these things, a woman from the crowd spoke up and said to him, "How fortunate is the womb that bore you, and the breasts that you sucked!" But he said, "How fortunate, rather, are those that listen to God's teaching and observe it!"


    {QS32}The sign of Jonah [Luke11:16, 29-32]
    Some said to him, "Teacher, we wish to see a sign from you."
    He answered them, "A wicked generation looks for a sign, but no sign will be shown to it, except the sign of Jonah."
    "For as Jonah became a sign to the Ninevites, so will the son of man be to this generation."
    "The queen of the south (Queen of Sheba) will arise at the judgement and condemn this generation. For she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon, and look, something greater than Solomon is here."
    "The men of Nineveh will arise at the judgement and condemn this generation. For they repented at the preaching of Jonah, and look, something greater than Jonah is here."


    {QS33}The lamp and the eye [Luke 11:33-35]
    "No one lights a lamp and puts it under a bushel basket, but on a lampstand. And those in the house see the light."
    "The lamp of the body is the eye. If your eye is good your whole body will be full of light. But if it is bad your whole body will be full of darkness. If the light in you is darkness, how great is that darkness."


    {QS34}O you Pharisees [Luke 11:39-52]
    "Shame on you Pharisees! for you are scrupulous about giving a tithe of mint and dill and cumin to the priests, but you neglect justice and the love of God."
    "These things you ought to have done, without neglecting the others."
    "Shame on you Pharisees! for you clean the outside of the cup and the dish, but inside are full of greed and incontinence. Foolish Pharisees! Clean the inside and the outside will also be clean."
    "Shame on you Pharisees! for you love the front seats in the assemblies and greetings in the marketplaces. Shame on you! for you are like graves, outwardly beautiful, but full of pollution inside."
    "Shame on you lawyers! for you load people with burdens heavy to bear, but you yourselves refuse to carry even a light load."
    "Shame on you! for you erect memorials for the prophets, the prophets your fathers killed. Thus you witness and consent to the deeds of your fathers; for they killed the prophets and you build monuments to them."
    "For this reason the wisdom of God said, 'I will send them prophets and wise men, some of whom they will kill and prosecute,' in order to hold this generation accountable for the blood of all the prophets shed from the foundation of the world, from the blood of Abel to the blood of Zechariah who perished between the altar and the sanctuary. Truly, I tell you, this generation will be held accountable."
    "Shame on you lawyers! for you have taken the key of knowledge away from the people. You yourselves do not enter the kingdom of God, and you prevent those who would enter from going in."


    {QS35}On speaking out [Luke 12:2-3]
    "Nothing is hidden that will not be made known, or secret that will not come to light."
    "What I tell you in the dark, speak in the light. And what you hear as a whisper, proclaim on the housetops."

    {QS36}On fear [Luke 12:4-7]
    "Don't be afraid of those who can kill the body, but cant kill the soul."
    Rather fear the one who is able to destroy both body and soul in Gehenna (hell fire)
    "Can't you buy five sparrows for two cents? Not one of them will fall to the ground without God knowing about it. Even the hairs of your head are all numbered. So don't be afraid. You are worth more than many sparrows."

    {QS37}On public confessions [Luke 12:8-12]
    "Every one who admits in public that they know me, the son of man will acknowledge before the angels of God. But the one who disowns me in public, the son of man will disown before the angels of God."
    "Whoever makes a speech against the son of man will be forgiven. But whoever speaks against the holy spirit will not be forgiven."
    "When they bring you before the assemblies of the people, don't worry about what you are to say. When the time comes, the holy spirit will teach you what to say."


    {QS38}Foolish possessions [Luke 12:13-21]
    Someone from the crowd said to him, "Teacher, tell my brother to divide the inheritance with me" But he said to him, "Sir, who made me your judge or lawyer?
    He told them a parable, saying, "The land of a rich man produced in abundance, and he thought to himself, "What should I do, for I have nowhere to store my crops?' Then he said, 'I will do this. I will put down my barns and build larger ones, and there I will store all my grain and my goods. And I will say to my soul, Soul, you have ample goods stored up for many years. Take it easy. Eat, drink, and be merry." But God said to him, 'Foolish man! This very night you will have to give back your soul, and the things you produced, whose will they be? That is what happens to the one who stores up treasure for himself and is not rich in the sight of God."

    {QS39}On food and clothing [Luke 12:22-31]
    "I am telling you, do not worry about your life, what you will eat, or about your body, what you will wear. Isn't life more than food, and the body more than clothing?"
    "Think of the ravens. They do not plant, harvest, or store grain in barns, and God feeds them. Aren't you worth more than the birds? Which one of you can add a single day to your life by worrying?"
    "And why do you worry about clothing? Think of the way lilies grow. They do not work or spin But even Solomon in all his splendor was not as magnificent. If God puts beautiful clothes on the grass that is in the field today and tomorrow is thrown into a furnace, won't he put clothes on you, faint hearts?"
    "So, don't worry, thinking, 'What will we eat,' or 'What will we drink,' or, What will we wear?' For everybody in the whole world does that, and your father knows that you need these things."
    "Instead, make sure of his rule over you, and all these things will be yours as well."

    {QS40}On heavenly treasure [Luke 12:33-34]
    "Sell your possessions and give to charity [alms]. Store up treasure for yourselves in a heavenly account, where moths and rust do not consume, and where thieves cannot break in and steal."
    "For where your treasure is, there your heart will also be. "


    {QS41}The hour [Luke 12:39-40]
    "Be sure: If the owner of a house knew when a thief was coming, he wouldn't leave his house to be broken into."
    "You also must be ready. For the son of man is coming at an hour you do not expect."

    {QS42)On faithfulness [Luke 12:42-46]
    "Who then is the faithful and wise servant, when one is held responsible to serve the household meals at the proper time? Fortunate is the servant whom the master finds doing just that. I tell you for sure, his master will promote him and give him charge of all his possessions. But if that servant says to himself, 'My master is delayed' and begins to mistreat his fellow servants and to eat and drink with the wayward crowd, the master will come on a day when he does not expect him, at an hour he does not know. He will punish him severely and consign him to the destiny of those who are unfaithful."

    {QS43}Fire and division [Luke 12:49-53]
    "I came to strike fire on the earth, and how I wish that it were already aflame!"
    "Do you think that I have come to bring peace on the earth? No, not peace, but a sword."
    "For I have come to create conflict between a man and his father, disagreement between a daughter and her mother, and estrangement between a daughter-in-law and her mother-in-law. A person's enemies will be one's own kin."

    {QS44}Signs of the times [Luke 12:54-56]
    He said to the crowds, "When you see a cloud rising in the west you say, 'It is going to rain'; and so it does. When a south wind is blowing you say, 'It will be hot'; and so it happens. If you know how to read the signs of the sky, why can't you judge the signs of the times? Why don't you judge for yourselves what is right?"

    {QS45}Settling accounts [Luke 12:57-59]
    "Make an effort to settle with your accuser while you are with him on the way to court. If you don't, he will drag you to the judge, the judge will hand you over to the guard, and the guard will throw you in prison. I am telling you, you will never get out until you have paid the very last penny."


    {QS46}The mustard and the yeast [Luke 13:18-21]
    He said, "What is the kingdom of God like? To what should I compare it? It is like a grain of mustard which a man took and sowed in his garden. It grew and became a tree, and the birds of the air made nests in its branches."
    He also said, "The kingdom of God is like yeast which a woman took and hid in three measures of flour until it leavened the whole mass."


    {QS47}The narrow gate and the closed door [Luke 13:24-27]
    "Strive to enter by the narrow, for many, I tell you, will try to enter by it and will not be able."
    "Once the owner of the house has locked the door, you will stand outside, knock at the door, and say, 'We ate and drank with you, and you taught in our streets,' But he will say to you, 'I do not know where you are from. Get away from me, all you unrighteous people.'"

    {QS48}Exclusion from the kingdom [Luke 13:28-30]
    "Many will come from the east and west and sit at table in the kingdom of God."
    "There will be wailing and clenching of teeth when you see Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and all the prophets in the kingdom of God, and you yourselves excluded."
    "Look, the last will be first, and the first will be last."

    {QS49}Lament over Jerusalem [Luke 13:34-35]
    "O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, killing the prophets and stoning those who are sent to you! How often would I have gathered your children together as a hen gathers her brood under her wings, and you refused."
    "Look, your house is left desolate. Now, I tell you, you will not see me until you say, 'Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord.'"


    {QS50}On humility [Luke 14:11; 18:14]
    "Everyone who glorifies himself will be humiliated, and the one that humbles himself will be praised."

    {QS51}The great supper [Luke 14:16-24]
    "A man once gave a great banquet and invited many. At the time for the banquet he sent his servant to say to those who had been invited, 'Please come, for everything is now ready.' But they all began to make excuses. The first said to him, 'I've bought a farm and I must go and see it. Please excuse me.' And another said, "I've just bought five pair of oxen and I need to check them out. Please excuse me.' And another said, 'I've just married a woman and so I can't come.' The servant came and reported this to his master. Then the owner in anger said to his servant, 'Go out quickly to the streets of the town and bring in as many people as you find.' And the servant went out into the streets and brought together everybody he could find. That way the house was filled with guests."

    {QS52}On the cost of being a disciple [Luke 14:26-27; 17:33]
    "Whoever does not hate his father and mother will not be able to learn from me. Whoever does not hate his son and daughter cannot belong to my school."
    "Whoever does not accept his cross {bear up under condemnation] and so become my follower, cannot be one of my students."
    "Whoever tries to protect his life will lose it; but whoever loses his life on account of me will preserve it."

    {QS53}Savorless salt [Luke 14:34-35]
    "Salt is good; but if salt loses its taste , how can it be restored? It is not good for either the land or the manure pile. People just throw it out."


    {QS54}When to rejoice [Luke 15:4-10]
    "What do you think? If a man had a hundred sheep and lost one of them, wouldn't he leave the ninety-nine and go look for the one that was lost? And if he should find it, I tell you, he will rejoice more over that one sheep than over the ninety-nine that did not go astray."
    "Or which woman, if she had ten drachmas and lost one, would not light a lamp, sweep the house, and look until she finds it? And when she finds it, she invites her friends and her neighbors in saying, ''rejoice with me for I have found the drachma which I'd lost.'"

    {QS55}Either/or [Luke 16:13]
    "No one can serve two masters. Either he hates the one and loves the other, or he is loyal to one and despises the other. You cannot serve God and wealth (mammon)."

    {QS56}The kingdom and the law [Luke 16:16-18]
    "The law of Moses and the prophets (of Israel) were authorities until John. Since then the kingdom of God has been overpowered by violent men."
    "It is easier for the heavens and the earth to pass away than for one stroke of the law to lose its force."
    "Everyone who divorces his wife commits adultery, and the one who marries a divorced woman commits adultery."

    {QS57}On scandals [Luke 17:1-2]
    "Scandals are sure to come; but shame on the one through whom they come. It would be better for him if a millstone were hung around his neck and he were thrown into the sea than for him to lead astray one of these little people."

    {QS58}On forgiveness [Luke 17:3-4]
    "If your brother sins, warn him. If he listens to you, forgive him. Even if he sins against you seven times in a day, you must forgive him."

    {QS59}On faith [Luke 17:6]
    "If you have faith like a grain of mustard, you could say to this mulberry tree, 'Begone and plant yourself in the sea,' and it would obey you."


    {QS60}The day of separation [Luke 17:23-37]
    "The days are coming when they will say to you, 'Look, he is in the wilderness.' Do not go out. Or 'Look, he is sequestered in some house.' Do not follow them. For just as lightning flashes and lights up the sky from one side to the other, so it will be on the day when the son of man appears."
    "Just as it was in the days of Noah, so it will be on the day of the son of man. They ate, they drank, they married, they were given in marriage right up until the day when Noah entered the ark. Then the flood came and took them all."
    "In the days of Lot it was the same - they ate, they drank, they bought, they sold, they planted, they built. But on the day when Lot left Sodom, fire and sulfur rained down from heaven and destroyed them all."
    "This is how it will be on the day when the son of man appears."
    "I am telling you, on that night there will be two in the field. One will be seized and the other left. Two women will be grinding together. One will be taken and the other left."
    "Where the corpse is, there the eagles (vultures?) will gather."

    {QS61}Squaring accounts [Luke 19:11-27]
    "That day is like a man who took a trip. He called his servants together and gave them full responsibility for his possessions. To one he gave five talents (a large sum of money), to another two, to another one. When he returned the master ordered his servants to settle their accounts. The first said, "Sir, your five talents have earned another five talents.' The master said, 'Well done, good servant. You have been reliable in financial matters; I will put you in charge of more important affairs.' The second approached and said, 'Sir, your two talents have earned another two talents.' The master said to him, 'Well done, good servant. You have been reliable in financial matters; I will put you in charge of more important affairs.' The third approached and said, 'Sir, I was afraid, because you are a hard man. You withdraw what you did not deposit, and reap where you did not sow. Here is your talent which I safely hid away for you.' His master said to him, 'You good-for-nothing servant. You knew that I reap what I did not sow? Why then didn't you invest my money so that when I returned I might get it back with interest? Take the talent and give it to the one who has the ten talents.'"
    "I tell you, everyone who has will receive more, and from the one who does not have, even what he has will be taken away."

    {QS62}Judging Israel [Luke 22:28-30]
    "And you who have followed me will sit on the thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel."

    Transcriber's  Comments

    "The Sayings of Jesus"

    Vernal Holley was familiar with the "Q" Sayings attributed to Jesus, through his reading of Marvin Meyer and other New Testament scholars. He probably did not read Harnack's 1908 book, as its title appears on none of Vernal's various bibliographic lists. Vernal passed away in the summer of 2000, leaving his personal notes and unpublished manuscripts in disarray. After printing a limited edition of his 1994 booklet, Christianity, The Last Great Creation of the Pagan World, Vernal expanded his planned research into Christian origins, but his final published text (The Great Secret, 2000) comprised only a small part of Vernal's writings on the subject. He had progressed past his initial interest in the pseudonymous Jewish theorist, Abelard Reuchlin, and was prepared to consider the scholarship of a more reputable biblical authority, such as Meyer. It appears that Vernal had a copy of Meyer's 1992 book, The Gospel of Thomas, in which the "Q" Sayings of Jesus are mentioned.

    Selections from Harnack's The Sayings of Jesus are presented here as one example of the textual issues Vernal Holley was studying in his final months. He was aware of the "Q problem," and knew that recent scholarship had left Harnack's reporting outdated. Vernal would have been very interested in comparing and contrasting the "Q" sayings with those portions of the Gospels he had already attributed to the authorship of Flavius Josephus (or to a Roman writing under that name). Had Joseph Atwill's recent book been available, prior to Vernal's demise, he would certainly have read that writer's similar New Testament authorship conclusions with relish.

    Most of Vernal Holley's later manuscript writings have been missing since 1998-99. If his texts and notes on New Testament origins can ever be located, relevant excerpts will be appended to these comments.

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